Browsing by Subject "X-RAY-SCATTERING"

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  • Dudarev, Sergei L.; Mason, Daniel R.; Tarleton, Edmund; Ma, Pui-Wai; Sand, Andrea E. (2018)
    Predicting strains, stresses and swelling in nuclear power plant components exposed to irradiation directly from the observed or computed defect and dislocation microstructure is a fundamental problem of fusion power plant design that has so far eluded a practical solution. We develop a model, free from parameters not accessible to direct evaluation or observation, that is able to provide estimates for irradiation-induced stresses and strains on a macroscopic scale, using information about the distribution of radiation defects produced by high-energy neutrons in the microstructure of materials. The model exploits the fact that elasticity equations involve no characteristic spatial scale, and hence admit a mathematical treatment that is an extension to that developed for the evaluation of elastic fields of defects on the nanoscale. In the analysis given below we use, as input, the radiation defect structure data derived from ab initio density functional calculations and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of high-energy collision cascades. We show that strains, stresses and swelling can be evaluated using either integral equations, where the source function is given by the density of relaxation volumes of defects, or they can be computed from heterogeneous partial differential equations for the components of the stress tensor, where the density of body forces is proportional to the gradient of the density of relaxation volumes of defects. We perform a case study where strains and stresses are evaluated analytically and exactly, and develop a general finite element method implementation of the method, applicable to a broad range of predictive simulations of strains and stresses induced by irradiation in materials and components of any geometry in fission or fusion nuclear power plants.
  • Zhang, Chao; Vehkamäki, Marko; Pietikäinen, Mika; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko (2020)
    Novel area-selective molecular layer deposition (AS-MLD) of polyimide (PI) on Cu versus native SiO2 was studied. By use of 1,6-diaminohexane (DAH) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) as precursors, PI films can be selectively deposited on the Cu surface at 200-210 degrees C with a rate around 7.8 A/cycle while negligible growth takes place on SiO2. The selectivity was successfully demonstrated also on Cu/SiO2 patterns at 200 degrees C; after 180 MLD cycles, around 140 nm thick PI was deposited on Cu regions while
  • Pathak, Harshad; Spah, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Tsironi, Ifigeneia; Mariedahl, Daniel; Blanco, Maria; Huotari, Simo; Honkimäki, Veijo; Nilsson, Anders (2019)
    Wide angle x-ray scattering of supercooled water down to 234.8 K was studied using high energy x rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The oxygen-oxygen pair distribution function (PDF) was calculated from the scattering pattern out to the 5th peak at an intermolecular distance, r approximate to 11 angstrom. We observe that the 4th peak and the 5th peak in the PDF increase in height upon supercooling. We also observe that the 4th peak position (r(4)) shifts to shorter distances upon supercooling consistent with previous studies, but we see a more rapid change at the lowest temperature. The running oxygen-oxygen coordination number is calculated for 5 different temperatures, and an isosbestic point at r(iso) = 3.31 +/- 0.05 angstrom was found corresponding to a coordination number of 4.39 +/- 0.15. The comparison of the PDF of the coldest water with that of amorphous ice shows distinct differences. We propose that there are 5-member pentamer rings in low density liquid-like structures giving rise to the sharp correlations at r approximate to 9 angstrom and r approximate to 11 angstrom.
  • Kukkurainen, Sampo; Azizi, Latifeh; Zhang, Pingfeng; Jacquier, Marie-Claude; Baikoghli, Mo; von Essen, Magdalena; Tuukkanen, Anne; Laitaoja, Mikko; Liu, Xiaonan; Rahikainen, Rolle; Orlowski, Adam; Jänis, Janne; Määttä, Juha A. E.; Varjosalo, Markku; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz; Svergun, Dmitri; Cheng, R. Holland; Wu, Jinhua; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard (2020)
    Integrin activation and clustering by talin are early steps of cell adhesion. Membrane-bound talin head domain and kindlin bind to the beta integrin cytoplasmic tail, cooperating to activate the heterodimeric integrin, and the talin head domain induces integrin clustering in the presence of Mn2+. Here we show that kindlin-1 can replace Mn2+ to mediate beta 3 integrin clustering induced by the talin head, but not that induced by the F2-F3 fragment of talin. Integrin clustering mediated by kindlin-1 and the talin head was lost upon deletion of the flexible loop within the talin head F1 subdomain. Further mutagenesis identified hydrophobic and acidic motifs in the F1 loop responsible for beta 3 integrin clustering. Modeling, computational and cysteine crosslinking studies showed direct and catalytic interactions of the acidic F1 loop motif with the juxtamembrane domains of alpha- and beta 3-integrins, in order to activate the beta 3 integrin heterodimer, further detailing the mechanism by which the talin-kindlin complex activates and clusters integrins. Moreover, the F1 loop interaction with the beta 3 integrin tail required the newly identified compact FERM fold of the talin head, which positions the F1 loop next to the inner membrane clasp of the talin-bound integrin heterodimer. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.