Browsing by Subject "XMM-NEWTON"

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  • de Gasperin, F.; Rudnick, L.; Finoguenov, A.; Wittor, D.; Akamatsu, H.; Brueggen, M.; Chibueze, J. O.; Clarke, T. E.; Cotton, W.; Cuciti, V.; Dominguez-Fernandez, P.; Knowles, K.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Sebokolodi, L. (2022)
    Context. During their lifetimes, galaxy clusters grow through the accretion of matter from the filaments of the large-scale structure and from mergers with other clusters. These mergers release a large amount of energy into the intracluster medium (ICM) through merger shocks and turbulence. These phenomena are associated with the formation of radio sources known as radio relics and radio halos, respectively. Radio relics and halos are unique proxies for studying the complex properties of these dynamically active regions of clusters and the microphysics of the ICM more generally. Aims. Abell 3667 is a spectacular example of a merging system that hosts a large pair of radio relics. Due to its proximity (0.0553) and large mass, the system enables the study of these sources to a uniquely high level of detail. However, being located at Dec = -56.8 degrees, the cluster could only be observed with a limited number of radio facilities. Methods. We observed Abell 3667 with MeerKAT as part of the MeerKAT Galaxy Cluster Legacy Survey. We used these data to study the large-scale emission of the cluster, including its polarisation and spectral properties. The results were then compared with simulations. Results. We present the most detailed view of the radio relic system in Abell 3667 to date, with a resolution reaching 3 kpc. The relics are filled with a network of filaments with different spectral and polarisation properties that are likely associated with multiple regions of particle acceleration and local enhancements of the magnetic field. Conversely, the magnetic field in the space between filaments has strengths close to what would be expected in unperturbed regions at the same cluster-centric distance. Comparisons with magnetohydrodynamic cosmological and Lagrangian simulations support the idea of filaments as multiple acceleration sites. Our observations also confirm the presence of an elongated radio halo, developed in the wake of the bullet-like sub-cluster that merged from the south-east. Finally, we associate the process of magnetic draping with a thin polarised radio source surrounding the remnant of the bullet's cool core. Conclusions. Our observations have unveiled the complexity of the interplay between the thermal and non-thermal components in the most active regions of a merging cluster. Both the intricate internal structure of radio relics and the direct detection of magnetic draping around the merging bullet are powerful examples of the non-trivial magnetic properties of the ICM. Thanks to its sensitivity to polarised radiation, MeerKAT will be transformational in the study of these complex phenomena.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Tuovinen, J.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Planck Collaboration (2013)
  • Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Ricarte, Angelo; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Allevato, Viola; Ananna, Tonima Tasnim; Ajello, Marco; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Gilli, Roberto; Hasinger, Guenther; Marchesi, Stefano; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Pacucci, Fabio; Treister, E.; Urry, C. Megan (2017)
    Using Chandra observations in the 2.15 deg(2) COSMOS-legacy field, we present one of the most accurate measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) spectrum to date in the [0.3-7] keV energy band. The CXB has three distinct components: contributions from two Galactic collisional thermal plasmas at kT similar to 0.27 and 0.07 keV and an extragalactic power law with a photon spectral index Gamma = 1.45 +/- 0.02. The 1 keV normalization of the extragalactic component is 10.91 +/- 0.16 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1). Removing all X-ray-detected sources, the remaining unresolved CXB is best fit by a power law with normalization 4.18 +/- 0.26 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1) and photon spectral index Gamma = 1.57 +/- 0.10. Removing faint galaxies down to i(AB) similar to 27-28 leaves a hard spectrum with Gamma similar to 1.25 and a 1 keV normalization of similar to 1.37 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1). This means that similar to 91% of the observed CXB is resolved into detected X-ray sources and undetected galaxies. Unresolved sources that contribute similar to 8%-9% of the total CXB show marginal evidence of being harder and possibly more obscured than resolved sources. Another similar to 1% of the CXB can be attributed to still undetected star-forming galaxies and absorbed active galactic nuclei. According to these limits, we investigate a scenario where early black holes totally account for non-source CXB fraction and constrain some of their properties. In order to not exceed the remaining CXB and the z similar to 6 accreted mass density, such a population of black holes must grow in Compton-thick envelopes with N-H > 1.6 x 10(25) cm(-2) and form in extremely low-metallicity environments (Z(circle dot)) similar to 10(-3).
  • Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; LaMassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C. (2016)
    The COSMOS-Legacy survey is a 4.6 Ms Chandra program that has imaged 2.2 deg(2) of the COSMOS field with an effective exposure of similar or equal to 160 ks over the central 1.5 deg(2) and of similar or equal to 80 ks in the remaining area. The survey is the combination of 56 new observations obtained as an X-ray Visionary Project with the previous C-COSMOS survey. We describe the reduction and analysis of the new observations and the properties of 2273 point sources detected above a spurious probability of 2 x 10(-5). We also present the updated properties of the C-COSMOS sources detected in the new data. The whole survey includes 4016 point sources (3814, 2920 and 2440 in the full, soft, and hard band). The limiting depths are 2.2 x 10(-16), 1.5 x 10(-15), and 8.9 x 10(-16) erg cm(-2) s(-1)in the 0.5-2, 2-10, and 0.5-10 keV bands, respectively. The observed fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei with a column density >10(22) cm(-2) from the hardness ratio (HR) is similar to 50(-16)(+17)%. Given the large sample we compute source number counts in the hard and soft bands, significantly reducing the uncertainties of 5%-10%. For the first time we compute number counts for obscured (HR > -0.2) and unobscured (HR <-0.2) sources and find significant differences between the two populations in the soft band. Due to the unprecedent large exposure, COSMOS-Legacy area is three times larger than surveys at similar depths and its depth is three times fainter than surveys covering similar areas. The area-flux region occupied by COSMOS-Legacy is likely to remain unsurpassed for years to come.
  • Pasini, T.; Brueggen, M.; de Gasperin, F.; Birzan, L.; O'Sullivan, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Jarvis, M.; Gitti, M.; Brighenti, F.; Whittam, I. H.; Collier, J. D.; Heywood, Paolo; Gozaliasl, G. (2020)
    Our understanding of how active galactic nucleus feedback operates in galaxy clusters has improved in recent years owing to large efforts in multiwavelength observations and hydrodynamical simulations. However, it is much less clear how feedback operates in galaxy groups, which have shallower gravitational potentials. In this work, using very deep Very Large Array and new MeerKAT observations from the MIGHTEE survey, we compiled a sample of 247 X-ray selected galaxy groups detected in the COSMOS field. We have studied the relation between the X-ray emission of the intra-group medium and the 1.4 GHz radio emission of the central radio galaxy. For comparison, we have also built a control sample of 142 galaxy clusters using ROSAT and NVSS data. We find that clusters and groups follow the same correlation between X-ray and radio emission. Large radio galaxies hosted in the centres of groups and merging clusters increase the scatter of the distribution. Using statistical tests and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the correlation is not dominated by biases or selection effects. We also find that galaxy groups are more likely than clusters to host large radio galaxies, perhaps owing to the lower ambient gas density or a more efficient accretion mode. In these groups, radiative cooling of the intra-cluster medium could be less suppressed by active galactic nucleus heating. We conclude that the feedback processes that operate in galaxy clusters are also effective in groups.
