Browsing by Subject "aHUS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Kaartinen, Kati; Safa, Adrian; Kotha, Soumya; Ratti, Giorgio; Meri, Seppo (2019)
    Glomerulonephritis (GN) refers to a group of renal diseases affecting the glomeruli due to the damage mediated by immunological mechanisms. A large proportion of the disease manifestations are caused by disturbances in the complement system. They can be due to genetic errors, autoimmunity, microbes or abnormal immunoglobulins, like modified IgA or paraproteins. The common denominator in most of the problems is an overactive or misdirected alternative pathway complement activation. An assessment of kidney function, amount of proteinuria and hematuria are crucial elements to evaluate, when glomerulonephritis is suspected. However, the cornerstones of the diagnoses are renal biopsy and careful examination of the complement abnormality. Differential diagnostics between the various forms of GN is not possible based on clinical features, as they may vary greatly. This review describes the known mechanisms of complement dysfunction leading to different forms of primary GN (like IgA glomerulonephritis, dense deposit disease, C3 glomerulonephritis, post-infectious GN, membranous GN) and differences to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. It also covers the basic elements of etiology-directed therapy and prognosis of the most common forms of GN. Common principles in the management of GN include treatment of hypertension and reduction of proteinuria, some require immunomodulating treatment. Complement inhibition is an emerging treatment option. A thorough understanding of the basic disease mechanism and a careful follow-up are needed for optimal therapy.
  • Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Viklicky, Ondrej; Al Shorafa, Saleh; Coppo, Rosanna; Gasteyger, Christoph; Macia, Manuel; Pankratenko, Tatiana; Shenoy, Mohan; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Tsimaratos, Michel; Wetzels, Jack; Haller, Hermann (2017)
    Background: The differential diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is complex however the rapid diagnosis of the underlying condition is vital to inform urgent treatment decisions. A survey was devised with the objective of understanding current practices across Europe and the Middle East, and of challenges when diagnosing the cause of TMA. Methods: Over 450 clinicians, from 16 countries were invited to complete an online survey. Results: Of 254 respondents, the majority were nephrologists, had > 10 years' experience in their specialty, and had diagnosed a patient with TMA. The triad of thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and acute kidney injury are the main diagnostic criteria used. Responses indicate that a differential diagnosis of TMA is usually made within 1-2 (53%) or 3-4 days (26%) of presentation. Similarly, therapy is usually initiated within the first 4 days (74%), however 13% report treatment initiation > 1-week post-presentation. Extrarenal symptoms and a panoply of other conditions are considered when assessing the differential diagnosis of TMA. While 70 and 78% of respondents stated they always request complement protein levels and ADAMTS13 activity, respectively. Diagnostic considerations of paediatric and adult nephrologists varied. A greater proportion of paediatric than adult nephrologists consider extrarenal manifestations clinically related to a diagnosis of TMA; pulmonary (45% vs. 18%), gastrointestinal (67% vs. 50%), CNS (96% vs. 84%) and cardiovascular (54% vs. 42%), respectively. Variability in the availability of guidelines and extent of family history taken was also evident. Conclusions: This survey reveals the variability of current practices and the need for increased urgency among physicians in the differential diagnosis of TMA, despite their experience. Above all, the survey highlights the need for international clinical guidelines to provide systematically developed recommendations for understanding the relevance of complement protein levels, complement abnormalities and ADAMTS13 testing, in making a differential diagnosis of TMA. Such clinical guidelines would enable physicians to make a more rapid and informed diagnosis of TMA, therefore initiate effective treatment earlier, with a consequent improvement in patient outcomes.
  • Sakari Jokiranta, T.; Viklicky, Ondrej; Al Shorafa, Saleh; Coppo, Rosanna; Gasteyger, Christoph; Macia, Manuel; Pankratenko, Tatiana; Shenoy, Mohan; Soylemezoglu, Oğuz; Tsimaratos, Michel; Wetzels, Jack; Haller, Hermann (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The differential diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is complex however the rapid diagnosis of the underlying condition is vital to inform urgent treatment decisions. A survey was devised with the objective of understanding current practices across Europe and the Middle East, and of challenges when diagnosing the cause of TMA. Methods Over 450 clinicians, from 16 countries were invited to complete an online survey. Results Of 254 respondents, the majority were nephrologists, had >10 years’ experience in their specialty, and had diagnosed a patient with TMA. The triad of thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and acute kidney injury are the main diagnostic criteria used. Responses indicate that a differential diagnosis of TMA is usually made within 1–2 (53%) or 3–4 days (26%) of presentation. Similarly, therapy is usually initiated within the first 4 days (74%), however 13% report treatment initiation >1-week post-presentation. Extrarenal symptoms and a panoply of other conditions are considered when assessing the differential diagnosis of TMA. While 70 and 78% of respondents stated they always request complement protein levels and ADAMTS13 activity, respectively. Diagnostic considerations of paediatric and adult nephrologists varied. A greater proportion of paediatric than adult nephrologists consider extrarenal manifestations clinically related to a diagnosis of TMA; pulmonary (45% vs. 18%), gastrointestinal (67% vs. 50%), CNS (96% vs. 84%) and cardiovascular (54% vs. 42%), respectively. Variability in the availability of guidelines and extent of family history taken was also evident. Conclusions This survey reveals the variability of current practices and the need for increased urgency among physicians in the differential diagnosis of TMA, despite their experience. Above all, the survey highlights the need for international clinical guidelines to provide systematically developed recommendations for understanding the relevance of complement protein levels, complement abnormalities and ADAMTS13 testing, in making a differential diagnosis of TMA. Such clinical guidelines would enable physicians to make a more rapid and informed diagnosis of TMA, therefore initiate effective treatment earlier, with a consequent improvement in patient outcomes.
  • Lokki, A. Inkeri; Haapio, Mikko; Heikkinen-Eloranta, Jenni (2020)
    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder affecting ca 3% of all pregnant women. Preeclampsia is the source of severe pregnancy complications. Later life consequences for mother and infant include increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Preeclampsia is caused by the dysfunction of the endothelium with subsequent activation of complement and coagulation systems. HELLP syndrome is considered to be an extreme complication of preeclampsia but it can also present independently. Diagnostic symptoms in HELLP syndrome are Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets. Similar phenotype is present in thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) and HELLP syndrome is considered part of the TMA spectrum. Here, we present a case of severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome, which exacerbated rapidly and eventually led to need of intensive care, plasma exchange, and hemodialysis. The patient showed signs of hemolysis, disturbance in the coagulation, and organ damage in liver and kidneys. After comprehensive laboratory testing and supportive care, the symptoms did not subside and treatment with complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab was started. Thereafter, the patient started to recover. The patient had pregnancy-induced aHUS. Earlier initiation of eculizumab treatment may potentially shorten and mitigate the disease and hypothetically decrease future health risks of preeclamptic women.