Browsing by Subject "YIELD"

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  • Emdin, Connor A.; Haas, Mary E.; Khera, Amit V.; Aragam, Krishna; Chaffin, Mark; Klarin, Derek; Hindy, George; Jiang, Lan; Wei, Wei-Qi; Feng, Qiping; Karjalainen, Juha; Havulinna, Aki; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Bick, Alexander; Ardissino, Diego; Wilson, James G.; Schunkert, Heribert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Elosua, Roberto; Bown, Matthew J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Baber, Usman; Erdmann, Jeanette; Gupta, Namrata; Danesh, John; Saleheen, Danish; Chang, Kyong-Mi; Vujkovic, Marijana; Voight, Ben; Damrauer, Scott; Lynch, Julie; Kaplan, David; Serper, Marina; Tsao, Philip; Program, Million Veteran; Mercader, Josep; Hanis, Craig; Daly, Mark; Denny, Joshua; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar (2020)
    Author summary Cirrhosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. However, the genetic underpinnings of cirrhosis remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyze twelve thousand individuals with cirrhosis and identify a common missense variant in a gene called MARC1 that protects against cirrhosis. Carriers of this missense variant also have lower blood cholesterol levels, lower liver enzyme levels and reduced liver fat. We identify an additional two low-frequency coding variants in MARC1 that are also associated with lower cholesterol levels, lower liver enzyme levels and protection from cirrhosis. Finally, we identify an individual homozygous for a predicted loss-of-function variant in MARC1 who exhibits very low blood LDL cholesterol levels. These genetic findings suggest that MARC1 deficiency may lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against cirrhosis, pointing to MARC1 as a potential therapeutic target for liver disease. Analyzing 12,361 all-cause cirrhosis cases and 790,095 controls from eight cohorts, we identify a common missense variant in the Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component 1 gene (MARC1 p.A165T) that associates with protection from all-cause cirrhosis (OR 0.91, p = 2.3*10(-11)). This same variant also associates with lower levels of hepatic fat on computed tomographic imaging and lower odds of physician-diagnosed fatty liver as well as lower blood levels of alanine transaminase (-0.025 SD, 3.7*10(-43)), alkaline phosphatase (-0.025 SD, 1.2*10(-37)), total cholesterol (-0.030 SD, p = 1.9*10(-36)) and LDL cholesterol (-0.027 SD, p = 5.1*10(-30)) levels. We identified a series of additional MARC1 alleles (low-frequency missense p.M187K and rare protein-truncating p.R200Ter) that also associated with lower cholesterol levels, liver enzyme levels and reduced risk of cirrhosis (0 cirrhosis cases for 238 R200Ter carriers versus 17,046 cases of cirrhosis among 759,027 non-carriers, p = 0.04) suggesting that deficiency of the MARC1 enzyme may lower blood cholesterol levels and protect against cirrhosis.
