Browsing by Subject "YOUNG-ADULTS"

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  • Laukkanen, Eila; Hintikka, Jukka J.; Kylma, Jari; Kekkonen, Virve; Marttunen, Mauri (2010)
  • Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Berghäll, Sami; Autio, Minna; Nurminen, Jonne; Toivonen, Ritva; Lähtinen, Katja; Vihemäki, Heini; Franzini, Florencia; Toppinen, Anne (2020)
    Consumer acceptance of new bio-based products plays a key role in the envisioned transition towards a forest-based bioeconomy. Multi-storey wooden buildings (MSWB) exemplify a modern, bio-based business opportunity for enacting low-carbon urban housing. However, there is limited knowledge about the differing perceptions consumers hold regarding wood as an urban building material. To fill this gap, this study explores Finnish students' perceptions of MSWB relative to their familiarity with wooden residential buildings, and then connects these perceptions to 'consumption styles.' Data were collected in the Helsinki metropolitan area via an online questionnaire (n = 531). The results indicate that the aesthetic appearance of MSWB are appreciated most by frugal and responsible consumers, whereas the comfort, environmental friendliness, and longevity of MSWB are important to consumers who identify themselves as 'thoughtful spenders.' The study suggests that both environmental and hedonic young consumers already familiar with the use of wood in housing contribute to a successful bioeconomy in the urban context.
  • Tornivuori, Anna; Tuominen, Outi; Salantera, Sanna; Kosola, Silja (2020)
    Aims To define digital health services that have been studied among chronically ill adolescents and to describe e-health coaching elements that may have an impact on transition outcomes. Design Systematic review without meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE (Ovid), Pub Med, Scopus and CINAHL on 28 May 2018. Review methods Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2008-May 2018 were reviewed following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were included. The interventions varied significantly in duration and content. E-coaching that included human and social support showed positive impact on transition outcomes. Digital health services incorporated into usual care provide efficient and accessible care. Conclusion E-coaching elements enable tailoring and personalization and present a tool for supporting and motivating chronically ill adolescents during transition of care. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of e-coaching elements. Impact Digital services are considered a means for increasing adolescents' motivation for self-care and for increasing their accessibility to health care. The coaching elements in digital services consist of a theoretical basis, human support, interactive means and social support. Included interventions varied in terms of duration, dose, content and design. Our results may serve the development of digital health services for adolescents in transition. E-coaching can be used to engage and motivate chronically ill adolescents to improve health behaviour and self-management during transition of care.
  • Kuula, Juho; Lundbom, Jesper; Hakkarainen, Antti; Hovi, Petteri; Hauta-alus, Helena; Kaseva, Nina; Sandboge, Samuel; Björkqvist, Johan; Eriksson, Johan; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Lundbom, Nina; Kajantie, Eero (2022)
    Preterm birth at very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g) is associated with an accumulation of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors from childhood at least to middle age. Small-scale studies suggest that this could partly be explained by increased visceral or ectopic fat. We performed magnetic resonance imaging on 78 adults born preterm at VLBW in Finland between 1978 and 1990 and 72 term same-sex siblings as controls, with a mean age of 29 years. We collected T1-weighted images from the abdomen, and magnetic resonance spectra from the liver, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and tibia. The adipose tissue volumes of VLBW adults did not differ from their term siblings when adjusting for age, sex, and maternal and perinatal factors. The mean differences were as follows: subcutaneous - 0.48% (95% CI - 14.8%, 16.3%), visceral 7.96% (95% CI - 10.4%, 30.1%), and total abdominal fat quantity 1.05% (95% CI - 13.7%, 18.4%). Hepatic triglyceride content was also similar. VLBW individuals displayed less unsaturation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (- 4.74%, 95% CI - 9.2%, - 0.1%) but not in tibial bone marrow (1.68%, 95% CI - 1.86%, 5.35%). VLBW adults displayed similar adipose tissue volumes and hepatic triglyceride content as their term siblings. Previously reported differences could thus partly be due to genetic or environmental characteristics shared between siblings. The VLBW group displayed less unsaturation in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, suggesting differences in its metabolic activity and energy storage.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2020)
