Browsing by Subject "YIELD"

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  • Emdin, Connor A.; Haas, Mary E.; Khera, Amit V.; Aragam, Krishna; Chaffin, Mark; Klarin, Derek; Hindy, George; Jiang, Lan; Wei, Wei-Qi; Feng, Qiping; Karjalainen, Juha; Havulinna, Aki; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Bick, Alexander; Ardissino, Diego; Wilson, James G.; Schunkert, Heribert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Elosua, Roberto; Bown, Matthew J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Baber, Usman; Erdmann, Jeanette; Gupta, Namrata; Danesh, John; Saleheen, Danish; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Vujkovic, Marijana; Voight, Ben; Damrauer, Scott; Lynch, Julie; Kaplan, David; Serper, Marina; Tsao, Philip; Program, Million Veteran; Mercader, Josep; Hanis, Craig; Daly, Mark; Denny, Joshua; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar (2020)
    Author summary Cirrhosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. However, the genetic underpinnings of cirrhosis remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyze twelve thousand individuals with cirrhosis and identify a common missense variant in a gene called MARC1 that protects against cirrhosis. Carriers of this missense variant also have lower blood cholesterol levels, lower liver enzyme levels and reduced liver fat. We identify an additional two low-frequency coding variants in MARC1 that are also associated with lower cholesterol levels, lower liver enzyme levels and protection from cirrhosis. Finally, we identify an individual homozygous for a predicted loss-of-function variant in MARC1 who exhibits very low blood LDL cholesterol levels. These genetic findings suggest that MARC1 deficiency may lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against cirrhosis, pointing to MARC1 as a potential therapeutic target for liver disease. Analyzing 12,361 all-cause cirrhosis cases and 790,095 controls from eight cohorts, we identify a common missense variant in the Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component 1 gene (MARC1 p.A165T) that associates with protection from all-cause cirrhosis (OR 0.91, p = 2.3*10(-11)). This same variant also associates with lower levels of hepatic fat on computed tomographic imaging and lower odds of physician-diagnosed fatty liver as well as lower blood levels of alanine transaminase (-0.025 SD, 3.7*10(-43)), alkaline phosphatase (-0.025 SD, 1.2*10(-37)), total cholesterol (-0.030 SD, p = 1.9*10(-36)) and LDL cholesterol (-0.027 SD, p = 5.1*10(-30)) levels. We identified a series of additional MARC1 alleles (low-frequency missense p.M187K and rare protein-truncating p.R200Ter) that also associated with lower cholesterol levels, liver enzyme levels and reduced risk of cirrhosis (0 cirrhosis cases for 238 R200Ter carriers versus 17,046 cases of cirrhosis among 759,027 non-carriers, p = 0.04) suggesting that deficiency of the MARC1 enzyme may lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against cirrhosis.
  • Huttunen, Inese; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Huttunen, Markus; Sihvonen, Matti; Veijalainen, Noora; Korppoo, Marie; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina (2021)
    This paper introduces a framework for extending global climate and socioeconomic scenarios in order to study agricultural nutrient pollution on an individual catchment scale. Our framework builds on and extends Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) at the spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for the drivers of animal husbandry, manure recycling and the application of inorganic fertilisers in crop production. Our case study area is the Aura river catchment in South-West Finland, which discharges into the heavily eutrophic Baltic Sea. The Aura river catchment has intensive agriculture - both livestock and crop production. Locally adjusted and interpreted climate and socioeconomic scenarios were used as inputs to a field-level economic optimisation in order to study how farmers might react to the changing markets and climate conditions under different SSPs. The results on economically optimal fertilisation levels were then used as inputs to the spatially and temporally explicit nutrient loading model (VEMALA). Alternative manure recycling strategies that matched with SSP narratives were studied as means to reduce the phosphorus (P) overfertilisation in areas with high livestock density. According to our simulations, on average the P loads increased by 18% during 2071-2100 from the current level and the variation in P loads between scenarios was large (from & minus;14% to +50%). By contrast, the nitrogen (N) loads had decreased on average by & minus;9% (with variation from & minus;20% to +3%) by the end of the current century. Phosphorus loading was most sensitive to manure recycling strategies and the speed of climate change. Nitrogen loading was less sensitive to changes in climate and socioeconomic drivers. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Wirehn, Lotten; Käyhkö, Janina; Neset, Tina-Simone; Juhola, Sirkku (2020)
    In light of the increased focus on climate change adaptation, there is a need to understand when and how adaptation decision-making generates trade-offs. This study presents a novel framework for adaptation trade-off assessments, which integrates (I) two trade-off mechanisms (direct and interactions) and (II) two types of trade-off characteristics (substantive and processual). Perspectives on adaptation trade-offs were collected from 37 Swedish and Finnish agricultural experts through semi-structured interviews supported by serious gaming and visualization. The data were thematically analysed based on the provided analytical framework. The results show that trade-offs in agricultural adaptation decision-making processes involve balancing a number of socio-ecological system aspects that are of different character and have different functions. The study identified 20 aspects generating trade-offs related to adaptation management in Swedish and Finnish agriculture, among which 'crop yield and profitability', 'farm economy', 'pest and weed robustness' and 'soil quality' were discussed as the most prominent by respondents. The framework enables an examination of complex trade-off structures that can have implications for adaptation management decisions. The results show that the identified aspects constitute different components and functions of trade-offs, including both processual and/or substantive ones. In conclusion, the 20 identified aspects and the framework together demonstrate the importance of the two types of adaptation trade-offs and the resulting complexity of climate change adaptation decision-making in Swedish and Finnish agriculture. Furthermore, the study asserts the potential of applying the framework for various strategic contexts-to recognize and cope with trade-offs in adaptation management.
