Browsing by Subject "YANGTZE-RIVER DELTA"

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  • Du, Wei; Dada, Lubna; Zhao, Jian; Chen, Xueshun; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Xie, Conghui; Wang, Weigang; He, Yao; Cai, Jing; Yao, Lei; Zhang, Yingjie; Wang, Qingqing; Xu, Weiqi; Wang, Yuying; Tang, Guiqian; Cheng, Xueling; Kokkonen, Tom V.; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Chao; Chu, Biwu; Zha, Qiaozhi; Hakala, Simo; Kurppa, Mona; Jarvi, Leena; Liu, Yongchun; Li, Zhanqing; Ge, Maofa; Fu, Pingqing; Nie, Wei; Bianchi, Federico; Petäjä, Tuukka; Paasonen, Pauli; Wang, Zifa; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Sun, Yele (2021)
    The role of new particle formation (NPF) events and their contribution to haze formation through subsequent growth in polluted megacities is still controversial. To improve the understanding of the sources, meteorological conditions, and chemistry behind air pollution, we performed simultaneous measurements of aerosol composition and particle number size distributions at ground level and at 260 m in central Beijing, China, during a total of 4 months in 2015-2017. Our measurements show a pronounced decoupling of gas-to-particle conversion between the two heights, leading to different haze processes in terms of particle size distributions and chemical compositions. The development of haze was initiated by the growth of freshly formed particles at both heights, whereas the more severe haze at ground level was connected directly to local primary particles and gaseous precursors leading to higher particle growth rates. The particle growth creates a feedback loop, in which a further development of haze increases the atmospheric stability, which in turn strengthens the persisting apparent decoupling between the two heights and increases the severity of haze at ground level. Moreover, we complemented our field observations with model analyses, which suggest that the growth of NPF-originated particles accounted up to similar to 60% of the accumulation mode particles in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area during haze conditions. The results suggest that a reduction in anthropogenic gaseous precursors, suppressing particle growth, is a critical step for alleviating haze although the number concentration of freshly formed particles (3-40 nm) via NPF does not reduce after emission controls.
  • Shen, Yicheng; Virkkula, Aki; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Jiaping; Chi, Xuguang; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Huang, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Longfei; Xu, Zheng; Petäjä, Tuukka; Aalto, Pasi P.; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku (2018)
    Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) and supporting parameters-particle number size distributions, PM2 : 5 mass concentrations, and the concentrations of trace gases (NOx and NOy) - were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering: the average scattering coefficient was sigma(sp) =403 +/- 314Mm 1, the absorption coefficient sigma(ap) =26 +/- 19Mm 1, and the single-scattering albedo SS Lambda =0.93 +/- 0.03 for green light. The SSA in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than published values from several other sites in China and elsewhere. The average Angstrom exponent of absorption (AAE) for the wavelength range 370-950 nm was 1.04 and the AAE range was 0.7-1.4. These AAE values can be explained with different amounts of non-absorbing coating on pure black carbon (BC) cores and different core sizes rather than contribution by brown carbon. The AOPs had typical seasonal cycles with high sigma(sp) and sigma(ap) in winter and low ones in summer: the averages were sigma(sp) =544 +/- 422 and sigma(ap) =36 +/- 24Mm 1 in winter and sigma(sp) =342 +/- 281 and sigma(ap) =20 +/- 13Mm 1 in summer. The intensive AOPs had no clear seasonal cycles, the variations in them were rather related to the evolution of pollution episodes. The diurnal cycles of the intensive AOPs were clear and in agreement with the cycle of the particle number size distribution. The diurnal cycle of SSA was similar to that of the air photochemical age, suggesting that the darkest aerosol originated from fresh traffic emissions. A Lagrangian retroplume analysis showed that the potential source areas of high sigma(sp) and sigma(ap) are mainly in eastern China. Synoptic weather phenomena dominated the cycle of AOPs on a temporal scale of 3-7 days. During pollution episodes, modeled boundary layer height decreased, whereas PM2.5 concentrations and sigma(sp) and sigma(ap) typically increased gradually and remained high during several days but decreased faster, sometimes by even more than an order of magnitude within some hours. During the growth phase of the pollution episodes the intensive AOPs evolved clearly. The mass scattering efficiency MSE of PM2.5 grew during the extended pollution episodes from similar to 4 to similar to 6m(2) g(-1) and the mass fraction of BCe decreased from similar to 10 to similar to 3% during the growth phase of the episodes. Particle growth resulted in the backscatter fraction decreasing from more than 0.16 to less than 0.10, SSA growing from less than 0.9 to more than 0.95, and radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) changing from less than -26Wm(-2) to more than 24Wm(-2), which means that the magnitude of RFE decreased. The RFE probability distribution at SORPES was clearly narrower than at a clean background site which is in agreement with a published RFE climatology.