  • Huttunen, Inese; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Huttunen, Markus; Sihvonen, Matti; Veijalainen, Noora; Korppoo, Marie; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina (2021)
    This paper introduces a framework for extending global climate and socioeconomic scenarios in order to study agricultural nutrient pollution on an individual catchment scale. Our framework builds on and extends Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) at the spatial and temporal scales that are relevant for the drivers of animal husbandry, manure recycling and the application of inorganic fertilisers in crop production. Our case study area is the Aura river catchment in South-West Finland, which discharges into the heavily eutrophic Baltic Sea. The Aura river catchment has intensive agriculture - both livestock and crop production. Locally adjusted and interpreted climate and socioeconomic scenarios were used as inputs to a field-level economic optimisation in order to study how farmers might react to the changing markets and climate conditions under different SSPs. The results on economically optimal fertilisation levels were then used as inputs to the spatially and temporally explicit nutrient loading model (VEMALA). Alternative manure recycling strategies that matched with SSP narratives were studied as means to reduce the phosphorus (P) overfertilisation in areas with high livestock density. According to our simulations, on average the P loads increased by 18% during 2071-2100 from the current level and the variation in P loads between scenarios was large (from & minus;14% to +50%). By contrast, the nitrogen (N) loads had decreased on average by & minus;9% (with variation from & minus;20% to +3%) by the end of the current century. Phosphorus loading was most sensitive to manure recycling strategies and the speed of climate change. Nitrogen loading was less sensitive to changes in climate and socioeconomic drivers. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Wirehn, Lotten; Käyhkö, Janina; Neset, Tina-Simone; Juhola, Sirkku (2020)
    In light of the increased focus on climate change adaptation, there is a need to understand when and how adaptation decision-making generates trade-offs. This study presents a novel framework for adaptation trade-off assessments, which integrates (I) two trade-off mechanisms (direct and interactions) and (II) two types of trade-off characteristics (substantive and processual). Perspectives on adaptation trade-offs were collected from 37 Swedish and Finnish agricultural experts through semi-structured interviews supported by serious gaming and visualization. The data were thematically analysed based on the provided analytical framework. The results show that trade-offs in agricultural adaptation decision-making processes involve balancing a number of socio-ecological system aspects that are of different character and have different functions. The study identified 20 aspects generating trade-offs related to adaptation management in Swedish and Finnish agriculture, among which 'crop yield and profitability', 'farm economy', 'pest and weed robustness' and 'soil quality' were discussed as the most prominent by respondents. The framework enables an examination of complex trade-off structures that can have implications for adaptation management decisions. The results show that the identified aspects constitute different components and functions of trade-offs, including both processual and/or substantive ones. In conclusion, the 20 identified aspects and the framework together demonstrate the importance of the two types of adaptation trade-offs and the resulting complexity of climate change adaptation decision-making in Swedish and Finnish agriculture. Furthermore, the study asserts the potential of applying the framework for various strategic contexts-to recognize and cope with trade-offs in adaptation management.
  • Belachew, Kiflemariam Y.; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Poorter, Hendrik; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Water deficit may occur at any stage of plant growth, with any intensity and duration. Phenotypic acclimation and the mechanism of adaptation vary with the evolutionary background of germplasm accessions and their stage of growth. Faba bean is considered sensitive to various kinds of drought. Hence, we conducted a greenhouse experiment in rhizotrons under contrasting watering regimes to explore shoot and root traits and drought avoidance mechanisms in young faba bean plants. Eight accessions were investigated for shoot and root morphological and physiological responses in two watering conditions with four replications. Pre-germinated seedlings were transplanted into rhizotron boxes filled with either air-dried or moist peat. The water-limited plants received 50-ml water at transplanting and another 50-ml water 4 days later, then no water was given until the end of the experimental period, 24 days after transplanting. The well-watered plants received 100 ml of water every 12 h throughout the experimental period. Root, stem, and leaf dry mass, their mass fractions, their dry matter contents, apparent specific root length and density, stomatal conductance, SPAD value, and Fv/Fm were recorded. Water deficit resulted in 3–4-fold reductions in shoot biomass, root biomass, and stomatal conductance along with 1.2–1.4-fold increases in leaf and stem dry matter content and SPAD values. Total dry mass and apparent root length density showed accession by treatment interactions. Accessions DS70622, DS11320, and ILB938/2 shared relatively high values of total dry mass and low values of stomatal conductance under water deficit but differed in root distribution parameters. In both treatments, DS70622 was characterized by finer roots that were distributed in both depth and width, whereas DS11320 and ILB938/2 produced less densely growing, thicker roots. French accession Mélodie/2 was susceptible to drought in the vegetative phase, in contrast to previous results from the flowering phase, showing the importance of timing of drought stress on the measured response. Syrian accession DS70622 explored the maximum root volume and maintained its dry matter production, with the difference from the other accessions being particularly large in the water-limited treatment, so it is a valuable source of traits for avoiding transient drought.
