Browsing by Subject "abscisic acid"

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  • Kalliola, Maria; Jakobson, Liina; Davidsson, Pär; Pennanen, Ville; Waszczak, Cezary; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Zamora, Olena; Palva, E. Tapio; Kariola, Tarja; Kollist, Hannes; Brosché, Mikael (2020)
    Strigolactones are a group of phytohormones that control developmental processes including shoot branching and various plant-environment interactions in plants. We previously showed that the strigolactone perception mutant more axillary branches 2 (max2) has increased susceptibility to plant pathogenic bacteria. Here we show that both strigolactone biosynthesis (max3 and max4) and perception mutants (max2 and dwarf14) are significantly more sensitive to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Moreover, in response to P. syringae infection, high levels of SA accumulated in max2 and this mutant was ozone sensitive. Further analysis of gene expression revealed no major role for strigolactone in regulation of defense gene expression. In contrast, guard cell function was clearly impaired in max2 and depending on the assay used, also in max3, max4, and d14 mutants. We analyzed stomatal responses to stimuli that cause stomatal closure. While the response to abscisic acid (ABA) was not impaired in any of the mutants, the response to darkness and high CO2 was impaired in max2 and d14-1 mutants, and to CO2 also in strigolactone synthesis (max3, max4) mutants. To position the role of MAX2 in the guard cell signaling network, max2 was crossed with mutants defective in ABA biosynthesis or signaling. This revealed that MAX2 acts in a signaling pathway that functions in parallel to the guard cell ABA signaling pathway. We propose that the impaired defense responses of max2 are related to higher stomatal conductance that allows increased entry of bacteria or air pollutants like ozone. Furthermore, as MAX2 appears to act in a specific branch of guard cell signaling (related to CO2 signaling), this protein could be one of the components that allow guard cells to distinguish between different environmental conditions.
  • Iso-Kokkila, Marijke (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Barley has been cultivated throughout the world for centuries. During that time, it has experienced different climatic conditions and selective pressure. The consecutive genetic variation gives us a valuable source to explore various components of yield and stress resilience. In this research field experiments were performed on 24 European barley cultivar and landrace genotypes, as well as laboratory experiments on 15 genotypes; 13 cultivated and 2 genetically modified genotypes. The aim of the field tests was to examine the genotypic variation in Finnish weather conditions during two growth seasons in Viikki and to find out how stomatal conductance differs between varieties and whether it can be connected to yield. The aim of the laboratory tests conducted in Tartu was to examine the genotypic variation in the ability of barley seedlings’ stomata to react to changes in environmental conditions with high vapor pressure deficit and abscisic acid treatment. The reason for this study is the ongoing climate change, which challenges breeders to create new resilient varieties for future climatic conditions. In addition to genomic data and genetic tools a wide variety of genotype data is needed to capture valuable traits that different varieties possess. The hypothesis of this study was to find differences in gas exchange, that could be useful considering breeding of resilient barley cultivars adapted to future climatic conditions. The tests conducted in field and laboratory conditions demonstrated, that genotypic variation could be found among here tested barley varieties. In the experiments we found several interesting cultivars, that could be tested further to verify their usefulness in breeding resilient barley cultivars for future climatic conditions.
  • Mariotti, Lorenzo; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Jouppila, Kirsi; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo (2021)
    Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) due to global change can affect plant development and metabolism. Quinoa tolerates extreme conditions including high UV levels. However, the physiological mechanisms behind its abiotic stress tolerance are unclear, especially those related to UV-B. We previously demonstrated that 9.12 kJ m−2 d−1 may induce UV-B-specific signaling while 18.24 kJ m−2 d−1 promotes a UV-B-independent response. Here, we explored the effects of these UV-B doses on hormonal regulation linked to plant morphology and defense among diverse varieties. Changes in fluorescence parameters of photosystem II, flavonoids and hormones (indoleacetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA)) were surveyed under controlled conditions. Here, we showed that the sensitivity to short acute UV-B doses in varieties from different habitats is influenced by their parental lines and breeding time. UV-B sensitivity does not necessarily correlate with quinoa’s geographical distribution. The role of flavonoids in the UV-B response seems to be different depending on varieties. Moreover, we found that the extent of changes in JA and SA correlate with UV-B tolerance, while the increase of ABA was mainly related to UV-B stress.