  • Yao, Lei; Garmash, Olga; Bianchi, Federico; Zheng, Jun; Yan, Chao; Kontkanen, Jenni; Junninen, Heikki; Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro; Ehn, Mikael; Paasonen, Pauli; Sipilä, Mikko; Wang, Mingyi; Wang, Xinke; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Hangfei; Lu, Yiqun; Zhang, Bowen; Wang, Dongfang; Fu, Qingyan; Geng, Fuhai; Li, Li; Wang, Hongli; Qiao, Liping; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku; Wang, Lin (2018)
    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is an important global phenomenon that is nevertheless sensitive to ambient conditions. According to both observation and theoretical arguments, NPF usually requires a relatively high sulfuric acid (H2SO4) concentration to promote the formation of new particles and a low preexisting aerosol loading to minimize the sink of new particles. We investigated NPF in Shanghai and were able to observe both precursor vapors (H2SO4) and initial clusters at a molecular level in a megacity. High NPF rates were observed to coincide with several familiar markers suggestive of H2SO4-dimethylamine (DMA)water (H2O) nucleation, including sulfuric acid dimers and H2SO4-DMA clusters. In a cluster kinetics simulation, the observed concentration of sulfuric acid was high enough to explain the particle growth to similar to 3 nanometers under the very high condensation sink, whereas the subsequent higher growth rate beyond this size is believed to result fromthe added contribution of condensing organic species. These findings will help in understanding urban NPF and its air quality and climate effects, as well as in formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in China.
  • Chu, Biwu; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Bianchi, Federico; Yan, Chao; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2019)
    New particle formation (NPF) studies in China were summarized comprehensively in this paper. NPF frequency, formation rate, and particle growth rate were closely compared among the observations carried out at different types of sites in different regions of China in different seasons, with the aim of exploring the nucleation and particle growth mechanisms. The interactions between air pollution and NPF are discussed, emphasizing the properties of NPF under heavy pollution conditions. The current understanding of NPF cannot fully explain the frequent occurrence of NPF at high aerosol loadings in China, and possible reasons for this phenomenon are proposed. The effects of NPF and some aspects of NPF research requiring further investigation are also summarized in this paper.
  • Huang, Xin; Zhou, Luxi; Ding, Aijun; Qi, Ximeng; Nie, Wei; Wang, Minghuai; Chi, Xuguang; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Roldin, Pontus; Rusanen, Anton; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael (2016)
    New particle formation (NPF) has been investigated intensively during the last 2 decades because of its influence on aerosol population and the possible contribution to cloud condensation nuclei. However, intensive measurements and modelling activities on this topic in urban metropolitan areas in China with frequent high-pollution episodes are still very limited. This study provides results from a comprehensive modelling study on the occurrence of NPF events in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China. The comprehensive modelling system, which combines the WRF-Chem (the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry) regional chemical transport model and the MALTE-BOX sectional box model (the model to predict new aerosol formation in the lower troposphere), was shown to be capable of simulating atmospheric nucleation and subsequent growth. Here we present a detailed discussion of three typical NPF days, during which the measured air masses were notably influenced by either anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. Overall, simulated NPF events were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measurements, enabling us to get further insights into NPF processes in the YRD region. Based on the simulations, we conclude that biogenic organic compounds, particularly monoterpenes, play an essential role in the initial condensational growth of newly formed clusters through their low-volatility oxidation products. Although some uncertain-ties remain in this modelling system, this method provides a possibility to better understand particle formation and growth processes.
