Browsing by Subject "YOUNG-PEOPLE"

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  • Katainen, Anu; Lehto, Anna-Sofia; Maunu, Antti (2015)
    The article explores how young people understand the risks of alcohol use and how these understandings are associated with differing drinking situations and social settings. By taking account of situational factors, the aim is to demonstrate how young people have highly nuanced notions of drinking styles that suit different drinking situations and of associated risks. The data for the research were gathered in 18 group interviews with Finnish ninth graders aged 14-15 years. Short film clips portraying young people in different drinking situations were used as stimulus material for the interviews. Data analysis focussed on the risk factors related to the social situations illustrated in the film clips. The results show that young people's risk assessments are not based on alcohol itself, but the magnitude of risk is estimated in relation to the social setting of the drinking situation. What is relevant for young people is whether the social situation allows them to make choices with which they feel comfortable. At the opposite pole of problem drinking was social drinking for the purpose of having fun together with other people in such a way that one remains in control of the drinking situation. From a prevention point of view, a key implication is that awareness of the risks is closely associated with situational and social factors. However, the awareness of those risks does not necessarily prevent young people from drinking because they may be accepted as part of the drinking experience.
  • Jalkanen, Joel; Fabritius, Henna; Vierikko, Kati; Moilanen, Atte; Toivonen, Tuuli (2020)
    Maintaining enough green areas and ensuring fair access to them is a common planning challenge in growing and densifying cities. Evaluations of green area access typically use metrics like population around green areas (within a certain buffer), but these do not fully ensure equitable access. We propose that using systematic and complementarity-driven spatial prioritization, often used in nature conservation planning, could assist in the complex planning challenge. Here, we demonstrate the use of spatial prioritization to identify green areas with highest recreational potential based on their type and their accessibility for the residents of the Helsinki Metropolitan area, the capital district of Finland. We calculated travel times from each city district to each green area. Travel times were calculated separately to local green areas using active travel modes (walking and biking), and to large forests (attracting people from near and far) using public transport. We prioritized the green areas using these multimodal travel times from each district and weighting the prioritization with population data with Zonation, conservation prioritization software. Compared to a typical buffer analysis (population within a 500 m buffer from green areas), our approach identified areas of high recreational potential in different parts of the study area. This approach allows systematic integration of travel-time-based accessibility measures into equitable spatial prioritization of recreational green areas. It can help urban planners to identify sets of green areas that best support the recreational needs of the residents across the city.
  • Ramsay, Hugh; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Miettunen, Jouko; Mukkala, Sari; Maeki, Pirjo; Liuhanen, Johanna; Murray, Graham K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ollila, Hanna; Paunio, Tiina; Veijola, Juha (2015)
    Background There is limited research regarding the association between genes and cognitive intermediate phenotypes in those at risk for psychotic disorders. Methods We measured the association between established psychosis risk variants in dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and cognitive performance in individuals at age 23 years and explored if associations between cognition and these variants differed according to the presence of familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The subjects of the Oulu Brain and Mind Study were drawn from the general population-based Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986). Using linear regression, we compared the associations between cognitive performance and two candidate DRD2 polymorphisms (rs6277 and rs1800497) between subjects having familial (n=61) and clinical (n=45) risk for psychosis and a random sample of participating NFBC 1986 controls (n=74). Cognitive performance was evaluated using a comprehensive battery of tests at follow-up. Results Principal components factor analysis supported a three-factor model for cognitive measures. The minor allele of rs6277 was associated with poorer performance on a verbal factor (p=0.003) but this did not significantly interact with familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The minor allele of rs1800497 was associated with poorer performance on a psychomotor factor (p=0.038), though only in those at familial risk for psychotic disorders (interaction p=0.049). Conclusion The effect of two DRD2 SNPs on cognitive performance may differ according to risk type for psychosis, suggesting that cognitive intermediate phenotypes differ according to the type (familial or clinical) risk for psychosis.