    BackgroundThe relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.MethodsWe gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n=6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.ResultsThe Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.ConclusionsUnhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Muurinen, Mari; Wirta, Sara Bruce; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Andersson, Sture; Kere, Juha; Kajantie, Eero (2013)
  • Tokariev, Maksym; Vuontela, Virve; Lönnberg, Piia; Lano, Aulikki; Perkola, Jaana; Wolford, Elina; Andersson, Sture; Metsäranta, Marjo; Carlson, Synnöve (2019)
    Preterm birth poses a risk for neurocognitive and behavioral development. Preterm children, who have not been diagnosed with neurological or cognitive deficits, enter normal schools and are expected to succeed as their term-born peers. Here we tested the hypotheses that despite an uneventful development after preterm birth, these children might exhibit subtle abnormalities in brain function and white-matter microstructure at school-age. We recruited 7.5-year-old children born extremely prematurely (<28 weeks’ gestation), and age- and gender-matched term-born controls (≥37 weeks’ gestation). We applied fMRI during working-memory (WM) tasks, and investigated white-matter microstructure with diffusion tensor imaging. Compared with controls, preterm-born children performed WM tasks less accurately, had reduced activation in several right prefrontal areas, and weaker deactivation of right temporal lobe areas. The weaker prefrontal activation correlated with poorer WM performance. Preterm-born children had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) and lower diffusivity than controls in several white-matter areas, and in the posterior cerebellum, the higher FA associated with poorer visuospatial test scores. In controls, higher FA and lower diffusivity correlated with faster WM performance. Together these findings demonstrate weaker WM-related brain activations and altered white matter microstructure in children born extremely preterm, who had normal global cognitive ability.
  • Sarikaya, Hakan; da Costa, Bruno R.; Baumgartner, Ralf W.; Duclos, Kathleen; Touze, Emmanuel; de Bray, Jean M.; Metso, Antti; Metso, Tiina; Arnold, Marcel; Arauz, Antonio; Zwahlen, Marcel; Jueni, Peter (2013)
  • Rank, Cecilie U.; Wolthers, Benjamin O.; Grell, Kathrine; Albertsen, Birgitte K.; Frandsen, Thomas L.; Overgaard, Ulrik M.; Toft, Nina; Nielsen, Ove J.; Wehner, Peder S.; Harila-Saari, Arja; Heyman, Mats M.; Malmros, Johan; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Noren-Nystrom, Ulrika; Tomaszewska-Toporska, Beata; Lund, Bendik; Jarvis, Kirsten B.; Quist-Paulsen, Petter; Vaitkeviciene, Goda E.; Griskevicius, Laimonas; Taskinen, Mervi; Wartiovaara-Kautto, Ulla; Lepik, Kristi; Punab, Mari; Jonsson, Olafur G.; Schmiegelow, Kjeld (2020)
    PURPOSE Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) is common in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but risk differences across age groups both in relation to first-time AAP and after asparaginase re-exposure have not been explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS We prospectively registered AAP (n = 168) during treatment of 2,448 consecutive ALL patients aged 1.0-45.9 years diagnosed from July 2008 to October 2018 and treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol. RESULTS Compared with patients aged 1.0-9.9 years, adjusted AAP hazard ratios (HRa) were associated with higher age with almost identical HRa (1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.3; P = .02) for adolescents (10.0-17.9 years) and adults (18.0-45.9 years). The day 280 cumulative incidences of AAP were 7.0% for children (1.0-9.9 years: 95% CI, 5.4 to 8.6), 10.1% for adolescents (10.0 to 17.9 years: 95% CI, 7.0 to 13.3), and 11.0% for adults (18.0-45.9 years: 95% CI, 7.1 to 14.9; P = .03). Adolescents had increased odds of both acute (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% CI, 2.1 to 13.2; P = .0005) and persisting complications (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.4 to 18.4; P = .0002) compared with children (1.0-9.9 years), whereas adults had increased odds of only persisting complications (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 11.8; P = .01). Fifteen of 34 asparaginase-rechallenged patients developed a second AAP. Asparaginase was truncated in 17/21 patients with AAP who subsequently developed leukemic relapse, but neither AAP nor the asparaginase truncation was associated with increased risk of relapse. CONCLUSION Older children and adults had similar AAP risk, whereas morbidity was most pronounced among adolescents. Asparaginase re-exposure should be considered only for patients with an anticipated high risk of leukemic relapse, because multiple studies strongly indicate that reduction of asparaginase treatment intensity increases the risk of relapse. (C) 2019 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • Saure, Emma; Lepistö-Paisley, Tuulia; Raevuori, Anu; Laasonen, Marja (2022)