  • Petäjä, T.; Järvi, L.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Ding, A. J.; Sun, J. N.; Nie, W.; Kujansuu, J.; Virkkula, A.; Yang, X. -Q.; Fu, C. B.; Zilitinkevich, S.; Kulmala, M. (2016)
    Severe air pollution episodes have been frequent in China during the recent years. While high emissions are the primary reason for increasing pollutant concentrations, the ultimate cause for the most severe pollution episodes has remained unclear. Here we show that a high concentration of particulate matter (PM) will enhance the stability of an urban boundary layer, which in turn decreases the boundary layer height and consequently cause further increases in PM concentrations. We estimate the strength of this positive feedback mechanism by combining a new theoretical framework with ambient observations. We show that the feedback remains moderate at fine PM concentrations lower than about 200 mu g m(-3), but that it becomes increasingly effective at higher PM loadings resulting from the combined effect of high surface PM emissions and massive secondary PM production within the boundary layer. Our analysis explains why air pollution episodes are particularly serious and severe in megacities and during the days when synoptic weather conditions stay constant.
  • Zaidan, Martha A.; Haapasilta, Ville; Relan, Rishi; Paasonen, Pauli; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Kulmala, Markku; Foster, Adam S. (2018)
    Atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF) is a very non-linear process that includes atmospheric chemistry of precursors and clustering physics as well as subsequent growth before NPF can be observed. Thanks to ongoing efforts, now there exists a tremendous amount of atmospheric data, obtained through continuous measurements directly from the atmosphere. This fact makes the analysis by human brains difficult but, on the other hand, enables the usage of modern data science techniques. Here, we calculate and explore the mutual information (MI) between observed NPF events (measured at Hyytiala, Finland) and a wide variety of simultaneously monitored ambient variables: trace gas and aerosol particle concentrations, meteorology, radiation and a few derived quantities. The purpose of the investigations is to identify key factors contributing to the NPF. The applied mutual information method finds that the formation events are strongly linked to sulfuric acid concentration and water content, ultraviolet radiation, condensation sink (CS) and temperature. Previously, these quantities have been well-established to be important players in the phenomenon via dedicated field, laboratory and theoretical research. The novelty of this work is to demonstrate that the same results are now obtained by a data analysis method which operates without supervision and without the need of understanding the physics deeply. This suggests that the method is suitable to be implemented widely in the atmospheric field to discover other interesting phenomena and their relevant variables.
  • Kontkanen, Jenni; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Ahonen, Lauri; Kangasluoma, Juha; Manninen, Hanna E.; Hakala, Jani; Rose, Clemence; Sellegri, Karine; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Lin; Qi, Ximeng; Nie, Wei; Ding, Aijun; Yu, Huan; Lee, Shanhu; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2017)
    The measurement of sub-3 nm aerosol particles is technically challenging. Therefore, there is a lack of knowledge about the concentrations of atmospheric sub-3 nm particles and their variation in different environments. In this study, the concentrations of similar to 1-3 nm particles measured with a particle size magnifier (PSM) were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. In boreal forest, measured particle concentrations were clearly higher in summer than in winter, suggesting the importance of biogenic precursor vapors in this environment. At all sites, sub-3 nm particle concentrations had daytime maxima, which are likely linked to the photochemical production of precursor vapors and the emissions of precursor vapors or particles from different sources. When comparing ion concentrations to the total sub-3 nm particle concentrations, electrically neutral particles were observed to dominate in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Generally, the concentrations of sub-3 nm particles seem to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the level of the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles. The results also indicate that the formation of the smallest particles and their subsequent growth to larger sizes are two separate processes, and therefore studying the concentration of sub-3 nm particles separately in different size ranges is essential.
