Browsing by Subject "X-RAY"

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  • Iivonen, Tomi; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Popov, Georgi; Nieminen, Heta-Elisa; Kaipio, Mikko; Kemell, Marianna; Mattinen, Miika; Meinander, Kristoffer; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2019)
    Herein, we report an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for Cu2O thin films using copper(II) acetate [Cu(OAc)(2)] and water vapor as precursors. This precursor combination enables the deposition of phase-pure, polycrystalline, and impurity-free Cu2O thin films at temperatures of 180-220 degrees C. The deposition of Cu(I) oxide films from a Cu(II) precursor without the use of a reducing agent is explained by the thermally induced reduction of Cu(OAc)(2) to the volatile copper(I) acetate, CuOAc. In addition to the optimization of ALD process parameters and characterization of film properties, we studied the Cu2O films in the fabrication of photoconductor devices. Our proof-of-concept devices show that approx- imately 20 nm thick Cu2O films can be used for photodetection in the visible wavelength range and that the thin film photoconductors exhibit improved device characteristics in comparison to bulk Cu2O crystals.
  • Borrega, Marc; Larsson, Per Tomas; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Ceccherini, Sara; Maloney, Thaddeus; Rautkari, Lauri; Sixta, Herbert (2018)
    Hydrothermal treatments of birch wood and kraft pulp were compared for their ability to extract the xylan and produce viscose-grade pulp. Water post-hydrolysis of kraft pulp produced a high-purity cellulosic pulp with lower viscosity but higher cellulose yield than traditional pre-hydrolysis kraft pulping of wood. Post-hydrolysis of pulp also increased the crystallite dimensions and degree of crystallinity in cellulose, and promoted a higher extent of fibril aggregation. The lower specific surface area in post-hydrolyzed pulps, derived from their larger fibril aggregates, decreased the accessibility of OH groups. However, this lower accessibility did not seem to decrease the pulp reactivity to derivatizing chemicals. In the aqueous side-stream, the xylose yield was similar in both pre- and post-hydrolysates, although conducting post-hydrolysis of pulp in a flow-through system enabled the recovery of high purity and molar mass (∼10 kDa) xylan for high-value applications.
  • Isenberg, Stefan; Weller, Stefan; Kargin, Denis; Valic, Srecko; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kelemen, Zsolt; Bruhn, Clemens; Krekic, Kristijan; Maurer, Martin; Feil, Christoph M.; Nieger, Martin; Gudat, Dietrich; Nyulaszi, Laszlo; Pietschnig, Rudolf (2019)
    Invited for this month's cover picture are the groups of Professors Rudolf Pietschnig at the University of Kassel, Professor Dietrich Gudat at the University of Stuttgart and Professor Laszlo Nyulaszi at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The cover picture shows the thermally induced homolytic cleavage of the central P-P bond in a phosphorus-rich bis-ferrocenophane furnishing P-centered radicals (as evidenced by the computed spin-density highlighted in blue). The central P-6 unit in the title compound is a structural analog of the connecting unit in Hittorf's violet phosphorus, which links the orthogonally arranged tubular entities. A portrait of the German physicist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf is included. Read the full text of their Full Paper at 10.1002/open.201900182.
  • Allevato, V.; Shankar, F.; Marsden, C.; Rasulov, U.; Viitanen, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Ferrara, A.; Finoguenov, A. (2021)
    The statistical distributions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), i.e., accreting supermassive black holes (BHs), in mass, space, and time are controlled by a series of key properties, namely, the BH-galaxy scaling relations, Eddington ratio distributions, and fraction of active BH (duty cycle). Shedding light on these properties yields strong constraints on the AGN triggering mechanisms while providing a clear baseline to create useful mock catalogs for the planning of large galaxy surveys. Here we delineate a robust methodology to create mock AGN catalogs built on top of large N-body dark matter simulations via state-of-the-art semiempirical models. We show that by using as independent tests the AGN clustering at fixed X-ray luminosity, galaxy stellar mass, and BH mass, along with the fraction of AGNs in groups and clusters, it is possible to significantly narrow down the choice in the relation between BH mass and host galaxy stellar mass, the duty cycle, and the average Eddington ratio distribution, delivering well-suited constraints to guide cosmological models for the coevolution of BHs and galaxies. Avoiding such a step-by-step methodology inevitably leads to strong degeneracies in the final mock catalogs, severely limiting their usefulness in understanding AGN evolution and in survey planning and testing.
  • Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Brouillard, Pascal; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Sipilä, Tuomas; Jha, Sawan Kumar; Revencu, Nicole; Labarque, Veerle; Fastré, Elodie; Schlögel, Matthieu; Ravoet, Marie; Singer, Amihood; Luzzatto, Claudia; Angelone, Donatella; Crichiutti, Giovanni; D’Elia, Angela; Kuurne, Jaakko; Elamaa, Harri; Koh, Gou Young; Saharinen, Pipsa; Vikkula, Miikka; Alitalo, Kari (2020)
    Lymphedema can occur when tissue fluid cannot enter or leaks from the lymphatic system into surrounding tissues. Some genetic causes of primary lymphedema are known, but these currently explain a minority of cases. Previous studies have shown that dominant-negative mutations in angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2), which is involved in lymphatic vessel formation and maturation, promote lymphangiogenesis in mice. Leppänen et al. now show that inactivating mutations in angiopoietin 2 associate with primary lymphedema in humans.Primary lymphedema is caused by developmental and functional defects of the lymphatic vascular system that result in accumulation of protein-rich fluid in tissues, resulting in edema. The 28 currently known genes causing primary lymphedema can explain <30% of cases. Angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and ANGPT2 function via the TIE1-TIE2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor–like domains 1 and 2) receptor complex and α5β1 integrin to form an endothelial cell signaling pathway that is critical for blood and lymphatic vessel formation and remodeling during embryonic development, as well as for homeostasis of the mature vasculature. By screening a cohort of 543 individuals affected by primary lymphedema, we identified one heterozygous de novo ANGPT2 whole-gene deletion and four heterozygous ANGPT2 missense mutations. Functional analyses revealed three missense mutations that resulted in decreased ANGPT2 secretion and inhibited the secretion of wild-type (WT)–ANGPT2, suggesting that they have a dominant-negative effect on ANGPT2 signaling. WT-ANGPT2 and soluble mutants T299M and N304K activated TIE1 and TIE2 in an autocrine assay in human lymphatic endothelial cells. Molecular modeling and biophysical studies showed that amino-terminally truncated ANGPT subunits formed asymmetrical homodimers that bound TIE2 in a 2:1 ratio. The T299M mutant, located in the dimerization interphase, showed reduced integrin α5 binding, and its expression in mouse skin promoted hyperplasia and dilation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels. These results demonstrate that primary lymphedema can be associated with ANGPT2 mutations and provide insights into TIE1 and TIE2 activation mechanisms.