    Background:Elevated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). Conversely, eating disturbances, which are core characteristics of AN, are common in ASD. Among individuals with ASD, atypical sensory processing is associated with eating disturbance. Because AN and ASD appear to overlap, it would be crucial to understand whether sensory processing atypicality exist also in AN. Further, it would be essential to find if atypical sensory processing is associated with eating disturbances in individuals with AN, since treatment modifications may be needed. We therefore aimed to examine whether atypical sensory processing is associated with AN and its core characteristics. MethodsParticipants of the current study included 42 individuals with AN and 40 healthy controls (HCs). All participants were adult women. Sensory processing, other ASD traits, and eating disorder symptoms were assessed with self-report questionnaires. ResultsIndividuals with AN reported lower registration, decreased sensation seeking, increased sensory sensitivity, and increased sensation avoiding compared to HCs. When analyzing groups with restrictive AN (AN-R) and binge-purge type AN (AN-BP) separately, only individuals with AN-R exhibited decreased sensation seeking, and only those with AN-BP exhibited lower registration. After controlling for body mass index as a covariate, group differences remained significant only in sensory sensitivity between individuals with AN and HCs. Increased atypical sensory processing predicted lower body mass index and increased disordered eating. ConclusionResults suggest that sensory processing appears to differ between AN and HC women, and AN subtypes may exhibit distinct sensory processing atypicality. Sensory sensitivity may be stable traits whereas other aspects of atypical sensory processing may be related to acute AN. Atypical sensory processing may contribute to the severity of AN, and thus it is crucial to recognize sensory processing differences when treating individuals with AN.
  • Micai, M; Ciaramella, A; Salvitti, T; Fulceri, F; Fatta, LM; Poustka, L; Diehm, R; Iskrov, G; Stefanov, R; Guillon, Q; Roge, B; Staines, A; Sweeney, MR; Boilson, AM; Leosdottir, T; Saemundsen, E; Moilanen, I; Ebeling, H; Yliherva, A; Gissler, M; Parviainen, T; Tani, P; Kawa, R; Vicente, A; Rasga, C; Budisteanu, M; Dale, I; Povey, C; Flores, N; Jenaro, C; Monroy, ML; Primo, PG; Charman, T; Cramer, S; Warberg, CK; Canal-Bedia, R; Posada, M; Scattoni, ML; Schendel, D (2021)
    The Autism Spectrum Disorders in the European Union (ASDEU) survey investigated the knowledge and health service experiences of users and providers to generate new hypotheses and scientific investigations that would contribute to improvement in health care for autistic adults. An online survey designed for autistic adults, carers of autistic adults, and professionals in adult services was translated into 11 languages and distributed electronically by organizations and in-country adult service facilities in 2017; 522 autistic adults, 442 carers, and 113 professionals provided answers to the health questions. Professionals, the majority in non-medical services, appeared to be poorly informed about whether certain co-occurring conditions were more frequent in autistic adults than typical adults-especially some medical conditions, suicide attempts, accidents, and pain. A minority of autistic adults reported preventive health behaviors such as routine health check-ups. The majority of users and providers expressed the desire to make health care services more user-friendly for autistic adults. Among the three groups,
  • Salmela, Liisa; Kuula, Liisa; Merikanto, Ilona; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2019)
