Browsing by Subject "ZONATION"

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  • Chang, Mingyang; Bogacheva, Mariia S.; Lou, Yan-Ru (2021)
    The current organoid culture systems allow pluripotent and adult stem cells to self-organize to form three-dimensional (3D) structures that provide a faithful recapitulation of the architecture and function of in vivo organs. In particular, human pluripotent stem cell-derived liver organoids (PSC-LOs) can be used in regenerative medicine and preclinical applications, such as disease modeling and drug discovery. New bioengineering tools, such as microfluidics, biomaterial scaffolds, and 3D bioprinting, are combined with organoid technologies to increase the efficiency of hepatic differentiation and enhance the functional maturity of human PSC-LOs by precise control of cellular microenvironment. Long-term stabilization of hepatocellular functions of in vitro liver organoids requires the combination of hepatic endodermal, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells. To improve the biological function and scalability of human PSC-LOs, bioengineering methods have been used to identify diverse and zonal hepatocyte populations in liver organoids for capturing heterogeneous pathologies. Therefore, constructing engineered liver organoids generated from human PSCs will be an extremely versatile tool in in vitro disease models and regenerative medicine in future. In this review, we aim to discuss the recent advances in bioengineering technologies in liver organoid culture systems that provide a timely and necessary study to model disease pathology and support drug discovery in vitro and to generate cell therapy products for transplantation.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Soutullo, Alvaro; Bartesaghi, Lucia; Rios, Mariana; Szephegyi, Maria Nube; Moilanen, Atte (2017)
    Gaps in research exist for country-wide analyses to identify areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services to help reach Aichi Target 11 in developing countries. Here we provide a spatial conservation prioritization approach that ranks landowners for maximizing the representation of biodiversity features and ecosystem services, while exploring the trade-offs with agricultural and commercial forestry production and land cost, using Uruguay as a case study. Specifically, we explored four policy scenarios, ranging from a business as usual scenario where only biodiversity and ecosystem services were included in the analysis to a potentially unsustainable scenario where expansion of alternative land uses and economic development would be given higher priority over biodiversity and ecosystem services. At the 17% land target proposed for conservation, the representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services were, on average, higher under the business as usual scenario. However, a small addition to the proposed target (from 17 to 20%) allowed to meet same representation levels for biodiversity and ecosystem services, while decreasing conflict with agricultural and commercial forestry production and opportunity costs to local landowners. Under the unsustainable scenario, a striking 41% addition to the conservation target (from 17 to 58%) was needed to meet same representation levels for threatened ecosystems and ecosystem services, which are crucial to sustain human well-being. Our results highlight that more realistic and potentially higher conservation targets, than politically set targets, can be achieved at the country level when sustainable development needs are also accounted for. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Veach, Victoria; Moilanen, Atte; Di Minin, Enrico (2017)
    Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available. We first explore how global priority areas for the conservation of vertebrate (mammals, birds, and amphibians) species coded in the Red List as vulnerable to each threat differ spatially. We then identify spatial conservation priorities for all species vulnerable to all threats. Finally, we identify the potentially most threatened areas by overlapping the identified priority areas for conservation with maps for each threat. We repeat the same with four other well-known global conservation priority area schemes, namely Key Biodiversity Areas, Biodiversity Hotspots, the global Protected Area Network, and Wilderness Areas. We find that residential and commercial development directly threatens only about 4% of the global top 17% priority areas for species vulnerable under this threat. However, 50% of the high priority areas for species vulnerable to forest loss overlap with areas that have already experienced some forest loss. Agricultural expansion overlapped with similar to 20% of high priority areas. Biodiversity Hotspots had the greatest proportion of their total area under direct threat from all threats, while expansion of low intensity agriculture was found to pose an imminent threat to Wilderness Areas under future agricultural expansion. Our results identify areas where limited resources should be allocated to mitigate risks to vertebrate species from habitat loss.