  • Qi, Ximeng; Ding, Aijun; Roldin, Pontus; Xu, Zhengning; Zhou, Putian; Sarnela, Nina; Nie, Wei; Huang, Xin; Rusanen, Anton; Ehn, Mikael; Rissanen, Matti P.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael (2018)
    Highly oxygenated multifunctional compounds (HOMs) play a key role in new particle formation (NPF), but their quantitative roles in different environments of the globe have not been well studied yet. Frequent NPF events were observed at two "flagship" stations under different environmental conditions, i.e. a remote boreal forest site (SMEAR II) in Finland and a suburban site (SORPES) in polluted eastern China. The averaged formation rate of 6 nm particles and the growth rate of 6-30 nm particles were 0.3 cm(-3) s(-1) and 4.5 nm h(-1) at SMEAR II compared to 2.3 cm(-3) s(-1) and 8.7 nm h(-1) at SORPES, respectively. To explore the differences of NPF at the two stations, the HOM concentrations and NPF events at two sites were simulated with the MALTE-BOX model, and their roles in NPF and particle growth in the two distinctly different environments are discussed. The model provides an acceptable agreement between the simulated and measured concentrations of sulfuric acid and HOMs at SMEAR II. The sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower at SORPES compared to SMEAR II. The model simulates the NPF events at SMEAR II with a good agreement but underestimates the growth of new particles at SORPES, indicating a dominant role of anthropogenic processes in the polluted environment. HOMs from monoter-pene oxidation dominate the growth of ultrafine particles at SMEAR II while sulfuric acid and HOMs from aromatics oxidation play a more important role in particle growth. This study highlights the distinct roles of sulfuric acid and HOMs in NPF and particle growth in different environmental conditions and suggests the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas like eastern China.
  • Lee, Shan-Hu; Gordon, Hamish; Yu, Huan; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Haley, Ryan; Li, Yixin; Zhang, Renyi (2019)
    New particle formation (NPF) represents the first step in the complex processes leading to formation of cloud condensation nuclei. Newly formed nanoparticles affect human health, air quality, weather, and climate. This review provides a brief history, synthesizes recent significant progresses, and outlines the challenges and future directions for research relevant to NPF. New developments include the emergence of state-of-the-art instruments that measure prenucleation clusters and newly nucleated nanoparticles down to about 1 nm; systematic laboratory studies of multicomponent nucleation systems, including collaborative experiments conducted in the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at CERN; observations of NPF in different types of forests, extremely polluted urban locations, coastal sites, polar regions, and high-elevation sites; and improved nucleation theories and parameterizations to account for NPF in atmospheric models. The challenges include the lack of understanding of the fundamental chemical mechanisms responsible for aerosol nucleation and growth under diverse environments, the effects of SO2 and NOx on NPF, and the contribution of anthropogenic organic compounds to NPF. It is also critical to develop instruments that can detect chemical composition of particles from 3 to 20 nm and improve parameterizations to represent NPF over a wide range of atmospheric conditions of chemical precursor, temperature, and humidity. Plain Language Summary In the atmosphere, invisible to the human eye, there are many microscopic particles, or nanoparticles, that affect human health, air quality, and climate. We do not fully understand the chemical processes that allow these fine particles to form and be suspended in the air nor how they influence heat flow in Earth's atmosphere. Laboratory experiments, field observations, and modeling simulations have all shown different results for how these particles behave. These inconsistencies make it difficult to accurately represent the processes of new particle formation in regional and global atmospheric models. Scientists still need to develop instruments that can measure the smallest range of nanoparticles and to find ways to describe particle formation that allow for differences in temperature, humidity, and level of pollution.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Luoma, Krista; Virkkula, Aki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Paasonen, Pauli; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Ding, Aijun (2016)
    Aerosol particle concentrations in the atmosphere are governed by their sources and sinks. Sources include directly-emitted (primary) and secondary aerosol particles formed from gas-phase precursor compounds. The relative importance of primary and secondary aerosol particles varies regionally and with time. In this work, we investigated primary and secondary contributions to mode-segregated particle number concentrations by using black carbon as a tracer for the primary aerosol number concentration. We studied separately nucleation, Aitken and accumulation mode concentrations at a rural boreal forest site (Hyytiala, Finland) and in a rather polluted megacity environment (Nanjing, China) using observational data from 2011 to 2014. In both places and in all the modes, the majority of particles were estimated to be of secondary origin. Even in Nanjing, only about half of the accumulation mode particles were estimated to be of primary origin. Secondary particles dominated particularly in the nucleation and Aitken modes.