  • Lizarazo, Clara; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2021)
    Caraway seeds contain between 0.5-7% essential oil, rich in monoterpenes that have a characteristic aroma and chemical properties. Caraway oil has several bioactive compounds that are of industrial importance, particularly for pharmaceutical and health care products. Carvone and limonene are the main terpenes present in caraway oil, which along with some unique fatty acids (i.e. petroselinic acid) determine caraway (Carum carvi L.) oil quality. Both terpenes are important raw materials for industrial applications and their concentration influences the price of caraway seed and oil, hence there is need for identifying management practices that may increase the concentration of these and other bioactive compounds to improve caraway seed oil quality. A field experiment with five treatments: a control and a series of foliar-applied micronutrients (either Cu, Mg, Mn or Zn was done to identify their potential to enhance caraway oil quality. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector were used to characterize oil quality. Our results indicate that while the micronutrient treatments have a significant effect on essential oil composition, both in carvone and limonene, such an effect was not found on all fatty acids but only in two of them-palmitoleic and vaccenic acid-, which were highest after the Mn treatment. Overall, the carvone content of the seeds decreased the least between years following Mn treatment. Mn treatment also caused an increase in limonene in the second year in contrast to the trend for all other treatments. The Mn foliar spray needs to be studied further to elucidate whether it could have a consistent positive effect on caraway oil seed quality upon adjusting dosage and spraying time.
  • Holma, Maija; Lindroos, Marko; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Oinonen, Soile (2019)
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Poczai, Péter (2021)
    The dataset herein indicated the novelty of the article entitled “Dataset on the use of MGIDI in screening drought-tolerant wild wheat accessions at the early growth stage”. Data were gathered during 2018-2019 on a set of wild wheat germplasm under two control and water deficit stress conditions. One hundred and forty-six accessions belonging to Ae. tauschii, Ae. cylindrica, and Ae. crassa were assessed under optimal glasshouse conditions to screen the drought-tolerant samples at the early growth stage. Nine drought tolerance and susceptibility indices along with the multi-trait genotype-ideotype distance index (MGIDI) were used to visualize the dataset. The obtained data can highlight the potential of the MGIDI index in accelerating screening of a large number of plant materials using multiple traits or selection indices in crop breeding programs, especially at the early growth stage.
  • Mäkelä, Pirjo; Vaarala, L; Rajalahti, R; Rajala, A; PeltonenSainio, P (1997)
  • Koppelmäki, Kari Veli; Parviainen, Tuure O; Virkkunen, Elina; Winquist, Erika; Schulte, Rogier; Helenius, Juha Pekka (2019)
    There is growing demand to produce both food and renewable energy in a sustainable manner, while avoidingcompetition between food and energy production. In our study, we investigated the potential of harnessingbiogas production into nutrient recycling in an integrated system of organic food production and food proces-sing. We used the case of Agroecological Symbiosis (AES) at Palopuro, which is a combination of three farms, abiogas plant, and a bakery, as a case to explore how biogas production using feedstocks from the farms can beused to improve nutrient cycling, and to calculate how much energy could be produced from the within-systemfeedstocks. The current system (CS) used in organic farms, and the integrated farm and food processing AESsystem, were analyzed using Substance Flow analysis. In the AES, annual nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)surpluses were projected to be reduced from 95 kg ha−1to 36 kg ha−1and from 3.4 kg ha−1to −0.5 kg ha−1 respectively, compared to the CS. Biogas produced from green manure leys as the major feedstock, produced2809 MWh a−1. This was 70% more than the energy consumed (1650 MWh a−1) in the systemand thus the AESsystem turned out to be a net energy producer. Results demonstrated the potential of biogas production toenhance the transition to bioenergy, nutrient recycling, and crop productivity in renewable localized farmingand food systems
  • Rajala-Schultz, P. J.; Gott, P. N.; Proudfoot, K. L.; Schuenemann, M. (2018)
    Drying cows off at the end of lactation is a routine management practice in dairy operations. Most dairies in the United States and many other countries dry cows off abruptly (e.g., stop milking cows on a set day), which has been shown to affect cow comfort. Gradually reducing milk production is another approach to dry cows off, routinely used in some countries and herds. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of abrupt and gradual milk cessation and milk yield at the time on cow activity after dry-off. Daily lying time, number of lying bouts per day, average lying bout length, and steps taken per day by abruptly and gradually dried-off cows were monitored by data loggers for 2 wk before and after the final milking at the end of lactation. Gradual cows were milked once daily for the last week of lactation, and abrupt cows were milked as usual (3 x /d) until the end of lactation. Gradual cessation of milking significantly reduced milk yield by the day of dry-off. After dry-off, gradual cows tended to have longer lying bouts than abrupt cows, but no other differences in cow activity between the 2 treatments were observed. Regardless of the dry-off method, the average length of a lying bout decreased by 4 min and total daily lying time decreased by 19 min after dry-off for each 5-kg increase in milk yield before dry-off. Lying behavior of primiparous cows was more affected by the level of milk yield at dry-off than that of older cows. A reduction in lying times with increasing milk yield may indicate discomfort due to the accumulating milk in the udder. Using a method that lowers milk production before dry-off and managing primiparous and multiparous cows separately around dry-off are beneficial for cow comfort after dry-off.