  • Kosola, Silja; Culnane, Evelyn; Loftus, Hayley; Tornivuori, Anna; Kallio, Mira; Telfer, Michelle; Miettinen, Päivi J.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Aalto, Kristiina; Raivio, Taneli; Sawyer, Susan (2021)
    Introduction More than 10% of adolescents live with a chronic disease or disability that requires regular medical follow-up as they mature into adulthood. During the first 2 years after adolescents with chronic conditions are transferred to adult hospitals, non-adherence rates approach 70% and emergency visits and hospitalisation rates significantly increase. The purpose of the Bridge study is to prospectively examine associations of transition readiness and care experiences with transition success: young patients' health, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and adherence to medical appointments as well as costs of care. In addition, we will track patients' growing independence and educational and employment pathways during the transition process. Methods and analysis Bridge is an international, prospective, observational cohort study. Study participants are adolescents with a chronic health condition or disability and their parents/guardians who attended the New Children's Hospital in Helsinki, Finland, or the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne, Australia. Baseline assessment took place approximately 6 months prior to the transfer of care and follow-up data will be collected 1 year and 2 years after the transfer of care. Data will be collected from patients' hospital records and from questionnaires completed by the patient and their parent/guardian at each time point. The primary outcomes of this study are adherence to medical appointments, clinical health status and HRQoL and costs of care. Secondary outcome measures are educational and employment outcomes. Ethics and dissemination The Ethics Committee for Women's and Children's Health and Psychiatry at the Helsinki University Hospital (HUS/1547/2017) and the RCH Human Research Ethics Committee (38035) have approved the Bridge study protocol. Results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals and summaries will be provided to the funders of the study as well as patients and their parents/guardians.
  • Lezo, Antonella; Diamanti, Antonella; Marinier, Evelyne M.; Tabbers, Merit; Guz-Mark, Anat; Gandullia, Paolo; Spagnuolo, Maria I.; Protheroe, Sue; Peretti, Noel; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Hulst, Jessie M.; Kolacek, Sanja; Ee, Looi C.; Lawrence, Joanna; Hind, Jonathan; D'Antiga, Lorenzo; Verlato, Giovanna; Pukite, Ieva; Di Leo, Grazia; Vanuytsel, Tim; Doitchinova-Simeonova, Maryana K.; Ellegard, Lars; Masconale, Luisa; Maiz-Jimenez, Maria; Cooper, Sheldon C.; Brillanti, Giorgia; Nardi, Elena; Sasdelli, Anna S.; Lal, Simon; Pironi, Loris (2022)
    Background: The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism database for chronic intestinal failure (CIF) was analyzed to investigate factors associated with nutritional status and the intravenous supplementation (IVS) dependency in children. Methods: Data collected: demographics, CIF mechanism, home parenteral nutrition program, z-scores of weight-for-age (WFA), length or height-for-age (LFA/HFA), and body mass index-for-age (BMI-FA). IVS dependency was calculated as the ratio of daily total IVS energy over estimated resting energy expenditure (%IVSE/REE). Results: Five hundred and fifty-eight patients were included, 57.2% of whom were male. CIF mechanisms at age 1-4 and 14-18 years, respectively: SBS 63.3%, 37.9%; dysmotility or mucosal disease: 36.7%, 62.1%. One-third had WFA and/or LFA/HFA z-scores < -2. One-third had %IVSE/REE > 125%. Multivariate analysis showed that mechanism of CIF was associated with WFA and/or LFA/HFA z-scores (negatively with mucosal disease) and %IVSE/REE (higher for dysmotility and lower in SBS with colon in continuity), while z-scores were negatively associated with %IVSE/REE. Conclusions: The main mechanism of CIF at young age was short bowel syndrome (SBS), whereas most patients facing adulthood had intestinal dysmotility or mucosal disease. One-third were underweight or stunted and had high IVS dependency. Considering that IVS dependency was associated with both CIF mechanisms and nutritional status, IVS dependency is suggested as a potential marker for CIF severity in children.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Mekuria, Gashaw B.; Nummi, Tapio; Virtanen, Pekka; Virtanen, Marianna; Hammarström, Anne (2019)