  • Cibirka, N.; Cypriano, E. S.; Brimioulle, F.; Gruen, D.; Erben, T.; van Waerbeke, L.; Miller, L.; Finoguenov, A.; Kirkpatrick , C.; Henry, J. Patrick; Rykoff, E.; Rozo, E.; Dupke, R.; Kneib, J. -P.; Shan, H.; Spinelli, P. (2017)
    We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of 27 richness selected galaxy clusters at 0.40
  • Cairns, Iver H.; Kozarev, Kamen A.; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Agueda, Neus; Battarbee, Markus; Carley, Eoin P.; Dresing, Nina; Gomez-Herrero, Raul; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Lario, David; Pomoell, Jens; Salas-Matamoros, Carolina; Veronig, Astrid M.; Li, Bo; McCauley, Patrick (2020)
    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are an important product of solar activity. They are connected to solar active regions and flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), EUV waves, shocks, Type II and III radio emissions, and X-ray bursts. These phenomena are major probes of the partition of energy in solar eruptions, as well as for the organization, dynamics, and relaxation of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields. Many of these phenomena cause terrestrial space weather, posing multiple hazards for humans and their technology from space to the ground. Since particular flares, shocks, CMEs, and EUV waves produce SEP events but others do not, since propagation effects from the low corona to 1 AU appear important for some events but not others, and since Type II and III radio emissions and X-ray bursts are sometimes produced by energetic particles leaving these acceleration sites, it is necessary to study the whole system with a multi-frequency and multi-instrument perspective that combines both in-situ and remote observations with detailed modeling of phenomena. This article demonstrates this comprehensive approach and shows its necessity by analyzing a trio of unusual and striking solar eruptions, radio and X-ray bursts, and SEP events that occurred on 4 November 2015. These events show both strong similarities and differences from standard events and each other, despite having very similar interplanetary conditions and only two flare sites and CME genesis regions. They are therefore major targets for further in-depth observational studies, and for testing both existing and new theories and models. We present the complete suite of relevant observations, complement them with initial modeling results for the SEPs and interplanetary magnetic connectivity, and develop a plausible scenario for the eruptions. Perhaps controversially, the SEPs appear to be reasonably modelled and evidence points to significant non-Parker magnetic fields. Based on the very limited modeling available, we identify the aspects that are and are not understood, and we discuss ideas that may lead to improved understanding of the SEP, radio, and space-weather events.
  • Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Kadesjo, Nils; Shi, Xie-Qi; Wolff, Jan (2015)
  • Hofmann, F.; Sanders, J. S.; Clerc, N.; Nandra, K.; Ridl, J.; Dennerl, K.; Ramos-Ceja, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Reiprich, T. H. (2017)
    Context. The eROSITA mission will provide the largest sample of galaxy clusters detected in X-ray to date (one hundred thousand expected). This sample will be used to constrain cosmological models by measuring cluster masses. An important mass proxy is the electron temperature of the hot plasma detected in X-rays. Aims. We want to understand the detection properties and possible bias in temperatures due to unresolved substructures in the cluster halos. Methods. We simulated a large number of galaxy cluster spectra with known temperature substructures and compared the results from analysing eROSITA simulated observations to earlier results from Chandra. Results. We were able to constrain a bias in cluster temperatures and its impact on cluster masses, as well as cosmological parameters derived from the survey. We found temperatures in the eROSITA survey to be biased low by about five per cent due to unresolved temperature substructures (compared to emission-weighted average temperatures from the Chandra maps). This bias would have a significant impact on the eROSITA cosmology constraints if not accounted for in the calibration. Conclusions. We isolated the bias effect that substructures in galaxy clusters have on temperature measurements and their impact on derived cosmological parameters in the eROSITA cluster survey.
  • Vardoulaki, E.; Jimenez Andrade, E. F.; Delvecchio, I.; Zagreb, University; Schinnerer, E.; Sargent, M. T.; Gozaliasl, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Bondi, M.; Zamorani, G.; Badescu, T.; Leslie, S. K.; Ceraj, L.; Tisanic, K.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Romano-Diaz, E.; Harrington, K. (2021)