  • Belachew, Kiflemariam Y.; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Poorter, Hendrik; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Water deficit may occur at any stage of plant growth, with any intensity and duration. Phenotypic acclimation and the mechanism of adaptation vary with the evolutionary background of germplasm accessions and their stage of growth. Faba bean is considered sensitive to various kinds of drought. Hence, we conducted a greenhouse experiment in rhizotrons under contrasting watering regimes to explore shoot and root traits and drought avoidance mechanisms in young faba bean plants. Eight accessions were investigated for shoot and root morphological and physiological responses in two watering conditions with four replications. Pre-germinated seedlings were transplanted into rhizotron boxes filled with either air-dried or moist peat. The water-limited plants received 50-ml water at transplanting and another 50-ml water 4 days later, then no water was given until the end of the experimental period, 24 days after transplanting. The well-watered plants received 100 ml of water every 12 h throughout the experimental period. Root, stem, and leaf dry mass, their mass fractions, their dry matter contents, apparent specific root length and density, stomatal conductance, SPAD value, and Fv/Fm were recorded. Water deficit resulted in 3–4-fold reductions in shoot biomass, root biomass, and stomatal conductance along with 1.2–1.4-fold increases in leaf and stem dry matter content and SPAD values. Total dry mass and apparent root length density showed accession by treatment interactions. Accessions DS70622, DS11320, and ILB938/2 shared relatively high values of total dry mass and low values of stomatal conductance under water deficit but differed in root distribution parameters. In both treatments, DS70622 was characterized by finer roots that were distributed in both depth and width, whereas DS11320 and ILB938/2 produced less densely growing, thicker roots. French accession Mélodie/2 was susceptible to drought in the vegetative phase, in contrast to previous results from the flowering phase, showing the importance of timing of drought stress on the measured response. Syrian accession DS70622 explored the maximum root volume and maintained its dry matter production, with the difference from the other accessions being particularly large in the water-limited treatment, so it is a valuable source of traits for avoiding transient drought.
  • Lizarazo , Clara; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2021)
    Caraway seeds contain between 0.5-7% essential oil, rich in monoterpenes that have a characteristic aroma and chemical properties. Caraway oil has several bioactive compounds that are of industrial importance, particularly for pharmaceutical and health care products. Carvone and limonene are the main terpenes present in caraway oil, which along with some unique fatty acids (i.e. petroselinic acid) determine caraway (Carum carvi L.) oil quality. Both terpenes are important raw materials for industrial applications and their concentration influences the price of caraway seed and oil, hence there is need for identifying management practices that may increase the concentration of these and other bioactive compounds to improve caraway seed oil quality. A field experiment with five treatments: a control and a series of foliar-applied micronutrients (either Cu, Mg, Mn or Zn was done to identify their potential to enhance caraway oil quality. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector were used to characterize oil quality. Our results indicate that while the micronutrient treatments have a significant effect on essential oil composition, both in carvone and limonene, such an effect was not found on all fatty acids but only in two of them-palmitoleic and vaccenic acid-, which were highest after the Mn treatment. Overall, the carvone content of the seeds decreased the least between years following Mn treatment. Mn treatment also caused an increase in limonene in the second year in contrast to the trend for all other treatments. The Mn foliar spray needs to be studied further to elucidate whether it could have a consistent positive effect on caraway oil seed quality upon adjusting dosage and spraying time.