    BackgroundCo-occurrence of mental and somatic symptoms is common, and recent longitudinal studies have identified single trajectories of these symptoms, but it is poorly known whether the symptom trajectories can also co-occur and change across the lifespan. We aimed to examine co-occurring symptoms and their joint trajectories from adolescence to midlife.MethodsLongitudinal data were derived from Northern Sweden, where 506 girls and 577 boys aged 16years participated at baseline in 1981 (99.7% of those initially invited), and have been followed up in four waves until the age of 43. Survey data were collected about depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Potential joint development of this three-component symptom set was examined with multiple response trajectory analysis, a method that has not been previously used to study co-occurrence of these symptoms.ResultsWe identified a five trajectory solution as the best: very low (19%), low (31%), high (22%), late sharply increasing (16%) and a very high increasing (12%). In the late sharply increasing and very high increasing groups the scores tended to increase with age, while in the other groups the levels were more stable. Overall, the results indicated that depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms co-exist from adolescence to midlife.ConclusionsThe multiple response trajectory analysis confirmed high stability in the co-occurrence of depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms from adolescence to midlife. Clinicians should consider these findings to detect symptoms in their earliest phase in order to prevent the development of co-occurring high levels of symptoms.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2022)
    The environmental crisis is producing an increasing number of both physical and psychological impacts. This article studies the challenge of eco-anxiety for pastoral care, drawing from both interdisciplinary research and ecological theology. The aim is to help both practitioners and re-searchers to encounter eco-anxiety more constructively. The rapidly growing research about eco-anxiety and therapy is discussed in relation to pastoral care. The various forms of eco-anxiety are briefly analyzed. The role of the caregivers is discussed by using sources that study the challenges of therapists in relation to eco-anxiety. The existential depths of eco-anxiety are probed in the light of recent research and older existentialist theory. It is pointed out that the political character of ecological issues, especially climate change issues, causes many kinds of challenges for pastoral care. As the constructive conclusion of the article, various possibilities and resources for encountering eco-anxiety in pastoral care are discussed, along with the connections with wider pastoral theology. It is argued that pastoral care providers should engage in self-reflection about their own attitudes and emotions related to ecological issues, preferably with the support of trusted peers or mentors. Various organizational developments are also needed to support care-givers. Dialectical thinking is one tool that can help to navigate the complex dynamics related to environmental responsibility, eco-emotions, and questions of hope or hopelessness.
  • Parhiala, P.; Ranta, K.; Gergov, Vera; Kontunen, J.; Law, R.; La Greca, A. M.; Torppa, M.; Marttunen, M. (2020)
    In order to offer early and accessible treatment for adolescents with depression, brief and effective treatments in adolescents' everyday surroundings are needed. This randomized controlled trial studied the preliminary effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of interpersonal counseling (IPC) and brief psychosocial support (BPS) in school health and welfare services. The study was conducted in the 28 lower secondary schools of a large city in Southern Finland, randomized to provide either IPC or BPS. Help-seeking 12-16-year-old adolescents with mild-to-moderate depression, with and without comorbid anxiety, were included in the study. Fifty-five adolescents received either 6 weekly sessions of IPC or BPS and two follow-up sessions. Outcome measures included self- and clinician-rated measures of depression, global functioning, and psychological distress/well-being. To assess feasibility and acceptability of the treatments, adolescents' and counselors' treatment compliance and satisfaction with treatment were assessed. Both treatments were effective in reducing depressive disorders and improving adolescents' overall functioning and well-being. At post-treatment, in both groups, over 50% of adolescents achieved recovery based on self-report and over 70% based on observer report. Effect sizes for change were medium or large in both groups at post-treatment and increased at 6-month follow-up. A trend indicating greater baseline symptom severity among adolescents treated in the IPC-providing schools was observed. Adolescents and counselors in both groups were satisfied with the treatment, and 89% of the adolescents completed the treatments and follow-ups. This trial suggests that both IPC and BPS are feasible, acceptable, and effective treatments for mild-to-moderate depression in the school setting. In addition, IPC seems effective even if comorbid anxiety exists. Our study shows that brief, structured interventions, such as IPC and BPS, are beneficial in treating mild-to-moderate depression in school settings and can be administered by professionals working at school.