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Mohammadi, Reza; Etminan, Alireza; Shooshtari, Lia; Maleki-Tabrizi, Neda; Poczai, Peter (2020)
    Durum wheat performance in the Mediterranean climate is limited when water scarcity occurs before and during anthesis. The present research was performed to determine the effect of drought stress on several physiological and agro-morphological traits in 17 durum wheat genotypes under two conditions (control and drought) over two years. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the various durum wheat genotypes responded differently to drought stress. Drought stress significantly reduced the grain filling period, plant height, peduncle length, number of spikes per plot, number of grains per spike, thousand grains weight, grain yield, biomass, and harvest index in all genotypes compared to the control condition. The heatmap-based correlation analysis indicated that grain yield was positively and significantly associated with phenological characters (days to heading, days to physiological maturity, and grain filling period), as well as number of spikes per plant, biomass, and harvest index under drought conditions. The yield-based drought and susceptible indices revealed that stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity (MP), and harmonic mean (HM) were positively and significantly correlated with grain yields in both conditions. Based on the average of the sum of ranks across all indices and a three-dimensional plot, two genotypes (G9 and G12) along with the control variety (G1) were identified as the most tolerant genotypes. Among the investigated genotypes, the new breeding genotype G12 showed a high drought tolerance and yield performance under both conditions. Hence, this genotype can be a candidate for further multi-years and locations test as recommended for cultivation under rainfed conditions in arid and semi-arid regions.
  • Jyske, Tuula; Brännström, Hanna; Sarjala, Tytti; Hellström, Jarkko; Halmemies, Eelis; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Kaseva, Janne; Lagerquist, Lucas; Eklund, Patrik; Nurmi, Juha (2020)
    Softwood bark is an important by-product of forest industry. Currently, bark is under-utilized and mainly directed for energy production, although it can be extracted with hot water to obtain compounds for value-added use. In Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) bark, condensed tannins and stilbene glycosides are among the compounds that comprise majority of the antioxidative extractives. For developing feasible production chain for softwood bark extractives, knowledge on raw material quality is critical. This study examined the fate of spruce bark tannins and stilbenes during storage treatment with two seasonal replications (i.e., during winter and summer). In the experiment, mature logs were harvested and stored outside. During six-month-storage periods, samples were periodically collected for chemical analysis from both inner and outer bark layers. Additionally, bark extractives were analyzed for antioxidative activities by FRAP, ORAC, and H(2)O(2)scavenging assays. According to the results, stilbenes rapidly degraded during storage, whereas tannins were more stable: only 5-7% of the original stilbene amount and ca. 30-50% of the original amount of condensed tannins were found after 24-week-storage. Summer conditions led to the faster modification of bark chemistry than winter conditions. Changes in antioxidative activity were less pronounced than those of analyzed chemical compounds, indicating that the derivatives of the compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. The results of the assays showed that, on average, ca. 27% of the original antioxidative capacity remained 24 weeks after the onset of the storage treatment, while a large variation (2-95% of the original capacity remaining) was found between assays, seasons, and bark layers. Inner bark preserved its activities longer than outer bark, and intact bark attached to timber is expected to maintain its activities longer than a debarked one. Thus, to ensure prolonged quality, no debarking before storage is suggested: outer bark protects the inner bark, and debarking enhances the degradation.