  • Wang, Jiandong; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Yang, Fumo; Xing, Jia; Morawska, Lidia; Ding, Aijun; Kulmala, Markku; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kujansuu, Joni; Wang, Zifa; Ding, Dian; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Huanbo; Tian, Mi; Petäjä, Tuukka; Jiang, Jingkun; Hao, Jiming (2017)
    China is one of the regions with highest PM(2.5)concentration in the world. In this study, we review the spatio-temporal distribution of PM2.5 mass concentration and components in China and the effect of control measures on PM2.5 concentrations. Annual averaged PM2.5 concentrations in Central-Eastern China reached over 100 mu g m(-3), in some regions even over 150 mu g m(-3). In 2013, only 4.1% of the cities attained the annual average standard of 35 mu g m(-3). Aitken mode particles tend to dominate the total particle number concentration. Depending on the location and time of the year, new particle formation (NPF) has been observed to take place between about 10 and 60% of the days. In most locations, NPF was less frequent at high PM mass loadings. The secondary inorganic particles (i.e., sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) ranked the highest fraction among the PM2.5 species, followed by organic matters (OM), crustal species and element carbon (EC), which accounted for 6-50%, 15-51%, 5-41% and 2-12% of PM2.5, respectively. In response to serious particulate matter pollution, China has taken aggressive steps to improve air quality in the last decade. As a result, the national emissions of primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been decreasing since 2005, 2006, and 2011, respectively. The emission control policies implemented in the last decade could result in noticeable reduction in PM2,(5)concentrations, contributing to the decreasing PM2.5 trends observed in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. However, the control policies issued before 2010 are insufficient to improve PM2.5 air quality notably in future. An optimal mix of energy-saving and end-of-pipe control measures should be implemented, more ambitious control policies for NMVOC and NH3 should be enforced, and special control measures in winter should be applied. 40-70% emissions should be cut off to attain PM2.5 standard. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.
  • Liu, Yuqin; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhou, Putian; Lin, Tao; Hong, Juan; Shi, Lamei; Yao, Fengmei; Wu, Jun; Guo, Huadong; de Leeuw, Gerrit (2018)
    Aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) is examined using 10 years of data from the MODIS/Terra (morning orbit) and MODIS/Aqua (afternoon orbit) satellites. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud properties retrieved from both sensors are used to explore in a statistical sense the morning-to-afternoon variation of cloud properties in conditions with low and high AOD, over both land and ocean. The results show that the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds is more complex and of greater uncertainty over land than over ocean. The variation in d(Cloud_X), defined as the mean change in cloud property Cloud_X between the morning and afternoon overpasses in high-AOD conditions minus that in low-AOD conditions, is different over land and ocean. This applies to cloud droplet effective radius (CDR), cloud fraction (CF) and cloud top pressure (CTP), but not to cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud liquid water path (CWP). Both COT and CWP increase over land and ocean after the time step, irrespective of the AOD. However, the initial AOD conditions can affect the amplitude of variation of COT and CWP. The effects of initial cloud fraction and meteorological conditions on the change in CF under lowand high-AOD conditions after the 3 h time step over land are also explored. Two cases are considered: (1) when the cloud cover increases and (2) when the cloud cover decreases. For both cases, we find that almost all values of d(CF) are positive, indicating that the variations of CF are larger in high AOD than that in low AOD after the 3 h time step. The results also show that a large increase in cloud fraction occurs when scenes experience large AOD and stronger upward motion of air parcels. Furthermore, the increase rate of cloud cover is larger for high AOD with increasing relative humidity (RH) when RH is larger than 20 %. We also find that a smaller increase in cloud fraction occurs when scenes experience larger AOD and larger initial cloud cover. Overall, the analysis of the diurnal variation of cloud properties provides a better understanding of aerosol-cloud interaction over land and ocean.
