Browsing by Subject "aapinen"

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  • Suomalainen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this study is to find out how boys are portrayed in the Finnish ABC books through different decades. The data of the study consist of ABC books from the 1950s, 1970s, 1990s, 2000 and 2010s. The newest ABC book is published in 2016, and it follows the Finnish study plan of 2014. The ABC books chosen for this study have been published during the last 60 years. With 10 or 20 years' time difference between each book, it is possible study the changes in the portrayal of boy characters. The study focuses on the texts and pictures where the boy characters are shown. Special attention is paid to the looks and action of the boys in the ABC books. The boy characters are compared to the girl characters presented in the ABC books, in order to analyze whether the way the boys are being described differs from the way the girls are being described. The assumption is that there are some remarkable differences in this portrayal, especially when comparing the oldest ABC book from the 1950s to that of 2010s. Previous research has shown that the great changes taking place during the 1960s has also had its effect on the ABC books of that time; there should be a considerable decrease in stories and pictures related to national identity. As a new feature after the 1960s, the equality in friendships between the boy and girl characters has emerged. However, a gendered portrayal of the characters is still to some extent visible in ABC books until end of 1990s. The method of the study was content analysis. Each ABC book was first analyzed in detail after which the results were compared with each other. Special research questions were used to find out how the boys were shown during different times and to what extent the portrayal of boys and girls differed from each other. A context analytical approach is visible in the way that the norms and values of each ABC book were mirrored in relation to their own time. The results of the study show that even if the way boys are described has changed a lot from 1950s to 2010s, some features have remained the same. In the ABC books from 1950s and 1970s boys are shown as brave and active actors. Starting 1990s there is more sensitiveness in the way boys are described than in the earlier ABC books. Starting from the 2000s the boy and girl characters do not differ remarkably from each other. In the ABC book of 2016 the boys are clearly portrayed as background characters, being more quiet than the girls.
  • Kauppi, Eveliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This thesis assumes that ABC–book reflects the society's worldview through its narratives. These narratives express also the desired characteristics of childcitizen. The previous ABC-studies have shown that during the years from 1960 to 2000 the factors that determine childcitizenship in ABC-books have changed. Now gender does not determine the childcitizen and the same characteristics describe both girls and boys in ABC-books. The milieu of ABC-books has broadened from homeland to abroad and other cultures have taken place in ABC-books. This milieu change brings new demands for childcitizens cognitions and agency. The focus of this thesis is to define which are the characteristics that determine the childcitizenship in 21st century ABC-books and complimentary teachers guides. I also compare these characteristics to those produced in the carefully selected research and authority documents published in 21st century. In those carefully selected research and authority documents published in 21st century, the characteristics that determine childcitizenship were entrepreneurialism, tolerance and multiculturalism, consumerism, IT and media utilizing, gender sensitivity and awareness of environmental issues. These six characteristics became the six research categories used in the analysis of ABC-books and teachers guides. The research material consisted of three ABC-books and complimentary teacher guides published in 21st century. The analysis of research material was executed with close reading. In addition, one experienced ABC-book writer was interviewed twice according to Delphi research method. In the first interview the ABC-book writer commented on the research categories and told what is it like to write ABC-books. In the second interview the ABC-book writer commented on the results of the analysis. All research categories occurred in the research material. Entrepreneurialism appeared in several stories and consumerism appeared in few stories in every ABC-book. The appearance of other categories varied drastically. According to the results every ABC-book determines and embodies different kind of childcitizenship. Some ABC-books concentrate on embodying childcitizen more than others. Only one ABC-book with its embodied childcitizenship was equivalent with the childcitizen determined in the research and authority documents published in 21st century.
  • Salonen, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Constant increase of communication tools and possibilities has led to the place, where people need diversal reading and writing skills to act in the society. These divergent literacy skills have also been introduced in Finnish national core curriculum 2014 as a new term and goal called "multiliteracies". Multiliteracies highlights diverse literacy environments and skills to interpret and produce diverse texts through all schoolgrades. However, many studies have shown that the effect of the curriculum in the concrete teaching event is weak, even non-existent. Instead the textbooks would seem to direct teaching events stronger than curriculum. That is why publishers and schoolbook writers have a great responsibility as core curriculum interpreters and educational improvers. My focus in this study is to find out, how multiliteracy as dimension of board-based competence appears in abc-books made by new national curriculum. I observed this phenomenon through two focusing themes which were diverse text environment and interpretation and production of different texts. My research data consisted of two abc-books made by Finnish national core curriculum 2014. To improve reliability the abcbook authors participated in different stages of my study. At first they defined how the goal of multiliteracy is noticed in their abcbook and later they gave comments about the results. This study was a qualitative research and content analysis served as the analysis method of the data. The genremap used (Martin & Rose 2012) as a basis of analysis was created within the range of genrepedagogy. This map of genres in school devided texts in tree genrefamily, which were engaging genrefamily, informing genrefamily and evaluating genrefamily. These tree genrefamilies however, were further divided into more exact genres. This study indicates that the goal of multiliteracy has been systematically taken into consideration in the abc-books. All tree genrefamilies were represented. Nevertheless, the results showed that different genres were not examined equally. Engaging texts were emphasized and the role of evaluating text was minor. Informing texts had some representation. Tasks of the abc-books encouraged pupils to use and to produce different texts. Attention was paid to the versatile handling of different genres in tasks which aim especially at the production. The results of my study open points of view to how multiliteracy is contained in the abc-books at the moment.
  • Tuovinen, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The purpose of this study was to find out how humor is constructed in Finnish 21st century ABC books and what kind of meanings are given to these humorous discourses. The humor phenomena have long been studied and debated, but there has been no scientific research on humor in ABC books, even though humor is highly used in contemporary children literature. Studies have examined the pedagogical implications concerning the use of humor in teaching. Humor has been associated with a positive effect on learning, motivation, concentration, remembering and enhancing a positive classroom atmosphere. The research material consisted of four 21st century ABC books, published by Sanoma Pro Oy. The method of this study was discourse analysis, which entail a preference for a social constructionist epistemological perspective. Social constructivism stresses that knowledge is constructed via the interactions with the environment and the other people. The result of the study show that humor in contemporary ABC books is multileveled, using a wide variety of textual and narrative tools. The multileveled humor took place in three main humor discourse: language, narration and the narrated, typically absurd, world. Humor at the level of language arised mainly from the foregrounding of language and playing with words and meanings. Humor at the level of narration arised mainly from its coherency and incoherency. High forms of humor, for example irony and intertextual references, can be found, but they seem to demand more advanced reading skills, and therefore seem to be aimed for adult readers. Humor at the level of the narrated world based on its stereotyped and ambivalented characters and absurdities in its episodes. When it comes to certain themes, like bullying or illness, humor doesn’t seem to arise. Humor discourses of the studied ABC books amuse readers using a wide variety of textual and narrative tools, constructing different kinds of interpretational opportunities for different kinds of readers, not only for children and adult readers (primarily teachers), who adapt and understand humor to fit their own literary competence.