    Objective: Diagnosed autism spectrum disorders have been associated with a high prevalence of sleep problems, other psychiatric disorders and social deficits in adolescence. However, little is known about the possible connection between subclinical autistic traits and sleep. This study explored whether adolescents with elevated levels of subclinical autistic traits are at heightened risk for sleep problems. Methods: This study used data from the community cohort born in 1998. The sample consisted of 157 (57% girls) 17-year-old adolescents. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale were utilized to control for comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep quality was self-rated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Associations between autistic traits and sleep were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results: Elevated levels of autistic traits were significantly associated with shorter weekday sleep duration. Moreover, autistic traits remained an independent predictor of short sleep duration when comorbid psychiatric symptoms were controlled for (OR 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03-1.26). Conclusions: The results suggest that subclinical autistic traits should be considered as a possible underlying mechanism affecting adolescent sleep. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Sandboge, Samuel; Kuula, Juho; Björkqvist, Johan; Hovi, Petteri; Mäkitie, Outi; Kajantie, Eero (2022)
    Background Children and adults born very low birthweight (VLBW,
  • Kuula, Juho; Martola, Juha; Hakkarainen, Antti; Räikkönen, Katri; Savolainen, Sauli; Salli, Eero; Hovi, Petteri; Björkqvist, Johan; Kajantie, Eero; Lundbom, Nina (2022)
    Objectives To assess radiographic brain abnormalities and investigate volumetric differences in adults born preterm at very low birth weight ( Study design We recruited 79 adult same-sex sibling pairs with one born preterm at very low birth weight and the sibling at term. We acquired 3-T brain magnetic resonance imaging from 78 preterm participants and 72 siblings. A neuroradiologist, masked to participants' prematurity status, reviewed the images for parenchymal and structural abnormalities, and FreeSurfer software 6.0 was used to conduct volumetric analyses. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models. Results We found more structural abnormalities in very low birth weight participants than in siblings (37% vs 13%). The most common finding was periventricular leukomalacia, present in 15% of very low birth weight participants and in 3% of siblings. The very low birth weight group had smaller absolute brain volumes (-0.4 SD) and, after adjusting for estimated intracranial volume, less gray matter (-0.2 SD), larger ventricles (1.5 SD), smaller thalami (-0.6 SD), caudate nuclei (-0.4 SD), right hippocampus (-0.4 SD), and left pallidum (-0.3 SD). We saw no volume differences in total white matter (-0.04 SD; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.09). Conclusions Preterm very low birth weight adults had a higher prevalence of brain abnormalities than their termborn siblings. They also had smaller absolute brain volumes, less gray but not white matter, and smaller volumes in several gray matter structures.
  • Karvonen, Risto; Sipola, Marika; Kiviniemi, Antti; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Tulppo, Mikko; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero (2019)
    Objective To evaluate cardiac autonomic function in adults born preterm. Study design We studied the association between prematurity and cardiac autonomic function using heart rate variability measurements in 600 adults (mean age of 23.3 years) from a geographically based cohort in Northern Finland. There were 117 young adults born early preterm (= 37 weeks, controls). Autonomic function was analyzed by calculating time and frequency domain heart rate variability measurements using linear regression. Results Compared with controls, the mean difference in root mean square of successive differences (indicating cardiac vagal activity) was -12.0% (95% CI -22.2%, -0.5%, adjusted for sex, age, source cohort, and season P = .04) for the early preterm group and -7.8% (-16.8%, 2.0%, P = .12) for the late preterm group. Mean differences with controls in low frequency power (indicating cardiac vagal activity, including some sympathetic- and baroreflex-mediated effects) were -13.6% (-26.7%, 1.8%, P = .08) for the early pretermgroup and -16.4% (-27.0%, -4.3%, P = .01) for the late preterm group. Mean differences in high frequency power (quantifying cardiac vagal modulation in respiratory frequency) were -19.2% (-36.6%, 2.9%, P = .09) for the early preterm group and -13.8% (-29.4%, 5.3%, P = .15) for the late preterm group. Differences were attenuated when controlled for body mass index and physical activity. Conclusions Our results suggest altered autonomic regulatory control in adults born preterm, including those born late preterm. Altered autonomic regulatory control may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in adults born preterm.