  • Pitkänen, Joonas; Remes, Hanna; Moustgaard, Heta; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood is common among youth not in education, employment or training (NEETs). However, the evidence on other adverse childhood experiences as determinants of NEET remains scarce. We use Finnish longitudinal register data on a 20% random sample of households with 0-14-year-old children in 2000 to assess the childhood determinants of NEET. For an analytical sample of 99,137 children born 1986-1993, family socioeconomic resources, parental psychiatric disorders and substance abuse, parental death, living in a single-parent household and out-of-home placement under age 13 were used to predict NEET at the age of 18. We show that family socioeconomic disadvantage is strongly associated with NEET (e.g. odds ratio for parental basic education 5.33, 95% confidence interval 4.77, 5.95), whereas associations between adverse childhood experiences and NEET are more moderate (e.g. odds ratio for parent hospitalised for psychiatric disorder 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.63, 2.12) and largely explained by socioeconomic factors. These associations were mostly similar by gender. The results suggest that parental socioeconomic resources are more important than adverse childhood experiences for the educational and employment transitions of young adults. Thus, supportive social policy for socioeconomically disadvantaged families may smooth these transitions.
  • Wang, Ziyu; Satka, Mirja; Julkunen, Ilse (2021)
    Building on the relational approaches, particularly social relational theory, this study investigates how Chinese adolescents plan their transition to post-compulsory education through relational influences between themselves and their parents. By examining the family and school lives of 25 Chinese adolescents from a small Chinese town, it has been found that they exercise their agency when negotiating their educational future with their parents. Their mixed agentic strategies are embedded in multiple parenting styles and they result in differing levels of agreement. Despite such variation, the adolescent-parent relationship is interpreted as the reliable interdependence across the participants. The findings provide new insights into parental influence on young Chinese people's educational future and stress the value of the relational approach in studying the family-education nexus.
  • Borschmann, Rohan; Mundy, Lisa K.; Canterford, Louise; Moreno-Betancur, Margarita; Moran, Paul A.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Viner, Russell M.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Kosola, Silja; Fedyszyn, Izabela; Patton, George C. (2020)
    Introduction No prospective studies have examined the prevalence, antecedents or concurrent characteristics associated with self-harm in non-treatment-seeking primary school-aged children. Methods In this cohort study from Melbourne, Australia we assessed 1239 children annually from age 8-9 years (wave 1) to 11-12 years (wave 4) on a range of health, social, educational and family measures. Past-year self-harm was assessed at wave 4. We estimated the prevalence of self-harm and used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations with concurrent and antecedent factors. Results 28 participants (3% of the 1059 with self-harm data; 18 girls [3%], 10 boys [2%]) reported self-harm at age 11-12 years. Antecedent (waves 1-3) predictors of self-harm were: persistent symptoms of depression (sex-age-socioeconomic status adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 7.8; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.6 to 24) or anxiety (aOR: 5.1; 95%CI 2.1 to 12), frequent bullying victimisation (aOR: 24.6; 95%CI 3.8 to 158), and recent alcohol consumption (aOR: 2.9; 95%CI 1.2 to 7.1). Concurrent (wave 4) associations with self-harm were: having few friends (aOR: 8.7; 95%CI 3.2 to 24), poor emotional control (aOR: 4.2; 95%CI 1.9 to 9.6), antisocial behaviour (theft-aOR: 3.1; 95%CI 1.2 to 7.9; carrying a weapon-aOR: 6.9; 95%CI 3.1 to 15), and being in mid-puberty (aOR: 6.5; 95%CI 1.5 to 28) or late/post-puberty (aOR: 14.4; 95%CI 2.9 to 70). Conclusions The focus of intervention efforts aimed at preventing and reducing adolescent self-harm should extend to primary school-aged children, with a focus on mental health and peer relationships during the pubertal transition.
