Browsing by Subject "YAP"

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  • Yang, Ying; Paivinen, Pekka; Xie, Chang; Krup, Alexis Leigh; Mäkelä, Tomi P.; Mostov, Keith E.; Reiter, Jeremy F. (2021)
    The mechanisms underlying tubular organ elongation remain poorly understood. Here, the authors show that primary cilia interpret Hedgehog signals to pattern the developing gut and that smooth muscle in the gut wall generates mechanical forces that direct longitudinal growth. How tubular organs elongate is poorly understood. We found that attenuated ciliary Hedgehog signaling in the gut wall impaired patterning of the circumferential smooth muscle and inhibited proliferation and elongation of developing intestine and esophagus. Similarly, ablation of gut-wall smooth muscle cells reduced lengthening. Disruption of ciliary Hedgehog signaling or removal of smooth muscle reduced residual stress within the gut wall and decreased activity of the mechanotransductive effector YAP. Removing YAP in the mesenchyme also reduced proliferation and elongation, but without affecting smooth muscle formation, suggesting that YAP interprets the smooth muscle-generated force to promote longitudinal growth. Additionally, we developed an intestinal culture system that recapitulates the requirements for cilia and mechanical forces in elongation. Pharmacologically activating YAP in this system restored elongation of cilia-deficient intestines. Thus, our results reveal that ciliary Hedgehog signaling patterns the circumferential smooth muscle to generate radial mechanical forces that activate YAP and elongate the gut.
  • Hong, Seon Pyo; Yang, Myung Jin; Cho, Hyunsoo; Park, Intae; Bae, Hosung; Choe, Kibaek; Suh, Sang Heon; Adams, Ralf H.; Alitalo, Kari; Lim, Daesik; Koh, Gou Young (2020)
    Emerging evidence suggests that intestinal stromal cells (IntSCs) play essential roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. However, the extent of heterogeneity within the villi stromal compartment and how IntSCs regulate the structure and function of specialized intestinal lymphatic capillary called lacteal remain elusive. Here we show that selective hyperactivation or depletion of YAP/TAZ in PDGFR beta(+) IntSCs leads to lacteal sprouting or regression with junctional disintegration and impaired dietary fat uptake. Indeed, mechanical or osmotic stress regulates IntSC secretion of VEGF-C mediated by YAP/TAZ. Single-cell RNA sequencing delineated novel subtypes of villi fibroblasts that upregulate Vegfc upon YAP/TAZ activation. These populations of fibroblasts were distributed in proximity to lacteal, suggesting that they constitute a peri-lacteal microenvironment. Our findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of IntSCs and reveal that distinct subsets of villi fibroblasts regulate lacteal integrity through YAP/TAZ-induced VEGF-C secretion, providing new insights into the dynamic regulatory mechanisms behind lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling.
  • Kaukonen, Riina; Mai, Anja; Georgiadou, Maria; Saari, Markku; De Franceschi, Nicola; Betz, Timo; Sihto, Harri; Ventela, Sami; Elo, Laura; Jokitalo, Eija; Westermarck, Jukka; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Joensuu, Heikki; Grenman, Reidar; Ivaska, Johanna (2016)
    Tissue homeostasis is dependent on the controlled localization of specific cell types and the correct composition of the extracellular stroma. While the role of the cancer stroma in tumour progression has been well characterized, the specific contribution of the matrix itself is unknown. Furthermore, the mechanisms enabling normal-not cancer-stroma to provide tumour-suppressive signals and act as an antitumorigenic barrier are poorly understood. Here we show that extracellular matrix (ECM) generated by normal fibroblasts (NFs) is softer than the CAF matrix, and its physical and structural features regulate cancer cell proliferation. We find that normal ECM triggers downregulation and nuclear exit of the histone demethylase JMJD1a resulting in the epigenetic growth restriction of carcinoma cells. Interestingly, JMJD1a positively regulates transcription of many target genes, including YAP/ TAZ (WWTR1), and therefore gene expression in a stiffness-dependent manner. Thus, normal stromal restricts cancer cell proliferation through JMJD1a-dependent modulation of gene expression.
  • Kurko, Johanna; Debes, Paul V.; House, Andrew H.; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    Despite recent taxonomic diversification in studies linking genotype with phenotype, follow-up studies aimed at understanding the molecular processes of such genotype-phenotype associations remain rare. The age at which an individual reaches sexual maturity is an important fitness trait in many wild species. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating maturation timing processes remain obscure. A recent genome-wide association study in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) identified large-effect age-at-maturity-associated chromosomal regions including genes vgll3, akap11 and six6, which have roles in adipogenesis, spermatogenesis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, respectively. Here, we determine expression patterns of these genes during salmon development and their potential molecular partners and pathways. Using Nanostring transcription profiling technology, we show development- and tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns for vgll3, akap11 and six6. Correlated expression levels of vgll3 and akap11, which have adjacent chromosomal location, suggests they may have shared regulation. Further, vgll3 correlating with arhgap6 and yap1, and akap11 with lats1 and yap1 suggests that Vgll3 and Akap11 take part in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Tissue-specific expression results indicate that vgll3 and akap11 paralogs have sex-dependent expression patterns in gonads. Moreover, six6 correlating with slc38a6 and rtn1, and Hippo signaling genes suggests that Six6 could have a broader role in the HPG neuroendrocrine and cell fate commitment regulation, respectively. We conclude that Vgll3, Akap11 and Six6 may influence Atlantic salmon maturation timing via affecting adipogenesis and gametogenesis by regulating cell fate commitment and the HPG axis. These results may help to unravel general molecular mechanisms behind maturation.