Browsing by Subject "X-RAY-ABSORPTION"

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  • Mynttinen, Elsi; Wester, Niklas; Lilius, Tuomas; Kalso, Eija; Mikladal, Bjorn; Varjos, Ilkka; Sainio, Sami; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Koskinen, Jari; Laurila, Tomi (2020)
    Oxycodone is a strong opioid frequently used as an analgesic. Although proven efficacious in the management of moderate to severe acute pain and cancer pain, use of oxycodone imposes a risk of adverse effects such as addiction, overdose, and death. Fast and accurate determination of oxycodone blood concentration would enable personalized dosing and monitoring of the analgesic as well as quick diagnostics of possible overdose in emergency care. However, in addition to the parent drug, several metabolites are always present in the blood after a dose of oxycodone, and to date, there is no electrochemical data available on any of these metabolites. In this paper, a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) electrode and a Nafion-coated SWCNT electrode were used, for the first time, to study the electrochemical behavior of oxycodone and its two main metabolites, noroxycodone and oxymorphone. Both electrode types could selectively detect oxycodone in the presence of noroxycodone and oxymorphone. However, we have previously shown that addition of a Nafion coating on top of the SWCNT electrode is essential for direct measurements in complex biological matrices. Thus, the Nafion/SWCNT electrode was further characterized and used for measuring clinically relevant concentrations of oxycodone in buffer solution. The limit of detection for oxycodone with the Nafion/SWCNT sensor was 85 nM, and the linear range was 0.5-10 mu M in buffer solution. This study shows that the fabricated Nafion/SWCNT sensor has potential to be applied in clinical concentration measurements.
  • Ahoranta, Jussi; Nevalainen, Jukka; Wijers, Nastasha; Finoguenov, Alexis; Bonamente, Massilimiano; Tempel, Elmo; Tilton, Evan; Schaye, Joop; Kaastra, Jelle; Gozaliasl, Ghassem (2020)
    Aims. We explore the high spectral resolution X-ray data towards the quasar 3C 273 to search for signals of hot (similar to 10^(6-7) K) X-ray-absorbing gas co-located with two established intergalactic far-ultraviolet (FUV) OVI absorbers. Methods. We analyze the soft X-ray band grating data of all XMM-Newton and Chandra instruments to search for the hot phase absorption lines at the FUV predicted redshifts. The viability of potential line detections is examined by adopting the constraints of a physically justified absorption model. The WHIM hypothesis is investigated with a complementary 3D galaxy distribution analysis and by detailed comparison of the measurement results to the WHIM properties in the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. Results. At one of the examined FUV redshifts, 0.09017 +/- 0.00003, we measured signals of two hot ion species, ;VIII and x202f;IX, with a 3.9 sigma combined significance level. While the absorption signal is only marginally detected in individual co-added spectra, considering the line features in all instruments collectively and assuming collisional equilibrium for absorbing gas, we were able to constrain the temperature (kT = 0.26 +/- 0.03 keV) and the column density cm(-2)) of the absorber. Thermal analysis indicates that FUV and X-ray absorption relate to different phases, with estimated temperatures, T-FUV & x2004;3 x 10(5), and, T(X - ray)x2004;3 x 10(6) K. These temperatures match the EAGLE predictions for WHIM at the FUV/X-ray measured N-ion-ranges. We detected a large scale galactic filament crossing the sight-line at the redshift of the absorption, linking the absorption to this structure. Conclusions. This study provides observational insights into co-existing warm and hot gas within a WHIM filament and estimates the ratio of the hot and warm phases. Because the hot phase is thermally distinct from the OVI gas, the estimated baryon content of the absorber is increased, conveying the promise of X-ray follow-up studies of FUV detected WHIM in refining the picture of the missing baryons.
  • Nieminen, Heta; Miikkulainen, Ville; Settipani, Daniel; Simonelli, Laura; Hönicke, Philipp; Zech, Claudia; Kayser, Yves; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Heikkilä, Mikko; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Meinander, Nils Kristoffer; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Huotari, Simo; Ritala, Mikko (2019)
    LiMn2O4 is a promising candidate for a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries because of its ability to intercalate lithium ions reversibly through its three-dimensional manganese oxide network. One of the promising techniques for depositing LiMn2O4 thin-film cathodes is atomic layer deposition (ALD). Because of its unparalleled film thickness control and film conformality, ALD helps to fulfill the industry demands for smaller devices, nanostructured electrodes, and all-solid-state batteries. In this work, the intercalation mechanism of Li+ ions into an ALD-grown beta-MnO2 thin film was studied. Samples were prepared by pulsing (LiOBu)-Bu-t and H2O for different cycle numbers onto about 100 nm thick MnO2 films at 225 degrees C and characterized with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, and residual stress measurements. It is proposed that for
  • Nevalainen, J.; Tempel, E.; Ahoranta, J.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Bonamente, M.; Tilton, E.; Kaastra, J.; Fang, T.; Heinämäki, P.; Saar, E.; Finoguenov, A. (2019)
    The cosmological missing baryons at z <1 most likely hide in the hot (T greater than or similar to 10(5.5) K) phase of the warm hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). While the hot WHIM is hard to detect due to its high ionisation level, the warm (T less than or similar to 10(5.5) K) phase of the WHIM has been very robustly detected in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) band. We adopted the assumption that the hot and warm WHIM phases are co-located and therefore used the FUV-detected warm WHIM as a tracer for the cosmologically interesting hot WHIM. We performed an X-ray follow-up in the sight line of the blazar PKS 2155-304 at the redshifts where previous FUV measurements of O VI, Si IV, and broad Lyman-alpha (BLA) absorption have indicated the existence of the warm WHIM. We looked for the O VII Hc alpha and O VIII Ly alpha absorption lines, the most likely hot WHIM tracers. Despite the very large exposure time (approximate to 1 Ms), the Reflection Grating Spectrometer unit 1 (RGS1) on-board XMM-Newton data yielded no significant detection which corresponds to upper limits of log N(O VII (cm(-2)))