    Context. Radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) are traditionally separated into two Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type classes, edge-brightened FRII sources or edge-darkened FRI sources. With the discovery of a plethora of radio AGN of different radio shapes, this dichotomy is becoming too simplistic in linking the radio structure to the physical properties of radio AGN, their hosts, and their environment.Aims. We probe the physical properties and large-scale environment of radio AGN in the faintest FR population to date, and link them to their radio structure. We use the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (3 GHz VLA-COSMOS), with a resolution and sensitivity of 75 0 75 and 2.3 mu Jy beam(-1) to explore the FR dichotomy down to mu Jy levels.Methods. We classified objects as FRIs, FRIIs, or hybrid FRI/FRII based on the surface-brightness distribution along their radio structure. Our control sample was the jet-less/compact radio AGN objects (COM AGN), which show excess radio emission at 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS exceeding what is coming from star-formation alone; this sample excludes FRs. The largest angular projected sizes of FR objects were measured by a machine-learning algorithm and also by hand, following a parametric approach to the FR classification. Eddington ratios were calculated using scaling relations from the X-rays, and we included the jet power by using radio luminosity as a probe. Furthermore, we investigated their host properties (star-formation ratio, stellar mass, morphology), and we explore their incidence within X-ray galaxy groups in COSMOS, and in the density fields and cosmic-web probes in COSMOS.Results. Our sample is composed of 59 FRIIs, 32 FRI/FRIIs, 39 FRIs, and 1818 COM AGN at 0.03 (238.2)(36.9) 36.9 238.2 kpc, larger than that of FRI/FRIIs and FRIs by a factor of 2-3. The COM AGN have sizes smaller than 30 kpc, with a median value of 1.7 (4.7)(1.5) 1.5 4.7 kpc. The median Eddington ratio of FRIIs is 0.006 (0.007)(0.005) 0.005 0.007 , a factor of 2.5 less than in FRIs and a factor of 2 higher than in FRI/FRII. When the jet power is included, the median Eddington ratios of FRII and FRI/FRII increase by a factor of 12 and 15, respectively. FRs reside in their majority in massive quenched hosts (M-*>10(10.5) M-circle dot), with older episodes of star-formation linked to lower X-ray galaxy group temperatures, suggesting radio-mode AGN quenching. Regardless of their radio structure, FRs and COM AGN are found in all types and density environments (group or cluster, filaments, field).Conclusions. By relating the radio structure to radio luminosity, size, Eddington ratio, and large-scale environment, we find a broad distribution and overlap of FR and COM AGN populations. We discuss the need for a different classification scheme, that expands the classic FR classification by taking into consideration the physical properties of the objects rather than their projected radio structure which is frequency-, sensitivity- and resolution-dependent. This point is crucial in the advent of current and future all-sky radio surveys.
  • Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Castan, Helena; Duenas, Salvador; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Jogiaas, Taivo; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Rahn, Mihkel; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2020)
    SiO2-Fe2O3 mixture films and nanolaminates were grown by atomic layer deposition from iron trichloride, hexakis(ethylamino)disilane, and ozone at 300 degrees C. Orthorhombic -Fe2O3 was identified in Fe2O3 reference films and in Fe2O3 layers grown to certain thicknesses between amorphous SiO2 layers. SiO2-Fe2O3 films could be magnetized in external fields, exhibiting saturation and hysteresis in nonlinear magnetization-field curves. Electrical resistive switching, markedly dependent on the ratio of the component oxides, was also observed in films with proper composition. For relatively conductive films, application of small signal measurements allowed one to record memory maps with notable squareness and defined distinction between high and low conductance states.
  • Golovleva, M.; Bezak, M.; Bharthuar, S.; Brücken, E.; Gädda, A.; Härkönen, J.; Kalliokoski, M.; Kirschenmann, S.; Luukka, P.; Ott, J.; Tuuva, Tuure (2021)
    Cadmium telluride is a favorable material for X-ray detection as it has an outstanding characteristic for room temperature operation. It is a high-Z material with excellent photon radiation absorption properties. However, CdTe single crystals may include a large number of extended crystallographic defects, such as grain boundaries, twins, and tellurium (Te) inclusions, which can have an impact on detector performance. A Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) local defect model has been developed to investigate the effects of local defects on charge collection efficiency (CCE). We studied a 1 mm thick Schottky-type CdTe radiation detector with transient current technique by using a red laser at room temperature. By raster scanning the detector surface we were able to study signal shaping within the bulk, and to locate surface defects by observing their impact on the CCE. In this paper we present our TCAD model with localized defect, and compare the simulation results to TCT measurements. In the model an inclusion with a diameter of 10 mu m was assumed. The center of the defect was positioned at 6 mu m distance from the surface. We show that the defect has a notable effect on current transients, which in turn affect the CCE of the CdTe detector. The simulated charge collection at the position of the defect decreases by 80 % in comparison to the defect-free case. The simulations show that the defects give a characteristic shape to TCT signal. This can further be used to detect defects in CdTe detectors and to estimate the overall defect density in the material.