  • Epie, Kenedy E.; Santanen, Arja; Makela, Pirjo S. A.; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2018)
    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) produces substantial shoots not used as food. To test its potential as a sustainable bioenergy crop, we studied the effects of synthetic fertilizer and intercropped legumes as nitrogen (N) sources on the growth, aboveground biomass dry matter yield and energy qualities of this crop. Plant height, leaf area index (LAI), SPAD-value, biomass yield, ash content and mineral element composition were determined. Mean aboveground biomass yields were not significantly affected by N source (legume intercrops and synthetic fertilizer) and ranged from 13 to 17 t ha(-1). Remarkably, plants given no fertilizer yielded equally to plants given 90 N kg ha(-1). These results confirm that Jerusalem artichoke, compared to other energy crops, have less need for N and can potentially be sustained by N fixing legumes in an intercropped system. This could reduce or eliminate production and environmental cost in cultivation of biomass feedstock for energy use.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Wach, Damian; Pecio, Alicja; Vandenberg, Albert; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Increasing productivity through improvement of photosynthesis in faba bean breeding programmes requires understanding of the genetic control of photosynthesis-related traits. Hence, we investigated the gene action of leaf area, gas exchange traits, canopy temperature, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and biomass. We chose inbred lines derived from cultivars 'Aurora' (Sweden) and 'Melodie' (France) along with an Andean accession, ILB 938, crossed them (Aurora/2 x Melodie/2, ILB 938/2 x Aurora/2 and Melodie/2 x ILB 938/2), and prepared the six standard generations for quantitative analysis (P-1, P-2, F-1, F-2, B-1, and B-2). Gene action was complex for each trait, involving additive and dominance gene actions and interactions. Additive gene action was important for SPAD, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and F-v/F-m. Dominance effect was important for biomass production. It is suggested that breeders selecting for productivity can maximize genetic gain by selecting early generations for canopy temperature, SPAD and F-v/F-m, then later generations for biomass. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of photosynthesis will assist plant breeders in choosing an appropriate breeding strategy for enhancing productivity in faba bean.
  • Cubbage, Frederick; Kanieski, Bruno; Rubilar, Rafael; Bussoni, Adriana; Morales Olmos, Virginia; Balmelli, Gustavo; Mac Donagh, Patricio; Lord, Roger; Hernandez, Carmelo; Zhang, Pu; Huang, Jin; Korhonen, Jaana; Yao, Richard; Hall, Peter; Del La Torre, Rafael; Diaz-Balteiro, Luis; Carrero, Omar; Monges, Elizabeth; Ha Tran Thi Thu,; Frey, Gregory; Howard, Mike; Chavet, Michael; Mochan, Shaun; Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso; Chudy, Rafal; Maass, David; Chizmar, Stephanie; Abt, Robert (2020)
    We estimated timber investment returns for 22 countries and 54 species/management regimes in 2017, for a range of global timber plantation species and countries at the stand level, using capital budgeting criteria, without land costs, at a real discount rate of 8%. Returns were estimated for the principal plantation countries in the Americas-Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, Paraguay, Mexico, and the United States-as well as New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, China, Vietnam, Laos, Spain, Finland, Poland, Scotland, and France. South American plantation growth rates and their concomitant returns were generally greater, at more than 12% Internal Rates of Return (IRRs), as were those in China, Vietnam, and Laos. These IRRs were followed by those for plantations in southern hemisphere countries of Australia and New Zealand and in Mexico, with IRRs around 8%. Temperate forest plantations in the U.S. and Europe returned less, from 4% to 8%, but those countries have less financial risk, better timber markets, and more infrastructure. Returns to most planted species in all countries except Asia have decreased from 2005 to 2017. If land costs were included in calculating the overall timberland investment returns, the IRRs would decrease from 3 percentage points less for loblolly pine in the U.S. South to 8 percentage points less for eucalypts in Brazil.