  • Lindberg, N.; Miettunen, J.; Heiskala, A.; Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2017)
    Background: Aggressive and disruptive behaviors often precede the onset of schizophrenia. In this register-based follow-up study with a case-control design, we wanted to investigate if serious delinquency was associated with future diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (here, broadly defined schizophrenia) among a nationwide consecutive sample of 15-to 19-year-old Finnish delinquents sent for a forensic psychiatric examination in 1989-2010. Methods: The sample comprised 313 delinquents with no past or current psychotic disorder. For each delinquent, four age-, gender-and place of birth -matched controls were randomly selected from the Central Population Register. Five controls (0.4%) had been treated for schizophrenia before their respective index-dates and were thus excluded from further analysis, leaving us with a control population of 1247 individuals. The subjects were followed till death, emigration or the end of 2015, whichever occurred first. Diagnoses were obtained from the Care Register for Health Care. Results: Forty (12.8%) of the delinquents and 11 (0.9%) of the controls were diagnosed with schizophrenia later in life (HR 16.6, 95% CI 8.53-32.39, P <0.001). Almost half of the pretrial adolescents with later schizophrenia were diagnosed within 5 years of the forensic psychiatric examination, but latency was longer among the other half of the sample, reaching up to 20.5 years. Conclusions: The study supports the previous research indicating a potential link between serious delinquency and later schizophrenia. Accurate psychiatric assessments should be made in correctional services but also later in life so that any possible psychotic symptoms can be detected in individuals with a history of serious delinquency even if there were no signs of psychosis before or at the time of the crime. Future research should explore which factors influence the delinquent's risk of developing later schizophrenia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Haikkola, Lotta (2019)
    Activation policies form the core of employment policies in most OECD countries. They are part of 'active' welfare states and associated neoliberal forms of governance that seek to govern through freedom by producing self-governing and responsible subjectivities. Ethnographies of governmentalities have been used in the research reported in this article to examine if and how such subjectivities are put in practice in street-level encounters in local welfare delivery. Based on an ethnographic research of youth services in the Public Employment Services (PES) in Helsinki, Finland, it is shown that despite the policy focus on active citizenship the street-level practice entails not only liberal ideas of self-governing individuals but also authoritarian measures. What is governed in the meetings is not the young people's selves but their time and behaviour. In the process, the notion of active citizenship is emptied and transformed to mean participation in supervised activities offered by the PES. Such practice also reworks the temporal structures and creates insecure and eventful experience of time for PES clients. In contrast to governing through freedom, the localized interpretation of activation policies represents the authoritarian and paternalistic side of neoliberal governance.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Lieslehto, Johannes; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Häkli, Jani; Tuovinen, Timo; Hintsanen, Mirka; Veijola, Juha (2020)
    Background: Physiological brain pulsations have been shown to play a critical role in maintaining interstitial homeostasis in the glymphatic brain clearance mechanism. We investigated whether psychotic symptomatology is related to the physiological variation of the human brain using fMRI. Methods: The participants (N= 277) were from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated with the Positive Symptoms Scale of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes(SIPS). We used the coefficient of variation of BOLD signal (CVBOLD) as a proxy for physiological brain pulsatility.The CVBOLD-analyses were controlled for motion, age, sex, and educational level. The results were also compared with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) meta-analyses of schizophrenia patients (data from theBrainmap database). Results: At the global level, participants with psychotic-like symptoms had higher CVBOLDin cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) and white matter (WM), when compared to participants with no psychotic symptoms. Voxel-wise analy-ses revealed that CVBOLDwas increased, especially in periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, cerebellum and parts of the cortical structures. Those brain regions, which included alterations of physiological fluctuation in symptomatic psychosis risk, overlappedb6% with the regions that were found to be affected in the meta-analyses of previous fMRI and VBM studies in schizophrenia patients. Motion did not vary as a function of SIPS. Conclusions: Psychotic-like symptoms were associated with elevated CVBOLDin a variety of brain regions. The CVBOLD findings may produce new information about cerebral physiological fluctuations that have been out of reach in previous fMRI and VBM studies.
  • Talaslampi, Heli; Jahnukainen, Markku; Manninen, Marko (2019)
    According to multiple studies, adolescents placed in out-of-home care (OOHC) are less well-educated than their peers in the general population. Reform school (RS) is an institution for youth placed in OOHC due to severe behavioral problems. The educational outcomes of former RS residents are not known. We examined the possible differences in educational level by comparing Finnish national register data for 814 former RS residents in four cohorts (placed in out-of-home care in 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006) to 4021 of their peers in the general population matched by gender, age, and place of birth. The educational level differences were analyzed by the chi(2) test of association. Logistic regression models were performed to identify the predictors of having a basic education only. Based on the results, individuals with an RS background have a high risk of low education. Among the RS population, being in the youngest cohort, lack of aftercare provided by RSs, and a diagnosis of substance-related disorders predict lower levels of education. These results call for immediate action. Long-term aftercare programs should be provided for former RS residents. Extending compulsory school attendance to upper secondary study is likely to improve the educational level of the RS population. In addition, effective programs for intervening substance abuse problems should be provided both in RS and aftercare. By these actions, it may be possible to reduce current social exclusion and poor long-term prognosis associated with RS placement.
