Browsing by Subject "achievement goal orientations"

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  • Polso, Kukka-Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. In the context of computing education, the vast majority of prior research examining achievement goal orientations has been conducted using variable-centred methods. In order to deepen understanding of the student population and achievement motivation, this Master’s Thesis employed person-oriented perspectives. The interplay of different goal orientations was explored by identifying prevalent motivational profiles and investigating profile differences in performance. Normative and appearance performance goals were handled as separate clustering variables in addition to mastery goals for the first time. Methods. The participants were 2059 introductory programming MOOC students. Data were collected by a questionnaire and from automatically assessed programming assignments and final exam. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted for the achievement goal orientation items to examine the factor structure. Using TwoStep cluster analysis, the students were classified into clusters according to their achievement goal orientations. Cross tabulations and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to investigate profile characteristics and differences in performance. Results and Conclusions. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were identified: Approach-Oriented (31.2%), Performance-Oriented (18.9%), Combined Mastery and Performance Goals (18.0%), Low Goals (17.6.%) and Mastery-Oriented (14.3.%). Students with Combined Mastery and Performance Goals performed significantly better than students with Low Goals regarding two metrics. Consistent with previous findings, the results highlight the positive link between multiple goal pursuit and performance. Further studies are needed to investigate motivational profiles in relation to other educational outcomes in the context of computing education. This kind of knowledge is valuable for designing interventions and new courses. The article ‘Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles and Performance in a Programming MOOC’, which is based on the present thesis, will be presented at ITiCSE 2020 (Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education) conference and published in conference proceedings.
  • Jussila, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of this study was to examine how temperamental sensitivities and self-worth contingency predict achievement goal orientations. In this study, BIS and BAS were used for measuring temperamental sensitivities. BIS/BAS theorization refers to individual's dispositional sensitivity to reward and non-reward and punishment and non-punishment. Contingency of self-worth reflects the domains in which success or failure leads to increases or decreases in self-esteem. In this study, self-worth contingency on academic competence was measured. Achievement goal orientations refers to individuals' generalized tendencies' to aim and favor for certain goals and end results in achievement situation. In this study, the purpose was gain more information about the possible factors that influence individuals' goal choices in achievement situations.In this study, there were 506 participants (434 females and 72 males) and three different scales were used for measuring BIS/BAS, contingency of self-worth and achievement goal orientations. Sensitivity for BAS was divided into three sub-scales: BAS Novelty seeking, BAS Social Reward, and BAS Positive expressiveness. After preliminary analysis, a series of hierarchical analysis were run for examining the effects of BIS/BAS on achievement goal orientations in the first step, and the additional prediction of contingency of self-worth the second step. As expected, BIS/BAS sensitivities were related to achievement goal orientations. Mastery intrinsic orientation was predicted by BAS Novelty seeking, performance-approach orientation was predicted by BIS and avoidance orientation was predicted by BAS Social Reward. Contingency of self-worth was found to significantly increase the explained share of BIS/BAS relations on achievement goal orientations. Contingency of self-worth also had a direct effect on all achievement goal orientations, except for performance-avoidance orientation. Results point out, that dispositional differences are of importance, when considering individual differences in achievement-related motivation. As a practical implication, the results suggest that the learning culture should be failure permissive and encourage learning for learning's sake.