  • Wasonga, Daniel; Kleemola, Jouko; Alakukku, Laura; Mäkelä, Pirjo (2020)
    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) experiences intermittent water deficit and suffers from potassium (K) deficiency that seriously constrains its yield in the tropics. Currently, the interaction effect between deficit irrigation and K fertigation on growth and yield of cassava is unknown, especially during the early growth phase. Therefore, pot experiments were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions using cassava cuttings. Treatments initiated at 30 days after planting included three irrigation doses (30%, 60%, 100% pot capacity) and five K (0.01, 1, 4, 16, and 32 mM) concentrations. The plants were harvested 90 days after planting. Decreasing irrigation dose to 30% together with 16 mM K lowered the leaf water potential by 69%, leaf osmotic potential by 41%, photosynthesis by 35%, stomatal conductance by 41%, water usage by 50%, leaf area by 17%, and whole-plant dry mass by 41%, compared with full-irrigated plants. Lowering the K concentration below 16 mM reduced the values further. Notably, growth and yield were decreased the least compared with optimal, when irrigation dose was decreased to 60% together with 16 mM K. The results demonstrate that deficit irrigation strategies could be utilized to develop management practices to improve cassava productivity by means of K fertigation under low moisture conditions.
  • Hietala, P.; Juga, J. (2017)
    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the inclusion of LW traits in the breeding goal that includes growth and carcass traits could be more profitable than the inclusion of RFI, because the marginal costs of measuring LW can be expected to be lower than for RFI and it is readily available for selection. In addition, before RFI can be implemented as a breeding objective, the genetic correlations between RFI and other breeding goal traits estimated for the studied population as well as information on the most suitable indicator traits for RFI are needed to assess more carefully the consequences of selecting for RFI.
  • Fouz, Ramiro; Vilar, Maria J.; Yus, Eduardo; Sanjuan, Maria-Luisa; Dieguez, Francisco J. (2016)
    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow's milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs.
  • Toivonen, Marjaana; Herzon, Irina; Rajanen, Hanne; Toikkanen, Jenni; Kuussaari, Mikko (2019)
    Ecological intensification has been proposed as a strategy to mitigate the impacts of conventional intensive land use on pollinators and insect pollination. However, research has concentrated on the effects of land management on pollinator abundance and diversity, while studies directly measuring pollination services are still lacking for many crops and regions. This study examines the effects of landscape heterogeneity, pesticide use intensity and flowering time on insect pollination of turnip rape Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera, a major oil crop at high latitudes. The field experiment included monitoring pollinator visits on turnip rape flowers and measuring yield in 34 spring-sown turnip rape fields in Southern Finland. The fields were situated in two landscape types that differed in the cover of arable land and represented independent gradients of pesticide use intensity and flowering time. Based on flower visits and number of seeds per silique, turnip rape was best pollinated in fields with late flowering time. The result suggests a temporal mismatch between crop flowering and the availability of pollination service in early sown fields. The increase in flower visits during summer was steeper among fields with low than high pesticide use, possibly due to a faster colony growth of important bee pollinators. Pollinator community in turnip rape fields was more diverse in heterogeneous landscapes with less arable land than in homogeneous field-dominated landscapes, suggesting higher stability of pollination services in diverse landscapes. Total yield per plant was positively related to pesticide use intensity. The relationship between insect pollination and total yield was weakened by high compensation capacity of turnip rape, the plants producing more flowers under poor pollination.Synthesis and applications. Crop pollination can be enhanced by shifting sowing time to better match crop flowering to the peak availability of the most important pollinators. Reduced