  • Filatova, S.; Gyllenberg, D.; Sillanmäki, L.; Suominen, A.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, S.; Kaljonen, A.; Kerkelä, M.; Keski-Säntti, M.; Ristikari, T.; Lagström, H.; Hurtig, T.; Miettunen, J.; Surcel, H.-M.; Veijola, J.; Gissler, M.; Sourander, A. (2019)
    Background: Psychiatric disorders tend to be developmental, and longitudinal settings are required to examine predictors of psychiatric phenomena. Replicating and combining data and results from different birth cohorts, which are a source of reliable data, can make research even more valuable. The Finnish Psychiatric Birth Cohort Consortium (PSYCOHORTS) project combines birth cohorts in Finland. Aim: The aim of this paper is to introduce content, plans and perspectives of the PSYCOHORTS project that brings together researchers from Finland. In addition, we illustrate an example of data harmonization using available data on causes of death. Content: PSYCOHORTS includes eight Finnish birth cohorts. The project has several plans: to harmonize different data from birth cohorts, to incorporate biobanks into psychiatric birth cohort research, to apply multigenerational perspectives, to integrate longitudinal patterns of marginalization and inequality in mental health, and to utilize data in health economics research. Data on causes of death, originally obtained from Finnish Cause of Death register, were harmonized across the six birth cohorts using SAS macro facility. Results: Harmonization of the cause of death data resulted in a total of 21,993 observations from 1965 to 2015. For example, the percentage of deaths due to suicide and the sequelae of intentional self-harm was 14% and alcohol-related diseases, including accidental poisoning by alcohol, was 13%. Conclusions: PSYCOHORTS lays the foundation for complex examinations of psychiatric disorders that is based on compatible datasets, use of biobanks and multigenerational approach to risk factors, and extensive data on marginalization and inequality.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Lieslehto, Johannes; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Tuovinen, Timo; Veijola, Juha; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    Previously, schizophrenia is found to be related to the variability of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in the white matter. However, evidence about the relationship between genetic vulnerabilities and physiological fluctuation in the brain is lacking. We investigated whether familial risk for psychosis (FR) and polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS) are linked with physiological fluctuation in fMRI data. We used data from the Oulu Brain and Mind study (n. = 140-149, aged 20-24 years) that is a substudy of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. Coefficient of variation (CV) of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal (CVBOLD) was used as a proxy of physiological fluctuation in the brain. Familial risk was defined to be present if at least one parent had been diagnosed with psychosis previously. PRS was computed based on the results of the prior GWAS by the Schizophrenia Working Group. FR or PRS were not associated with CVBOLD in cerebrospinal fluid, white matter, or grey matter. The findings did not provide evidence for the previous suggestions that genetic vulnerabilities for schizophrenia become apparent in alterations of the variation of the BOLD signal in the brain.
  • Vänskä, Nea; Sipari, Salla; Haataja, Leena (2020)
    Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe meaningful participation in everyday life from the perspectives of children with disabilities. Methods: Nine children (5-10 years, mean age 7.2 years, 5 boys, 4 girls) with disabilities participated in individual photo-elicitation interviews. The interview data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results: The children's meaningful participation mainly comprised free leisure activities that fostered enjoyment, capability, autonomy and social involvement with family and friends. The children's emotions and physical sensations, opportunities to influence, knowledge about the activity and the participation context, presumptions and previous experiences of the activity and the environment played a vital role in their decisions to participate. Conclusion: The meaningful participation facilitated enjoyment and self-determination for the children. Identifying personal and environmental factors supporting or restricting participation from the child's perspective emerges as important in order to provide opportunities for the child's meaningful participation in everyday life. The photo-elicitation interviews demonstrated the potential to act as a tool to identify and explore the children's views about participation in a real-life context.