  • Phillips, N. W.; Yu, H.; Das, S.; Yang, D.; Mizohata, K.; Liu, W.; Xu, R.; Harder, R. J.; Hofmann, F. (2020)
    Developing a comprehensive understanding of the modification of material properties by neutron irradiation is important for the design of future fission and fusion power reactors. Self-ion implantation is commonly used to mimic neutron irradiation damage, however an interesting question concerns the effect of ion energy on the resulting damage structures. The reduction in the thickness of the implanted layer as the implantation energy is reduced results in the significant quandary: Does one attempt to match the primary knock-on atom energy produced during neutron irradiation or implant at a much higher energy, such that a thicker damage layer is produced? Here we address this question by measuring the full strain tensor for two ion implantation energies, 2 MeV and 20 MeV in self-ion implanted tungsten, a critical material for the first wall and divertor of fusion reactors. A comparison of 2 MeV and 20 MeV implanted samples is shown to result in similar lattice swelling. Multi-reflection Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (MBCDI) shows that implantation induced strain is in fact heterogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting that there is a non-uniform distribution of defects, an observation that is not fully captured by micro-beam Laue diffraction. At the surface, MBCDI and high-resolution electron back-scattered diffraction (HR-EBSD) strain measurements agree quite well in terms of this clustering/non-uniformity of the strain distribution. However, MBCDI reveals that the heterogeneity at greater depths in the sample is much larger than at the surface. This combination of techniques provides a powerful method for detailed investigation of the microstructural damage caused by ion bombardment, and more generally of strain related phenomena in micro-volumes that are inaccessible via any other technique. (C) 2020 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Zhoolideh Haghighi, Mohammad H.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Khosroshahi, Habib. G.; Farhang, Amin; Gozaliasl, Ghassem (2020)
    We characterize the relaxation state of galaxy systems by providing an assessment of the reliability of the photometric and spectroscopic probe via the semianalytic galaxy evolution model. We quantify the correlations between the dynamical age of simuglated galaxy groups and popular proxies of halo relaxation in observation, which are mainly either spectroscopic or photometric. We find the photometric indicators demonstrate a stronger correlation with the dynamical relaxation of galaxy groups compared to the spectroscopic probes. We take advantage of the Anderson Darling statistic (A(2)) and the velocity segregation (Delta V) as our spectroscopic indicators, and use the luminosity gap (Delta m(12)) and the luminosity decentering (D-offset) as photometric ones. First, we find that a combination of Delta m(12) and D-offset evaluated by a bivariant relation (B = 0.04 x Delta m(12) - 0.11 x Log(Doff-set) + 0.28) shows a good correlation with the dynamical age compared to all other indicators. Second, by using the observational X-ray surface brightness map, we show that the bivariant relation brings about some acceptable correlations with X-ray proxies. These correlations are as well as the correlations between A(2) and X-ray proxies, offering a reliable yet fast and economical method of quantifying the relaxation of galaxy systems. This study demonstrates that using photometric data to determine the relaxation status of a group will lead to some promising results that are comparable with the more expensive spectroscopic counterpart.
  • Xia, Jingwen; King, Alistair W. T.; Kilpelainen, Ilkka; Aseyev, Vladimir (2021)
    Cellulose is an historical polymer, for which its processing possibilities have been limited by the absence of a melting point and insolubility in all non-derivatizing molecular solvents. More recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have been used for cellulose dissolution and regeneration, for example, in the development of textile fiber spinning processes. In some cases, organic electrolyte solutions (OESs), that are binary mixtures of an ionic liquid and a polar aprotic co-solvent, can show even better technical dissolution capacities for cellulose than the pure ILs. Herein we use OESs consisting of two tetraalkylphosphonium acetate ILs and dimethyl sulfoxide or gamma-valerolactone, as co-solvents. Cellulose can be first dissolved in these OESs at 120 degrees C and then regenerated, upon cooling, leading to micro and macro phase-separation. This phenomenon much resembles the upper-critical solution temperature (UCST) type thermodynamic transition. This observed UCST-like behavior of these systems allows for the controlled regeneration of cellulose into colloidal dispersions of spherical microscale particles (spherulites), with highly ordered shape and size. While this phenomenon has been reported for other IL and NMMO-based systems, the mechanisms and phase-behavior have not been well defined. The particles are obtained below the phase-separation temperature as a result of controlled multi-molecular association. The regeneration process is a consequence of multi-parameter interdependence, where the polymer characteristics, OES composition, temperature, cooling rate and time all play their roles. The influence of the experimental conditions, cellulose concentration and the effect of time on regeneration of cellulose in the form of preferential gel or particles is discussed.
