Browsing by Subject "Wound healing"

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  • Gera, Sonia; Kankuri, Esko; Kogermann, Karin (2022)
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potent, mostly cationic, and amphiphilic broad-spectrum host defense antimicrobials that are produced by all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. In addition to their antimicrobial actions, they modulate inflammatory and immune responses and promote wound healing. Although they have clear benefits over traditional antibiotic drugs, their wide therapeutic utilization is compromised by concerns of toxicity, stability, and production costs. Recent advances in nanotechnology have attracted increasing interest to unleash the AMPs’ immense potential as broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-biofilm agents, against which the bacteria have less chances to develop resistance. Topical application of AMPs promotes migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and contributes significantly to an accelerated wound healing process. Delivery of AMPs by employing nanotechnological approaches avoids the major disadvantages of AMPs, such as instability and toxicity, and provides a controlled delivery profile together with prolonged activity. In this review, we provide an overview of the key properties of AMPs and discuss the latest developments in topical AMP therapy using nanocarriers. We use chronic hard-to-heal wounds—complicated by infections, inflammation, and stagnated healing—as an example of an unmet medical need for which the AMPs’ wide range of therapeutic actions could provide the most potential benefit. The use of innovative materials and sophisticated nanotechnological approaches offering various possibilities are discussed in more depth.
  • Kuony, Alison; Ikkala, Kaisa; Kalha, Solja; Magalhaes, Ana Cathia; Pirttiniemi, Anniina; Michon, Frederic (2019)
    A lack of ectodysplasin-A (Eda) signaling leads to dry eye symptoms, which have so far only been associated with altered Meibomian glands. Here, we used loss-of-function (Eda(-/-)) mutant mice to unravel the impact of Eda signaling on lacrimal gland formation, maturation and subsequent physiological function. Our study demonstrates that Eda activity is dispensable during lacrimal gland embryonic development. However, using a transcriptomic approach, we show that the Eda pathway is necessary for proper cell terminal differentiation in lacrimal gland epithelium and correlated with modified expression of secreted factors commonly found in the tear film. Finally, we discovered that lacrimal glands present a bilateral reduction of Eda signaling activity in response to unilateral comeal injury. This observation hints towards a role for the Eda pathway in controlling the switch from basal to reflex tears, to support corneal wound healing. Collectively, our data suggest a crucial implication of Eda signaling in the comea-lacrimal gland feedback loop, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Our findings demonstrate that Eda downstream targets could help alleviate dry eye symptoms.
  • Mertaniemi, Henrikki; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Sanz-Garcia, Andres; Gandía, Carolina; Mäkitie, Antti; Partanen, Jouni; Ikkala, Olli; Yliperttula, Marjo (2016)
    Abstract Upon surgery, local inflammatory reactions and postoperative infections cause complications, morbidity, and mortality. Delivery of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) into the wounds is an efficient and safe means to reduce inflammation and promote wound healing. However, administration of stem cells by injection often results in low cell retention, and the cells deposit in other organs, reducing the efficiency of the therapy. Thus, it is essential to improve cell delivery to the target area using carriers to which the cells have a high affinity. Moreover, the application of hASC in surgery has typically relied on animal-origin components, which may induce immune reactions or even transmit infections due to pathogens. To solve these issues, we first show that native cellulose nanofibers (nanofibrillated cellulose, NFC) extracted from plants allow preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked threads (NFC-X) with high mechanical strength even under the wet cell culture or surgery conditions, characteristically challenging for cellulosic materials. Secondly, using a xenogeneic free protocol for isolation and maintenance of hASC, we demonstrate that cells adhere, migrate and proliferate on the NFC-X, even without surface modifiers. Cross-linked threads were not found to induce toxicity on the cells and, importantly, hASC attached on NFC-X maintained their undifferentiated state and preserved their bioactivity. After intradermal suturing with the hASC decorated NFC-X threads in an ex vivo experiment, cells remained attached to the multifilament sutures without displaying morphological changes or reducing their metabolic activity. Finally, as NFC-X optionally allows facile surface tailoring if needed, we anticipate that stem-cell-decorated NFC-X opens a versatile generic platform as a surgical bionanomaterial for fighting postoperative inflammation and chronic wound healing problems.