  • Järvinen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of students' achievement goal orientations on their perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Achievement goal orientations refer to relatively stable tendencies to favor certain goals and outcomes in achievement-related situations. Five orientations were included in this study: Mastery-intrinsic refers to a focus on learning, mastery-extrinsic to striving for absolute success, performance-approach to the aim of relative success, performance-avoidance to a focus on avoiding mistakes, and work-avoidance to the aim of minimizing effort. Previous studies suggest that achievement goal orientations affect the way students perceive and evaluate their learning environment, as well as how they respond to errors. Different combinations of orientations (i.e., achievement goal orientation profiles) have also been linked to distinct outcomes. This work examines the role students' achievement goal orientation profiles have in their perceptions of error climate, that is, practices and discourses related to dealing with errors in their classroom. This holds importance for educational research and practice, as error climate has been linked to the adaptivity of students' reactions to their mistakes. Methods. 169 students (aged 13–14) from four secondary schools completed an electronic questionnaire during their school day about their achievement goal orientations and perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were identified using SPSS TwoStep cluster analysis: mastery-oriented, success-oriented, indifferent, performance-and-avoidance oriented, and avoidance-oriented. The mean differences between the groups in perceptions of error climate were analyzed using ANOVA. Results and conclusions. As expected, the mastery- and success-oriented students perceived the error climate more positively in comparison to both performance-and-avoidance- and avoidance-oriented students. Indifferent students did not differ significantly from other groups. These findings highlight the significance of students' motivational mindsets on their perceptions of the learning environment and practices related to error climate. These differences should be recognized and taken into account when designing instructional practices, in order to ensure a safe and non-judgmental environment, where students with different goals and needs can learn from their mistakes.
  • Lerssi, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between achievement goal orientations and perfectionism, and the possible differences between general and sports program students in upper secondary school with respect to these phenomena. Achievement goal orientations refer to individual's generalized tendencies to favor certain type of goals and outcomes in an achievement context. Perfectionism is a personality characteristic, which as a multidimensional construct consists of both positive (high standards) and negative (dissatisfaction with the attainment of the goal) dimensions. Both achievement goal orientations and perfectionism have been linked to individual's well-being, interpretation of the environment, and achievement. There is only a few previous research that have studied the relationship between achievement goal orientations and perfectionism. The assumption in the present study is that students' achievement goal orientations have an effect on what kind of perfectionistic tendencies they display. Examining differences between athletes and non-athletes with respect to achievement motivation and perfectionism is a relative new study subject. By examining these differences, we might get important information whether young athletes have managed to combine the demands of their sports and upper secondary school studies. Finding the balance between these demands is one notable challenge student-athletes confront. The participants in the present study were 424 general upper secondary school students from different parts of Finland. General program was followed by 211 of students, and 213 of students followed sports program. A person-centred approach was applied to the data-analysis. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were extracted by utilizing the TwoStep Cluster analysis. The profiles were named following the previous research, and according to their most dominant orientations (i.e., mastery-, success-, performance-avoidance- and avoidance-oriented, and indifferent). Differences between the profiles with respect to perfectionism were examined through a series of analyses of variance. Differences between general- and sports program students were examined through a series of analyses of variance, and through Cross Tabulation. As expected, students with different orientations towards studying differed from each other according to perfectionism. The mastery-, success- and performance-avoidance oriented students emphasized adaptive perfectionism. However, the success- and performance-avoidance-oriented students emphasized also maladaptive perfectionism. The indifferent students slightly highlighted maladaptive perfectionism. The avoidance-oriented students did highlight neither of the perfectionism dimensions. The findings suggest that students' motivational patterns have an influence on their perfectionistic tendencies. Maladaptive motivational patterns, as well as, maladaptive perfectionistic tendencies seem to accumulate to same students. It would be important to take these results into consideration at teaching and its design, so that students who need support and counseling would receive them. There were not significant differences between general and sports program students according to achievement motivation and perfectionism. The findings indicate that sport-oriented schools have managed to support young athletes to combine their intensive sports training and upper secondary school studies.