pesticide use may also enhance pollination services but can lead to the total yield reduction due to pests. This highlights the need for pollinator-friendly pest control methods to maintain turnip rape yields while conserving pollination services. Foreign Language AbstractTiivistelma Maatalouden ekologista tehostamista on esitetty strategiaksi, jonka avulla intensiivisen maankayton kielteisia vaikutuksia polyttajiin ja hyonteispolytykseen voidaan hillita. Tutkimukset maankayton vaikutuksista viljelykasvien hyonteispolytykseen kuitenkin puuttuvat yha monilta viljelykasveilta ja alueilta. Tama tutkimus tarkasteli maiseman monimuotoisuuden, torjunta-aineiden kayton ja kukinta-ajan vaikutusta rypsin hyonteispolytykseen. Peltokokeessa seurattiin polyttajien vierailuja rypsin kukilla ja mitattiin satoa 34 kevatrypsipellolla Uudellamaalla. Pellot sijaitsivat kahdessa maisematyypissa, joista toinen oli peltovaltainen ja toinen monimuotoisempi ja vahemman peltoa sisaltava. Lisaksi pellot erosivat toisistaan torjunta-aineiden kayton ja kukinta-ajan suhteen. Polyttajien kukkavierailut ja siementen maara per litu olivat korkeimmillaan myohaan kukkineilla rypsipelloilla, mika kertoo hyvasta polytyksesta. Tuloksen perusteella aikaisin kylvetyt rypsipellot saattavat kukkia liian aikaisin polyttajien saatavuuden nakokulmasta. Voimakkaimmin polyttajien maara lisaantyi kesan aikana niiden peltojen joukossa, joilla ei kaytetty torjunta-aineita. Mahdollinen selitys on, etta tarhamehilaisten ja kimalaisten yhdyskunnat kasvoivat nopeimmin naiden peltojen laheisyydessa. Polyttajien monimuotoisuus oli suurempi monimuotoisessa kuin peltovaltaisessa maisemassa, mika parantaa polytyspalvelun vakautta muuttuvissa olosuhteissa. Kokonaissato per kasvi nousi torjunta-aineiden kayton lisaantyessa. Hyonteispolytyksen ja sadon valista yhteytta heikensi rypsin hyva kompensaatiokyky, jonka ansiosta heikosti polyttyneet kasvit tuottivat enemman kukkia.Yhteenveto ja sovellukset. Viljelykasvin polytysta voi parantaa saatamalla kylvoaikaa siten, etta kasvin kukinta ajoittuu tarkeimpien polyttajien runsaushuippuun. Torjunta-aineiden kayton vahentaminen voi parantaa polytysta mutta laskea samaan aikaan satoa tuholaisten ja rikkakasvien lisaantymisen takia. Polyttajaystavallisten kasvinsuojelukeinojen kehittaminen on tarkeaa korkeiden rypsisatojen ja polytyspalveluiden sailymisen kannalta. Crop pollination can be enhanced by shifting sowing time to better match crop flowering to the peak availability of the most important pollinators. Reduced pesticide use may also enhance pollination services but can lead to the total yield reduction due to pests. This highlights the need for pollinator-friendly pest control methods to maintain turnip rape yields while conserving pollination services.
  • Hasan, S.; Saha, S.; Junnikkala, S.; Orro, T.; Peltoniemi, O.; Oliviero, C. (2019)
    Resin acid-enriched composition (RAC) mainly containing tall oil fatty acid with an active component of resin acid (RA) can improve the microbial population in the digestive system, change the microbial fermentation, and improve the feed conversion ratio. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of RAC on sow colostrum yield (CY), colostrum composition and gut microbiota. Tall oil fatty acid and RA are commonly termed RAC and CLA, pinolenic, abietic, dehydrobiotic acids are characteristic components of RAC. The experiment was conducted in three trials in three respective herds. Sows were fed with a control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g RAC/day per sow during the last week of gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing technique was used to assess sows' faecal microbiota populations at farrowing. Colostrum nutritional composition, acute phase proteins (APPs) and immunoglobulin (Ig) content were also assessed. Individual piglets were weighed at birth and 24 h after the birth of first piglets in order to calculate CY and later at 3 to 4 weeks to calculate average daily gain. The RAC-fed sows had significantly higher IgG levels (P0.05), but those fed RAC had higher levels of colostrum serum amyloid A. Colostrum yield was significantly higher in RAC-fed sows in herds 2 and 3 with heavier piglets between 3 and 4 weeks of age (P0.05). Resin acid-enriched composition supplementation significantly increased some beneficial and fermentative bacteria (Romboutsia and Clostridium sensu stricto) than the control diet (P