  • Spiliopoulos, Panagiotis; Gestranius, Marie; Zhang, Chao; Ghiyasi, Ramin; Tomko, John; Arstila, Kai; Putkonen, Matti; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Karppinen, Maarit; Tammelin, Tekla; Kontturi, Eero (2022)
    The employment of atomic layer deposition and spin coating techniques for preparing inorganic-organic hybrid multilayer structures of alternating ZnO-CNC layers was explored in this study. Helium ion microscopy and X-ray reflectivity showed the superlattice formation for the nanolaminate structures and atomic force microscopy established the efficient control of the CNCs surface coverage on the Al-doped Zeta nO by manipulating the concentration of the spin coating solution. Thickness characterization of the hybrid structures was performed via both ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity and the thermal conductivity was examined by time domain thermoreflectance technique. It appears that even the incorporation of a limited amount of CNCs between the ZnO laminates strongly suppresses the thermal conductivity. Even small, submonolayer amounts of CNCs worked as a more efficient insulating material than hydroquinone or cellulose nanofibers which have been employed in previous studies.
  • Tommila, Tero; Kämäräinen, Antti; Kokko, Harri; Palonen, Pauliina (2022)
    Methods for protected container cultivation of arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus L.) are currently under development. The aim of this study was to evaluate coir and wood shavings as alternatives to peat-based growth substrate (growing medium) in the intensive greenhouse cultivation of arctic bramble. The substrates used were a commercial coir mix (Coir), wood shavings from sodium silicate impregnated wood (Wood), a mixture of 95 % horticultural peat and 5 % perlite (HPP), and a mixture of 80 % peat and 20 % wood shavings (HPWood). Growth and fruit yield were highest in HPP, followed by Coir and HPWood, and were most severely reduced in Wood. Shoot nutrient analyses and soil drainage water observations suggested that the poor performance of Wood was mainly caused by release of sodium silicate into the rooting zone due to unsuccessful substrate processing. A higher proportion of the pore space in Wood was air-filled compared to other substrates, possibly limiting water availability. Overall, the suitability of both coir and wood shavings as growth substrates for arctic bramble was relatively low. However, it is likely that the poor performance of wood shavings was caused largely by inappropriate preparation. For wood waste to be useful as a growth substrate, the wood material should be specially processed for that purpose.
  • Holma, Maija; Lindroos, Marko; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Oinonen, Soile (2019)
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Poczai, Péter (2021)
    The dataset herein indicated the novelty of the article entitled “Dataset on the use of MGIDI in screening drought-tolerant wild wheat accessions at the early growth stage”. Data were gathered during 2018-2019 on a set of wild wheat germplasm under two control and water deficit stress conditions. One hundred and forty-six accessions belonging to Ae. tauschii, Ae. cylindrica, and Ae. crassa were assessed under optimal glasshouse conditions to screen the drought-tolerant samples at the early growth stage. Nine drought tolerance and susceptibility indices along with the multi-trait genotype-ideotype distance index (MGIDI) were used to visualize the dataset. The obtained data can highlight the potential of the MGIDI index in accelerating screening of a large number of plant materials using multiple traits or selection indices in crop breeding programs, especially at the early growth stage.