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihänen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Valiviita, J. (2018)
    Using the Planck full-mission data, we present a detection of the temperature (and therefore velocity) dispersion due to the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect from clusters of galaxies. To suppress the primary CMB and instrumental noise we derive a matched filter and then convolve it with the Planck foreground-cleaned "2D- ILC" maps. By using the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we determine the normalized rms dispersion of the temperature fluctuations at the positions of clusters, finding that this shows excess variance compared with the noise expectation. We then build an unbiased statistical estimator of the signal, determining that the normalized mean temperature dispersion of 1526 clusters is = (1.64 +/- 0.48) x 10(-11). However, comparison with analytic calculations and simulations suggest that around 0.7 sigma of this result is due to cluster lensing rather than the kSZ effect. By correcting this, the temperature dispersion is measured to be = (1.35 +/- 0.48) x 10(-11), which gives a detection at the 2.8 sigma level. We further convert uniform-weight temperature dispersion into a measurement of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, by using estimates of the optical depth of each cluster (which introduces additional uncertainty into the estimate). We find that the velocity dispersion is (v(2)) = (123 000 +/- 71 000) (km s(-1))(2), which is consistent with findings from other large-scale structure studies, and provides direct evidence of statistical homogeneity on scales of 600 h(-1) Mpc. Our study shows the promise of using cross-correlations of the kSZ effect with large-scale structure in order to constrain the growth of structure.
  • Pasini, T.; Finoguenov, A.; Brueggen, M.; Gaspari, M.; de Gasperin, F.; Gozaliasl, G. (2021)
    We investigate the kinematic properties of a large (N = 998) sample of COSMOS spectroscopic galaxy members distributed among 79 groups. We identify the Brightest Group Galaxies (BGGs) and cross-match our data with the VLA-COSMOS Deep survey at 1.4 GHz, classifying our parent sample into radio/non-radio BGGs and radio/non-radio satellites. The radio luminosity distribution spans from L-R similar to 2 x 10(21) WHz-1 to LR similar to 3 x 10(25) WHz(-1). A phase-space analysis, performed by comparing the velocity ratio (line-of-sight velocity divided by the group velocity dispersion) with the galaxy-group centre offset, reveals that BGGs (radio and non-radio) are mostly (similar to 80 per cent) ancient infallers. Furthermore, the strongest (L-R > 10(23) W Hz(-1)) radio galaxies are always found within 0.2R(vir) from the group centre. Comparing our samples with HORIZON-AGN, we find that the velocities and offsets of simulated galaxies aremore similar to radio BGGs than to non-radio BGGs, albeit statistical tests still highlight significant differences between simulated and real objects. We find that radio BGGs are more likely to be hosted in high-mass groups. Finally, we observe correlations between the powers of BGG radio galaxies and the X-ray temperatures, T-x, and X-ray luminosities, L-x, of the host groups. This supports the existence of a link between the intragroup medium and the central radio source. The occurrence of powerful radio galaxies at group centres can be explained by Chaotic Cold Accretion, as the AGN can feed from both the galactic and intragroup condensation, leading to the observed positive L-R - T-x correlation.