  • Niemelä, Jussi; Ylänen, Kaisa; Suominen, Anu; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Mathur, Sujeev; Sarkola, Taisto; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Eerola, Anneli; Poutanen, Tuija; Vettenranta, Kim; Ojala, Tiina (2021)
    Background: The majority of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) have been exposed to cardiotoxic treatments and often present with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to evaluate the value of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain for increasing the sensitivity of cardiac dysfunction detection among CCSs. Methods: We combined two national cohorts: neuroblastoma and other childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines. The final data consisted of 90 long-term CCSs exposed to anthracyclines and/or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue and followed up for > 5 years and their controls (n = 86). LV longitudinal strain was assessed with speckle tracking (Qlab) and LV ejection fraction (EF) by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). Results: Of the CCSs, 11% (10/90) had abnormal LV longitudinal strain (i.e., < -17.5%); of those, 70% (7/10) had normal 3DE LV EF. Multivariable linear model analysis demonstrated that follow-up time (p = 0.027), sex (p = 0.020), and BMI (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with LV longitudinal strain. Conversely, cardiac risk group, hypertension, age, cumulative anthracycline dose or exposure to chest radiation were not. Conclusion: LV longitudinal strain is a more sensitive method than LV EF for the detection of cardiac dysfunction among CCSs. Therefore, LV longitudinal strain should be added to the screening panel, especially for those with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.
  • Traenka, Christopher; Dougoud, Daphne; Simonetti, Barbara Goeggel; Metso, Tiina Maria; Debette, Stephanie; Pezzini, Alessandro; Kloss, Manja; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Majersik, Jennifer J.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Leys, Didier; Baumgartner, Ralf; Caso, Valeria; Bejot, Yannick; Compter, Annette; Reiner, Peggy; Thijs, Vincent; Southerland, Andrew M.; Bersano, Anna; Brandt, Tobias; Gensicke, Henrik; Touze, Emmanuel; Martin, Juan J.; Chabriat, Hugues; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lyrer, Philippe; Arnold, Marcel; Engelter, Stefan T. (2017)
    Objective: In a cohort of patients diagnosed with cervical artery dissection (CeAD), to determine the proportion of patients aged >= 60 years and compare the frequency of characteristics (presenting symptoms, risk factors, and outcome) in patients aged = 60 years. Methods: We combined data from 3 large cohorts of consecutive patients diagnosed with CeAD (i. e., Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients-Plus consortium). We dichotomized cases into 2 groups, age >= 60 and Results: Among 2,391 patients diagnosed with CeAD, we identified 177 patients (7.4%) aged >= 60 years. In this age group, cervical pain (ORadjusted 0.47 [0.33-0.66]), headache (ORadjusted 0.58 [0.42-0.79]), mechanical trigger events (ORadjusted 0.53 [0.36-0.77]), and migraine (ORadjusted 0.58 [0.39-0.85]) were less frequent than in younger patients. In turn, hypercholesterolemia (ORadjusted 1.52 [1.1-2.10]) and hypertension (ORadjusted 3.08 [2.25-4.22]) were more frequent in older patients. Key differences between age groups were confirmed in secondary analyses. In multivariable, adjusted analyses, favorable outcome (i. e., modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was less frequent in the older age group (ORadjusted 0.45 [0.25, 0.83]). Conclusion: In our study population of patients diagnosed with CeAD, 1 in 14 was aged >= 60 years. In these patients, pain and mechanical triggers might be missing, rendering the diagnosis more challenging and increasing the risk ofmissed CeAD diagnosis in older patients.