  • Saksa, Timo; Uusitalo, Jori; Lindeman, Harri; Häyrynen, Esko; Kulju, Sampo; Huuskonen, Saija (2021)
    Precision forestry-i.e., the division of a stand to smaller units and managing of the stand at a micro-stand level-provides new possibilities to increase forest growth, arrange forest stand structure and enhance forest health. In the regeneration phase by adjusting the tree species selection, soil preparation, intensity of regeneration measures (method, planting density, and material), and young stand management procedures according to precise information on soil properties (e.g., site fertility, wetness, and soil type) and microtopography will inevitably lead to an increase in growth of the whole stand. A new approach to utilizing harvester data to delineate micro-stands inside a large forest stand and to deciding the tree species to plant for each micro-stand was piloted in central Finland. The case stands were situated on Finsilva Oyj forest property. The calculation of the local growth (m(3)/ha/year) for each 16 x 16-m grid cell was based on the height of the dominant trees and the stand age of the previous tree generation. Tree heights and geoinformation were collected during cutting operation as the harvester data, and the dominant height was calculated as the mean of the three largest stems in each grid cell. The stand age was obtained from the forest management plan. The estimated local growth (average of nine neighboring grid cells) varied from 3 to 14 m(3)/ha/year in the case stands. When creating micro-stands, neighboring grid cells with approximately the same local growth were merged. The minimum size for an acceptable micro-stand was set to 0.23 ha. In this case study, tree species selection (Scots pine or Norway spruce) was based on the mean growth of each micro-stand. Different threshold values, varying from 6 to 8 m(3)/ha/year, were tested for tree species change, and they led to different solutions in the delineation of micro-stands. Further stand development was simulated with the Motti software and the net present values (NPVs (3%)) for the next rotation were estimated for different micro-stand solutions. The mixed Norway spruce-Scots pine stand structure never produced a clearly economically inferior solution compared to the single species stand, and in one case out of six, it provided a distinctly better solution in terms of NPV (3%) than the single species option did. Our case study showed that this kind of method could be used as a decision support tool at the regeneration phase.
  • Mäkelä, Pirjo; Vaarala, L; Rajalahti, R; Rajala, A; PeltonenSainio, P (1997)
  • Koppelmäki, Kari Veli; Parviainen, Tuure O; Virkkunen, Elina; Winquist, Erika; Schulte, Rogier; Helenius, Juha Pekka (2019)
    There is growing demand to produce both food and renewable energy in a sustainable manner, while avoidingcompetition between food and energy production. In our study, we investigated the potential of harnessingbiogas production into nutrient recycling in an integrated system of organic food production and food proces-sing. We used the case of Agroecological Symbiosis (AES) at Palopuro, which is a combination of three farms, abiogas plant, and a bakery, as a case to explore how biogas production using feedstocks from the farms can beused to improve nutrient cycling, and to calculate how much energy could be produced from the within-systemfeedstocks. The current system (CS) used in organic farms, and the integrated farm and food processing AESsystem, were analyzed using Substance Flow analysis. In the AES, annual nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)surpluses were projected to be reduced from 95 kg ha−1to 36 kg ha−1and from 3.4 kg ha−1to −0.5 kg ha−1 respectively, compared to the CS. Biogas produced from green manure leys as the major feedstock, produced2809 MWh a−1. This was 70% more than the energy consumed (1650 MWh a−1) in the systemand thus the AESsystem turned out to be a net energy producer. Results demonstrated the potential of biogas production toenhance the transition to bioenergy, nutrient recycling, and crop productivity in renewable localized farmingand food systems
  • Rajala-Schultz, P. J.; Gott, P. N.; Proudfoot, K. L.; Schuenemann, M. (2018)
    Drying cows off at the end of lactation is a routine management practice in dairy operations. Most dairies in the United States and many other countries dry cows off abruptly (e.g., stop milking cows on a set day), which has been shown to affect cow comfort. Gradually reducing milk production is another approach to dry cows off, routinely used in some countries and herds. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of abrupt and gradual milk cessation and milk yield at the time on cow activity after dry-off. Daily lying time, number of lying bouts per day, average lying bout length, and steps taken per day by abruptly and gradually dried-off cows were monitored by data loggers for 2 wk before and after the final milking at the end of lactation. Gradual cows were milked once daily for the last week of lactation, and abrupt cows were milked as usual (3 x /d) until the end of lactation. Gradual cessation of milking significantly reduced milk yield by the day of dry-off. After dry-off, gradual cows tended to have longer lying bouts than abrupt cows, but no other differences in cow activity between the 2 treatments were observed. Regardless of the dry-off method, the average length of a lying bout decreased by 4 min and total daily lying time decreased by 19 min after dry-off for each 5-kg increase in milk yield before dry-off. Lying behavior of primiparous cows was more affected by the level of milk yield at dry-off than that of older cows. A reduction in lying times with increasing milk yield may indicate discomfort due to the accumulating milk in the udder. Using a method that lowers milk production before dry-off and managing primiparous and multiparous cows separately around dry-off are beneficial for cow comfort after dry-off.