  • Haikala, L. K.; Gahm, G. F.; Grenman, T.; Mäkelä, M. M.; Persson, C. M. (2017)
    Context. The Carina nebula hosts a large number of globulettes. An optical study of these tiny molecular clouds shows that the majority are of planetary mass, but there are also those with masses of several tens up to a few hundred Jupiter masses. Aims. We seek to search for, and hopefully detect, molecular line emission from some of the more massive objects; in case of successful detection we aim to map their motion in the Carina nebula complex and derive certain physical properties. Methods. We carried out radio observations of molecular line emission in (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 (2-1) and (3-2) of 12 globulettes in addition to positions in adjacent shell structures using APEX. Results. All selected objects were detected with radial velocities shifted relative to the emission from related shell structures and background molecular clouds. Globulettes along the western part of an extended dust shell show a small spread in velocity with small velocity shifts relative to the shell. This system of globulettes and shell structures in the foreground of the bright nebulosity surrounding the cluster Trumpler 14 is expanding with a few km s(-1) relative to the cluster. A couple of isolated globulettes in the area move at similar speed. Compared to similar studies of the molecular line emission from globulettes in the Rosette nebula, we find that the integrated line intensity ratios and line widths are very different. The results show that the Carina objects have a different density/temperature structure than those in the Rosette nebula. In comparison the apparent size of the Carina globulettes is smaller, owing to the larger distance, and the corresponding beam filling factors are small. For this reason we were unable to carry out a more detailed modelling of the structure of the Carina objects in the way as performed for the Rosette objects. Conclusions. The Carina globulettes observed are compact and denser than objects of similar mass in the Rosette nebula. The distribution and velocities of these globulettes suggest that they have originated from eroding shells and elephant trunks. Some globulettes in the Trumpler 14 region are quite isolated and located far from any shell structures. These objects move at a similar speed as the globulettes along the shell, suggesting that they once formed from cloud fragments related to the same foreground shell.
  • Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Castan, Helena; Duenas, Salvador; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2020)
    Amorphous SiO2-Nb2O5 nanolaminates and mixture films were grown by atomic layer deposition. The films were grown at 300 degrees C from Nb(OC2H5)(5), Si-2(NHC2H5)(6), and O-3 to thicknesses ranging from 13 to 130 nm. The niobium to silicon atomic ratio was varied in the range of 0.11-7.20. After optimizing the composition, resistive switching properties could be observed in the form of characteristic current-voltage behavior. Switching parameters in the conventional regime were well defined only in a SiO2:Nb2O5 mixture at certain, optimized, composition with Nb:Si atomic ratio of 0.13, whereas low-reading voltage measurements allowed recording memory effects in a wider composition range.
  • Clerc, N.; Ramos-Ceja, M. E.; Ridl, J.; Lamer, G.; Brunner, H.; Hofmann, F.; Comparat, J.; Pacaud, F.; Käfer, F.; Reiprich, T. H.; Merloni, A.; Schmid, C.; Brand, T.; Wilms, J.; Friedrich, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Dauser, T.; Kreykenbohm, I. (2018)
    Context. Studies of galaxy clusters provide stringent constraints on models of structure formation. Provided that selection effects are under control, large X-ray surveys are well suited to derive cosmological parameters, in particular those governing the dark energy equation of state. Aims. We forecast the capabilities of the all-sky eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) survey to be achieved by the early 2020s. We bring special attention to modelling the entire chain from photon emission to source detection and cataloguing. Methods. The selection function of galaxy clusters for the upcoming eROSITA mission is investigated by means of extensive and dedicated Monte-Carlo simulations. Employing a combination of accurate instrument characterisation and a state-of-the-art source detection technique, we determine a cluster detection efficiency based on the cluster fluxes and sizes. Results. Using this eROSITA cluster selection function, we find that eROSITA will detect a total of approximately 10(5) clusters in the extra-galactic sky. This number of clusters will allow eROSITA to put stringent constraints on cosmological models. We show that incomplete assumptions on selection effects, such as neglecting the distribution of cluster sizes, induce a bias in the derived value of cosmological parameters. Conclusions. Synthetic simulations of the eROSITA sky capture the essential characteristics impacting the next-generation galaxy cluster surveys and they highlight parameters requiring tight monitoring in order to avoid biases in cosmological analyses.