Browsing by Subject "YOUNGER"

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  • Eskelund, Christian Winther; Albertsson-Lindblad, Alexandra; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna; Räty, Riikka; Pedersen, Lone Bredo; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Jerkeman, Mats; Gronbaek, Kirsten (2018)
  • Pelkonen, Tuula; dos Santos, Mauro Dias; Roine, Irmeli; dos Anjos, Elisabete; Freitas, Cesar; Peltola, Heikki; Laakso, Sanna; Kirveskari, Juha (2018)
    Background: Globally, diarrhea kills almost 1500 children daily. In diagnostics, molecular methods are replacing traditional assays. We aimed to investigate enteropathogens in children with and without diarrhea in Luanda, the capital of Angola. Methods: One hundred and ninety-four stool samples from 98 children with acute diarrhea and 96 children without diarrhea were investigated for 17 enteropathogens with multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The median age of children was 10.5 months. Enteropathogens, bacteria, viruses and parasites were detected in 91%, 78%, 50% and 25%, respectively. A positive finding was significantly (P = 0.003) more common in diarrhea when testing for all pathogens combined, for bacteria alone and for viruses alone. More than one pathogen was found more frequently in diarrhea than in non-diarrhea stool samples, in 87% and in 59% (P <0.0001), respectively. The median number (interquartile range) of pathogens detected was 3 (2) versus 1.5 (2; P <0.0001), respectively. When age was taken into account, diarrhea was found to be associated with enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter, rotavirus, sapovirus and Cryptosporidium. Conclusions: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected enteropathogens in almost all stool samples of children in Luanda, albeit this occurred more often in diarrhea. Children with diarrhea showed more mixed infections than children without diarrhea.
  • Heikkilä, Jenni; Fagerlund, Petra; Tiippana, Kaisa (2018)
    In the course of normal aging, memory functions show signs of impairment. Studies of memory in the elderly have previously focused on a single sensory modality, although multisensory encoding has been shown to improve memory performance in children and young adults. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects auditory recognition memory in older (mean age 71 years) and younger (mean age 23 years) adults. Participants memorized auditory stimuli (sounds, spoken words) presented either alone or with semantically congruent visual stimuli (pictures, text) during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance of auditory stimuli was better for stimuli initially presented together with visual stimuli than for auditory stimuli presented alone during encoding. This facilitation was observed both in older and younger participants, while the overall memory performance was poorer in older participants. However, the pattern of facilitation was influenced by age. When encoding spoken words, the gain was greater for older adults. When encoding sounds, the gain was greater for younger adults. These findings show that semantically congruent audiovisual encoding improves memory performance in late adulthood, particularly for auditory verbal material.