  • Martins, L. F.; Oh, J.; Harper, M.; Melgar, A.; Räisänen, S. E.; Chen, X.; Nedelkov, K.; Karnezos, T. P.; Hristov, A. N. (2022)
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation from As-pergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger on lactational performance of dairy cows. Forty-eight Holstein cows (32 primiparous and 16 multiparous) averaging (+/- SD) 36.3 +/- 8.7 kg/d milk yield and 141 +/- 52 d in milk were enrolled in a 10-wk randomized complete block design experiment (total of 24 blocks) and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: basal diet, no enzyme supplementation (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) of an exogenous enzyme prep-aration containing amylolytic and fibrolytic activities (ENZ). After a 2-wk covariate period, premixes with the enzyme preparation or control were top-dressed daily by mixing with approximately 500 g of total mixed ra-tion. Production data were collected daily and averaged by week. Milk samples were collected every other week, and milk composition was averaged by week. Blood, fe-cal, and urine samples were collected over 2 consecutive days at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 36 h after feeding during the last week of the experiment. Compared with CON, cows fed ENZ tended to increase DMI and had increased milk concentrations of true protein, lactose, and other solids. Milk fat content tended to be higher in CON cows. A treatment x parity interaction was found for some of the production variables. Primiparous cows receiv-ing ENZ had greater yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, milk true protein, and lactose compared with CON primiparous cows; these production variables did not differ between treatments for multiparous cows. Intake and total-tract digestibility of nutrients did not differ between treatments. Concentrations of blood glucose and total fatty acids were not affected by ENZ supplementation, but 0-hydroxybutyrate concentration tended to be greater in ENZ cows. Overall, the exog-enous enzyme preparation used in this study increased milk protein and lactose concentrations in all cows, and milk production in primiparous but not multiparous cows. The differential production response between pri-miparous and multiparous cows was likely a result of a greater increase in DMI with ENZ supplementation in the younger animals.
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Mohammadi, Reza; Etminan, Alireza; Shooshtari, Lia; Maleki-Tabrizi, Neda; Poczai, Peter (2020)
    Durum wheat performance in the Mediterranean climate is limited when water scarcity occurs before and during anthesis. The present research was performed to determine the effect of drought stress on several physiological and agro-morphological traits in 17 durum wheat genotypes under two conditions (control and drought) over two years. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the various durum wheat genotypes responded differently to drought stress. Drought stress significantly reduced the grain filling period, plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes per plot, number of grains per spike, thousand grains weight, grain yield, biomass, and harvest index in all genotypes compared to the control condition. The heatmap-based correlation analysis indicated that grain yield was positively and significantly associated with phenological characters (days to heading, days to physiological maturity, and grain filling period), as well as number of spikes per plant, biomass, and harvest index under drought conditions. The yield-based drought and susceptible indices revealed that stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity (MP), and harmonic mean (HM) were positively and significantly correlated with grain yields in both conditions. Based on the average of the sum of ranks across all indices and a three-dimensional plot, two genotypes (G9 and G12) along with the control variety (G1) were identified as the most tolerant genotypes. Among the investigated genotypes, the new breeding genotype G12 showed a high drought tolerance and yield performance under both conditions. Hence, this genotype can be a candidate for further multi-years and locations test as recommended for cultivation under rainfed conditions in arid and semi-arid regions.
  • Jyske, Tuula; Brännström, Hanna; Sarjala, Tytti; Hellström, Jarkko; Halmemies, Eelis; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Kaseva, Janne; Lagerquist, Lucas; Eklund, Patrik; Nurmi, Juha (2020)
    Softwood bark is an important by-product of forest industry. Currently, bark is under-utilized and mainly directed for energy production, although it can be extracted with hot water to obtain compounds for value-added use. In Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) bark, condensed tannins and stilbene glycosides are among the compounds that comprise majority of the antioxidative extractives. For developing feasible production chain for softwood bark extractives, knowledge on raw material quality is critical. This study examined the fate of spruce bark tannins and stilbenes during storage treatment with two seasonal replications (i.e., during winter and summer). In the experiment, mature logs were harvested and stored outside. During six-month-storage periods, samples were periodically collected for chemical analysis from both inner and outer bark layers. Additionally, bark extractives were analyzed for antioxidative activities by FRAP, ORAC, and H(2)O(2)scavenging assays. According to the results, stilbenes rapidly degraded during storage, whereas tannins were more stable: only 5-7% of the original stilbene amount and ca. 30-50% of the original amount of condensed tannins were found after 24-week-storage. Summer conditions led to the faster modification of bark chemistry than winter conditions. Changes in antioxidative activity were less pronounced than those of analyzed chemical compounds, indicating that the derivatives of the compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. The results of the assays showed that, on average, ca. 27% of the original antioxidative capacity remained 24 weeks after the onset of the storage treatment, while a large variation (2-95% of the original capacity remaining) was found between assays, seasons, and bark layers. Inner bark preserved its activities longer than outer bark, and intact bark attached to timber is expected to maintain its activities longer than a debarked one. Thus, to ensure prolonged quality, no debarking before storage is suggested: outer bark protects the inner bark, and debarking enhances the degradation.