  • Juntunen, Henriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Achievement goal orientations have often been studied as rather general individual tendencies to favour certain goals, results and consequences, but they may also demonstrate subject-specificity. Studies taking several academic subjects into account simultaneously, and by utilising a person-oriented approach in particular, are still scarce. Task values (i.e., intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost), in turn, refer specifically to subject-specific beliefs that influence students’ choices and performance. There is a need to understand patterns of subject-specific goal orientations as well as their relations to perceived subject-specific cost and to more general academic well-being better. This study examined upper secondary school students’ subject-specific (mathematics and English) goal orientation profiles and how students with different profiles differ in subject-specific cost (i.e., effort, emotional, and opportunity cost) and academic wellbeing (i.e., schoolwork engagement and school burnout). Methods. Data were collected by questionnaires. Altogether, 434 students from one general upper secondary school in Finland participated in the current study. Preliminary analyses concerning structural validity were conducted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Regarding motivational profiles, students with similar patterns of achievement goal orientations were identified utilising a person-oriented approach and latent profile analysis (LPA). After establishing groups, analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine group differences. Results and Conclusions. Five distinct goal orientation profiles were identified: mastery-oriented (24,9%), success-oriented (25,8%), English-oriented, math-avoidant (14,3%), indifferent (28,8%), and avoidance-oriented (6,2%). Evidence for both domain-generality and -specificity of goal orientation profiles was found. These profiles differentiated in cost and academic wellbeing. Overall, mastery-oriented showed the most adaptive wellbeing and avoidance-oriented the most maladaptive. Success-oriented group, characterised by high multiple goals, also scored high on cost and both adaptive (i.e., engagement) and maladaptive (i.e., burnout) academic wellbeing indicators. The findings indicate that examining students' multidimensional achievement motivation in different subjects may be valuable for comprehending the motivational dynamics and in recognising the factors endangering and fostering student learning and wellbeing.
  • Ståhlberg, Jenny; Tuominen, Heta; Pulkka, Antti-Tuomas; Niemivirta, Markku (2021)
    In this study, we examined what kind of perfectionistic profiles (i.e., different patterns of perfectionistic strivings and concerns) can be identified among general upper‐secondary school students, how stable those profiles are over the school year, and how they are connected with students' motivation (i.e., achievement goal orientations). Four distinct profiles were identified. Students with high strivings and low concerns had their focus mainly on mastery, while students with an opposite profile emphasized performance‐avoidance and work‐avoidance orientations. Students with high strivings and concerns favored both performance‐ and mastery‐related goals, whereas students characterized by low strivings and low concerns did not display a dominant tendency toward any orientation. Perfectionistic profiles were relatively stable over time, with the majority of students reporting similar tendencies across the measurements, and with no extreme changes observed. Some indications of more students displaying less adaptive perfectionistic tendencies by the end of the school year were nevertheless found. Our findings demonstrate not only stability in perfectionistic tendencies, but also their motivational relevance in the academic context where students' goals and performance concerns play an important role.
  • Ståhlberg, Jenny (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism, achievement goal orientations, and distal goal setting. Multidimensional perfectionism is regarded as consisting of both positive and negative dimensions, and it is seen as a significant personality characteristic in individuals in achievement contexts. Achievement goal orientations refer to individuals' generalized tendencies to favour certain types of goals and outcomes in achievement settings. Distal goal setting refers to individuals' long-term goals, which, in the present study, are the grade goals that students have set for themselves. The relationship between perfectionism and achievement goals, as well as between perfectionism and aspiration level has been detected in previous studies. However, there has not been any previous studies concerning the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and achievement goal orientations, which both play an important role in the adoption of goals and the interpretation of achievement contexts. Thus, the assumption in the present study is that perfectionistic characteristics in students have an effect on the adoption of achievement goal orientations, distal goals, and also on the revision of those goals. The participants in the present study were 156 first-year students (aged 16–17 years) from a general upper secondary school in a small southwestern town in Finland. The students completed two questionnaires: the first in the beginning of each course and the second during the courses. By using TwoStep cluster analysis, three distinct perfectionism profiles (i.e., adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists) were extracted. The between-group differences on the achievement goal orientations, goal setting, and goal revision were examined through a series of univariate analyses of (co)variance based on the perfectionism profile membership. As expected, the adaptive perfectionists were prone to adopt mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, and performance-approach achievement goal orientations. In contrast, the maladaptive perfectionists highlighted performance-avoidance and avoidance goal orientations, while the non-perfectionists did not highlight any of the orientations. The adaptive perfectionists had the highest aspiration level and they also lowered their grade goals the least. The findings suggest that students' perfectionistic characteristics have an influence on their achievement goal orientations, goal setting, and goal revision. The maladaptive and non-perfectionists are at the highest risk of adopting low aspiration levels, maladaptive achievement goal orientations, and have the tendency to revise their goals downwards. It might be useful to take this into consideration at schools and in teaching, and to consider, if counselling needs to be given to those students.