  • Kiiskinen, Jasmi; Merivaara, Arto; Hakkarainen, Tiina; Kääriäinen, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Yliperttula, Marjo; Koivuniemi, Raili (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background In the field of regenerative medicine, delivery of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hASCs) has shown great promise to promote wound healing. However, a hostile environment of the injured tissue has shown considerably to limit the survival rate of the transplanted cells, and thus, to improve the cell survival and retention towards successful cell transplantation, an optimal cell scaffold is required. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of wood-derived nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) wound dressing as a cell scaffold material for hASCs in order to develop a cell transplantation method free from animal-derived components for wound treatment. Methods Patient-derived hASCs were cultured on NFC wound dressing without cell adhesion coatings. Cell characteristics, including cell viability, morphology, cytoskeletal structure, proliferation potency, and mesenchymal cell and differentiation marker expression, were analyzed using cell viability assays, electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative or reverse transcriptase PCR. Student’s t test and one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test were used to determine statistical significance. Results hASCs were able to adhere to NFC dressing and maintained high cell survival without cell adhesion coatings with a cell density-dependent manner for the studied period of 2 weeks. In addition, NFC dressing did not induce any remarkable cytotoxicity towards hASCs or alter the morphology, proliferation potency, filamentous actin structure, the expression of mesenchymal vimentin and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins collagen I and fibronectin, or the undifferentiated state of hASCs. Conclusions As a result, NFC wound dressing offers a functional cell culture platform for hASCs to be used further for in vivo wound healing studies in the future.
  • Klaas, Mariliis; Maemets-Allas, Kristina; Heinmäe, Elizabeth; Lagus, Heli; Arak, Terje; Eller, Mart; Kingo, Kulli; Kankuri, Esko; Jaks, Viljar (2022)
    Olfactomedin-4 (OLFM4) is an olfactomedin-domain-containing glycoprotein, which regulates cell adhesion, proliferation, gastrointestinal inflammation, innate immunity and cancer metastasis. In the present study we investigated its role in skin regeneration. We found that OLFM4 expression is transiently upregulated in the proliferative phase of cutaneous wound healing in humans as well as in mice. Moreover, a significant increase in OLFM4 expression was detected in the skin of lesional psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that OLFM4 selectively stimulated keratinocyte proliferation and increased both keratinocyte and fibroblast migration. Using proteotranscriptomic pathway analysis we revealed that transcription factors POU5F1/OCT4 and ESR1 acted as hubs for OLFM4-induced signalling in keratinocytes. In vivo experiments utilizing mouse splinted full-thickness cutaneous wound healing model showed that application of recombinant OLFM4 protein can significantly improve wound healing efficacy. Taken together, our results suggest that OLFM4 acts as a transiently upregulated inflammatory signal that promotes wound healing by regulating both dermal and epidermal cell compartments of the skin.
  • Mäemets-Allas, Kristina; Klaas, Mariliis; Cardenas-Leon, Claudia Griselda; Arak, Terje; Kankuri, Esko; Jaks, Viljar (2023)
    As in other mammalian tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of skin functions as mechanical support and regulative environment that guides the behavior of the cells. ECM is a gel-like structure that is primarily composed of structural and nonstructural proteins. While the content of structural proteins is stable, the level of nonstructural ECM proteins, such as thrombospondin-4 (THBS4), is dynamically regulated. In a previous work we demonstrated that THBS4 stimulated cutaneous wound healing. In this work we discovered that in addition to proliferation, THBS4 stimulated the migration of primary keratinocytes in 3D. By using a proteotransciptomic approach we found that stimulation of keratinocytes with THBS4 regulated the activity of signaling pathways linked to proliferation, migration, inflammation and differentiation. Interestingly, some of the regulated genes (eg IL37, TSLP) have been associated with the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). We concluded that THBS4 is a promising candidate for novel wound healing therapies and suggest that there is a potential convergence of pathways that stimulate cutaneous wound healing with those active in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases.(c) 2022 Published by Elsevier Inc.