  • Epie, Kenedy E.; Santanen, Arja; Makela, Pirjo S. A.; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2018)
    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) produces substantial shoots not used as food. To test its potential as a sustainable bioenergy crop, we studied the effects of synthetic fertilizer and intercropped legumes as nitrogen (N) sources on the growth, aboveground biomass dry matter yield and energy qualities of this crop. Plant height, leaf area index (LAI), SPAD-value, biomass yield, ash content and mineral element composition were determined. Mean aboveground biomass yields were not significantly affected by N source (legume intercrops and synthetic fertilizer) and ranged from 13 to 17 t ha(-1). Remarkably, plants given no fertilizer yielded equally to plants given 90 N kg ha(-1). These results confirm that Jerusalem artichoke, compared to other energy crops, have less need for N and can potentially be sustained by N fixing legumes in an intercropped system. This could reduce or eliminate production and environmental cost in cultivation of biomass feedstock for energy use.
  • Himanen, Kristiina; Roitsch, Thomas G.; Chawade, Aakash; Jaakola, Laura; Nehe, Ajit; Alexandersson, Erik (2022)
    The five Nordic countries span the most northern region for field cultivation in the world. This presents challenges per se with short growing seasons, long days and a need for frost tolerance. Climate change has additionally increased risks for micro-droughts and water logging as well as pathogens and pests expanding northwards. Thus, Nordic agriculture demands crops that are adapted to the special Nordic growth conditions and future climate scenarios. A focus on crop varieties and traits important to Nordic agriculture, including the unique resource of nutritious wild crops, can meet these needs. In fact, with a future longer growing season due to climate change the region could contribute proportionally more to the global agricultural production. This also applies to other northern regions, including the Arctic. To address current growth conditions, mitigate impacts of climate change and meet market demands, the adaptive capacity of crops that both perform well in northern latitudes and are more climate resilient has to be increased, and better crop management systems be built. This requires functional phenomics approaches that integrate versatile high-throughput phenotyping, physiology and bioinformatics. This review stresses key target traits, the opportunities of latitudinal studies and infrastructure needs for phenotyping to support Nordic agriculture.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Wach, Damian; Pecio, Alicja; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Increasing productivity through improvement of photosynthesis in faba bean breeding programmes requires understanding of the genetic control of photosynthesis-related traits. Hence, we investigated the gene action of leaf area, gas exchange traits, canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass. We chose inbred lines derived from cultivars 'Aurora' (Sweden) and 'Melodie' (France) along with an Andean accession, ILB 938, crossed them (Aurora/2 x Melodie/2, ILB 938/2 x Aurora/2 and Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2), and prepared the six standard generations for quantitative analysis (P-1, P-2, F-1, F-2, B-1, and B-2). Gene action was complex for each trait, involving additive and dominance gene actions and interactions. Additive gene action was important for SPAD, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and F-v/F-m. Dominance effect was important for biomass production. It is suggested that breeders selecting for productivity can maximize genetic gain by selecting early generations for canopy temperature, SPAD and F-v/F-m, then later generations for biomass. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of photosynthesis will assist plant breeders in choosing an appropriate breeding strategy for enhancing productivity in faba bean.
  • Gela, Tadesse S.; Bruce, Margaret; Chang, Wei; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Schulman, Alan H.; Vandenberg, Albert; Khazaei, Hamid (2022)
    Chocolate spot (CS), caused by Botrytis fabae Sard., is an important threat to global faba bean production. Growing resistant faba bean cultivars is, therefore, paramount to preventing yield loss. To date, there have been no reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with CS resistance in faba bean. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with CS resistance using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from resistant accession ILB 938. A total of 165 RILs from the cross Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2 were genotyped and evaluated for CS reactions under replicated controlled climate conditions. The RIL population showed significant variation in response to CS resistance. QTL analysis identified five loci contributing to CS resistance on faba bean chromosomes 1 and 6, accounting for 28.4% and 12.5%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study not only provide insight into disease-resistance QTL, but also can be used as potential targets for marker-assisted breeding in faba bean genetic improvement for CS resistance.