  • Miniati, Francesco; Finoguenov, Alexis; Silverman, John D.; Carollo, Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Schawinski, Kevin (2016)
    We present the results of a pilot XMM-Newton and Chandra program aimed at studying the diffuse intragroup medium (IGM) of optically selected nearby groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS) catalog. The groups are in a narrow mass range about 10(13) M-circle dot, a mass scale at which the interplay between the IGM and the group member galaxies is still largely unprobed. X-ray emission from the IGM is detected in the energy band 0.5-2 keV with flux
  • Nevalainen, J.; Tempel, E.; Ahoranta, J.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Bonamente, M.; Tilton, E.; Kaastra, J.; Fang, T.; Heinämäki, P.; Saar, E.; Finoguenov, A. (2019)
    The cosmological missing baryons at z <1 most likely hide in the hot (T greater than or similar to 10(5.5) K) phase of the warm hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). While the hot WHIM is hard to detect due to its high ionisation level, the warm (T less than or similar to 10(5.5) K) phase of the WHIM has been very robustly detected in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) band. We adopted the assumption that the hot and warm WHIM phases are co-located and therefore used the FUV-detected warm WHIM as a tracer for the cosmologically interesting hot WHIM. We performed an X-ray follow-up in the sight line of the blazar PKS 2155-304 at the redshifts where previous FUV measurements of O VI, Si IV, and broad Lyman-alpha (BLA) absorption have indicated the existence of the warm WHIM. We looked for the O VII Hc alpha and O VIII Ly alpha absorption lines, the most likely hot WHIM tracers. Despite the very large exposure time (approximate to 1 Ms), the Reflection Grating Spectrometer unit 1 (RGS1) on-board XMM-Newton data yielded no significant detection which corresponds to upper limits of log N(O VII (cm(-2)))
  • Käfer, Florian; Finoguenov, Alexis; Eckert, Dominique; Clerc, Nicolas; Ramos-Ceja, Miriam E.; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Ghirardini, Vittorio (2020)
    Context. One key ingredient in using galaxy clusters as a precision cosmological probe in large X-ray surveys is understanding selection effects. The dependence of the X-ray emission on the square of the gas density leads to a predominant role of cool cores in the detection of galaxy clusters. The contribution of cool cores to the X-ray luminosity does not scale with cluster mass and cosmology and therefore affects the use of X-ray clusters in producing cosmological constraints.Aims. One of the main science goals of the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array (eROSITA) mission is to constrain cosmology with a wide X-ray survey. We propose an eROSITA galaxy cluster detection scheme that avoids the use of X-ray cluster centers in detection. We calculate theoretical expectations and characterize the performance of this scheme by simulations.Methods. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of the upcoming eROSITA mission, including known foreground and background components. By performing realistic simulations of point sources in survey mode, we searched for spatial scales where the extended signal is not contaminated by the point-source flux. We derive a combination of scales and thresholds, which result in a clean extended source catalog. We designed the output of the cluster detection, which enables calibrating the core-excised luminosity using external mass measurements. We provide a way to incorporate the results of this calibration in producing the final core-excised luminosity.Results. Similarly to other galaxy cluster detection pipelines, we sample the detection space of the flux - cluster core radius of our method and find many similarities with the pipeline used in the 400d survey. Both detection methods require large statistics on compact clusters in order to reduce the contamination from point sources. The benefit of our pipeline consists of the sensitivity to the outer cluster shapes, which are characterized by large core sizes with little cluster to cluster variation at a fixed total mass of the cluster.Conclusions. Galaxy cluster detection through cluster outskirts improves the cluster characterization using eROSITA survey data and is expected to yield well-characterized cluster catalogs with simple selection functions.
  • Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Tozzi, P.; Shemmer, O.; Allevato, V.; Bauer, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, T.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Wang, J. X.; Zheng, X. C. (2017)
    We study the X-ray variability properties of distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Chandra Deep Field-South region over 17 yr, up to z similar to 4, and compare them with those predicted by models based on local samples. We use the results of Monte Carlo simulations to account for the biases introduced by the discontinuous sampling and the low-count regime. We confirm that variability is a ubiquitous property of AGNs, with no clear dependence on the density of the environment. The variability properties of high-z AGNs, over different temporal time-scales, are most consistent with a power spectral density (PSD) described by a broken (or bending) power law, similar to nearby AGNs. We confirm the presence of an anticorrelation between luminosity and variability, resulting from the dependence of variability on black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate. We explore different models, finding that our acceptable solutions predict that BH mass influences the value of the PSD break frequency, while the lambda(Edd) ington ratio lambda(Edd) affects the PSD break frequency and, possibly, the PSD amplitude as well. We derive the evolution of the average.Edd as a function of redshift, finding results in agreement with measurements based on different estimators. The large statistical uncertainties make our results consistent with a constant Eddington ratio, although one of our models suggest a possible increase of lambda(Edd) with lookback time up to z similar to 2-3. We conclude that variability is a viable mean to trace the accretion history of supermassive BHs, whose usefulness will increase with future, wide-field/large effective area X-ray missions.