  • Buechner, Jochen; Caruana, Ignazio; Kuenkele, Annette; Rives, Susana; Vettenranta, Kim; Bader, Peter; Peters, Christina; Baruchel, Andre; Calkoen, Friso G. (2022)
    Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T) targeting CD19 has been associated with remarkable responses in paediatric patients and adolescents and young adults (AYA) with relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL). Tisagenlecleucel, the first approved CD19 CAR-T, has become a viable treatment option for paediatric patients and AYAs with BCP-ALL relapsing repeatedly or after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Based on the chimeric antigen receptor molecular design and the presence of a 4-1BB costimulatory domain, tisagenlecleucel can persist for a long time and thereby provide sustained leukaemia control. "Real-world" experience with tisagenlecleucel confirms the safety and efficacy profile observed in the pivotal registration trial. Recent guidelines for the recognition, management and prevention of the two most common adverse events related to CAR-T - cytokine release syndrome and immune-cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome - have helped to further decrease treatment toxicity. Consequently, the questions of how and for whom CD19 CAR-T could substitute HSCT in BCP-ALL are inevitable. Currently, 40-50% of R/R BCP-ALL patients relapse post CD19 CAR-T with either CD19(-) or CD19(+) disease, and consolidative HSCT has been proposed to avoid disease recurrence. Contrarily, CD19 CAR-T is currently being investigated in the upfront treatment of high-risk BCP-ALL with an aim to avoid allogeneic HSCT and associated treatment-related morbidity, mortality and late effects. To improve survival and decrease long-term side effects in children with BCP-ALL, it is important to define parameters predicting the success or failure of CAR-T, allowing the careful selection of candidates in need of HSCT consolidation. In this review, we describe the current clinical evidence on CAR-T in BCP-ALL and discuss factors associated with response to or failure of this therapy: product specifications, patient- and disease-related factors and the impact of additional therapies given before (e.g., blinatumomab and inotuzumab ozogamicin) or after infusion (e.g., CAR-T re-infusion and/or checkpoint inhibition). We discuss where to position CAR-T in the treatment of BCP-ALL and present considerations for the design of supportive trials for the different phases of disease. Finally, we elaborate on clinical settings in which CAR-T might indeed replace HSCT.
  • Björkqvist, Johan; Kuula, Juho; Kuula, Liisa; Nurhonen, Markku; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu; Kajantie, Eero (2020)
    Chronotype is the temporal preference for activity and sleep during the 24 h day and is linked to mental and physical health, quality of life, and mortality. Later chronotypes, so-called “night owls”, consistently display poorer health outcomes than “larks”. Previous studies have suggested that preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation) is associated with an earlier chronotype in children, adolescents, and young adults, but studies beyond this age are absent. Our aim was to determine if adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) display different chronotypes than their siblings. We studied VLBW adults, aged 29.9 years (SD 2.8), matched with same-sex term-born siblings as controls. A total of 123 participants, consisting of 53 sibling pairs and 17 unmatched participants, provided actigraphy-derived data on the timing, duration, and quality of sleep from 1640 nights (mean 13.3 per participant, SD 2.7). Mixed effects models provided estimates and significance tests. Compared to their siblings, VLBW adults displayed 27 min earlier sleep midpoint during free days (95% CI: 3 to 51 min, p =.029). This was also reflected in the timing of falling asleep, waking up, and sleep-debt corrected sleep midpoint. The findings were emphasized in VLBW participants born small for gestational age. VLBW adults displayed an earlier chronotype than their siblings still at age 30, which suggests that the earlier chronotype is an enduring individual trait not explained by shared family factors. This preference could provide protection from risks associated with preterm birth.
  • Castaneda, Anu E.; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T.; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2013)