  • Zhou, Derong; Li, Bing; Huang, Xin; Virkkula, Aki; Wu, Haisuo; Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Li, Li; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Feng; Yuan, Siyu; Qiao, Yuezhen; Shen, Guofeng; Ding, Aijun (2017)
    Highly time-resolved measurements of water soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon concentrations in the particle diameter size range D-p <2.5 mu m (PM2.5) were performed at a downwind urban site in Nanjing in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games (YOG). In this study, we discuss the impacts of emission control in Nanjing and the surrounding areas during the YOG and regional/long-range transport on PM2.5 pollution in Nanjing. The average concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were 12.1 +/- 9.9, 16.5 +/- 9.2, 9.0 +/- 5.4 mu g m(-3) during the YOG, and increased 34.3%, 53.7%, 43.9% after the YOG, respectively. The control of construction or on-road soil dust and control of industry led to the decrease of Ca2+ concentration by 55% and SO2 concentration by 46%. However, SO42- concentrations remained at relatively high levels, suggesting a significant impact of regional pollution to secondary fine particles in Nanjing. Strong correlations between OC and EC were observed during and after the YOG. A higher percentage (41%) of secondary organic carbon in Nanjing during the YOG periods was consistent with high potential photochemistry and low contributions from coal combustion. Lagrangian dispersion modelling results proved that the city clusters along the Nanjing and Shanghai axis were the major source region for high PM2.5 pollution in upwind Nanjing. This work shows that short-term strict control measures could improve the air quality, especially that affected by the primary pollutants; however, regional collaborative control strategy across administrative borders in the YRD is needed for a substantial improvement of air quality.
  • Zhou, Y.; Dada, L.; Liu, Yiliang; Fu, Yueyun; Kangasluoma, J.; Chan, T.; Yan, C.; Chu, B.; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Bianchi, F.; Kokkonen, T. V.; Liu, Yongchun; Kujansuu, J.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.; Wang, L.; Jiang, Jingkun; Kulmala, M. (2020)
    The spatial and temporal variability of the number size distribution of aerosol particles is an indicator of the dynamic behavior of Beijing's atmospheric pollution cocktail. This variation reflects the strength of different primary and secondary sources, such as traffic and new particle formation, as well as the main processes affecting the particle population. In this paper, we report size-segregated particle number concentrations observed at a newly developed Beijing station during the winter of 2018. Our measurements covered particle number size distributions over the diameter range of 1.5 nm-1 mu m (cluster mode, nucleation mode, Aitken mode and accumulation mode), thus being descriptive of a major fraction of the processes taking place in the atmosphere of Beijing. Here we focus on explaining the concentration variations in the observed particle modes, by relating them to the potential aerosol sources and sinks, and on understanding the connections between these modes. We considered haze days and new particle formation event days separately. Our results show that during the new particle formation (NPF) event days increases in cluster mode particle number concentration were observed, whereas during the haze days high concentrations of accumulation mode particles were present. There was a tight connection between the cluster mode and nucleation mode on both NPF event and haze days. In addition, we correlated the particle number concentrations in different modes with concentrations of trace gases and other parameters measured at our station. Our results show that the particle number concentration in all the modes correlated with NOx, which reflects the contribution of traffic to the whole submicron size range. We also estimated the contribution of ion-induced nucleation in Beijing, and we found this contribution to be negligible.