Browsing by Subject "achievement motivation"

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  • Järvinen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of students' achievement goal orientations on their perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Achievement goal orientations refer to relatively stable tendencies to favor certain goals and outcomes in achievement-related situations. Five orientations were included in this study: Mastery-intrinsic refers to a focus on learning, mastery-extrinsic to striving for absolute success, performance-approach to the aim of relative success, performance-avoidance to a focus on avoiding mistakes, and work-avoidance to the aim of minimizing effort. Previous studies suggest that achievement goal orientations affect the way students perceive and evaluate their learning environment, as well as how they respond to errors. Different combinations of orientations (i.e., achievement goal orientation profiles) have also been linked to distinct outcomes. This work examines the role students' achievement goal orientation profiles have in their perceptions of error climate, that is, practices and discourses related to dealing with errors in their classroom. This holds importance for educational research and practice, as error climate has been linked to the adaptivity of students' reactions to their mistakes. Methods. 169 students (aged 13–14) from four secondary schools completed an electronic questionnaire during their school day about their achievement goal orientations and perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were identified using SPSS TwoStep cluster analysis: mastery-oriented, success-oriented, indifferent, performance-and-avoidance oriented, and avoidance-oriented. The mean differences between the groups in perceptions of error climate were analyzed using ANOVA. Results and conclusions. As expected, the mastery- and success-oriented students perceived the error climate more positively in comparison to both performance-and-avoidance- and avoidance-oriented students. Indifferent students did not differ significantly from other groups. These findings highlight the significance of students' motivational mindsets on their perceptions of the learning environment and practices related to error climate. These differences should be recognized and taken into account when designing instructional practices, in order to ensure a safe and non-judgmental environment, where students with different goals and needs can learn from their mistakes.
  • Lerssi, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between achievement goal orientations and perfectionism, and the possible differences between general and sports program students in upper secondary school with respect to these phenomena. Achievement goal orientations refer to individual's generalized tendencies to favor certain type of goals and outcomes in an achievement context. Perfectionism is a personality characteristic, which as a multidimensional construct consists of both positive (high standards) and negative (dissatisfaction with the attainment of the goal) dimensions. Both achievement goal orientations and perfectionism have been linked to individual's well-being, interpretation of the environment, and achievement. There is only a few previous research that have studied the relationship between achievement goal orientations and perfectionism. The assumption in the present study is that students' achievement goal orientations have an effect on what kind of perfectionistic tendencies they display. Examining differences between athletes and non-athletes with respect to achievement motivation and perfectionism is a relative new study subject. By examining these differences, we might get important information whether young athletes have managed to combine the demands of their sports and upper secondary school studies. Finding the balance between these demands is one notable challenge student-athletes confront. The participants in the present study were 424 general upper secondary school students from different parts of Finland. General program was followed by 211 of students, and 213 of students followed sports program. A person-centred approach was applied to the data-analysis. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were extracted by utilizing the TwoStep Cluster analysis. The profiles were named following the previous research, and according to their most dominant orientations (i.e., mastery-, success-, performance-avoidance- and avoidance-oriented, and indifferent). Differences between the profiles with respect to perfectionism were examined through a series of analyses of variance. Differences between general- and sports program students were examined through a series of analyses of variance, and through Cross Tabulation. As expected, students with different orientations towards studying differed from each other according to perfectionism. The mastery-, success- and performance-avoidance oriented students emphasized adaptive perfectionism. However, the success- and performance-avoidance-oriented students emphasized also maladaptive perfectionism. The indifferent students slightly highlighted maladaptive perfectionism. The avoidance-oriented students did highlight neither of the perfectionism dimensions. The findings suggest that students' motivational patterns have an influence on their perfectionistic tendencies. Maladaptive motivational patterns, as well as, maladaptive perfectionistic tendencies seem to accumulate to same students. It would be important to take these results into consideration at teaching and its design, so that students who need support and counseling would receive them. There were not significant differences between general and sports program students according to achievement motivation and perfectionism. The findings indicate that sport-oriented schools have managed to support young athletes to combine their intensive sports training and upper secondary school studies.
  • Ståhlberg, Jenny (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism, achievement goal orientations, and distal goal setting. Multidimensional perfectionism is regarded as consisting of both positive and negative dimensions, and it is seen as a significant personality characteristic in individuals in achievement contexts. Achievement goal orientations refer to individuals' generalized tendencies to favour certain types of goals and outcomes in achievement settings. Distal goal setting refers to individuals' long-term goals, which, in the present study, are the grade goals that students have set for themselves. The relationship between perfectionism and achievement goals, as well as between perfectionism and aspiration level has been detected in previous studies. However, there has not been any previous studies concerning the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and achievement goal orientations, which both play an important role in the adoption of goals and the interpretation of achievement contexts. Thus, the assumption in the present study is that perfectionistic characteristics in students have an effect on the adoption of achievement goal orientations, distal goals, and also on the revision of those goals. The participants in the present study were 156 first-year students (aged 16–17 years) from a general upper secondary school in a small southwestern town in Finland. The students completed two questionnaires: the first in the beginning of each course and the second during the courses. By using TwoStep cluster analysis, three distinct perfectionism profiles (i.e., adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists) were extracted. The between-group differences on the achievement goal orientations, goal setting, and goal revision were examined through a series of univariate analyses of (co)variance based on the perfectionism profile membership. As expected, the adaptive perfectionists were prone to adopt mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, and performance-approach achievement goal orientations. In contrast, the maladaptive perfectionists highlighted performance-avoidance and avoidance goal orientations, while the non-perfectionists did not highlight any of the orientations. The adaptive perfectionists had the highest aspiration level and they also lowered their grade goals the least. The findings suggest that students' perfectionistic characteristics have an influence on their achievement goal orientations, goal setting, and goal revision. The maladaptive and non-perfectionists are at the highest risk of adopting low aspiration levels, maladaptive achievement goal orientations, and have the tendency to revise their goals downwards. It might be useful to take this into consideration at schools and in teaching, and to consider, if counselling needs to be given to those students.
  • Teppola, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on analysoida nuorten eteläkorealaisten aikuisten kokemuksia tavoitteiden saavuttamisesta ja saavuttamisen tarpeesta. Näkökulmana käytetään teoriaa kulttuurien ulottuvuuksista ja kulttuurisista arvoista, joiden kautta eri kulttuureja on mahdollista vertailla niiden yksilökeskeisyyden eli individualismin ja yhteisöllisyyden eli kollektivismin kannalta. Tutkimus pyrkii hahmottamaan, miten eteläkorealaiset aikuiset kokevat tavoitteiden saavuttamisen korealaisessa yhteiskunnassa, jonka on kuvailtu asettavan erityisesti nuorten sukupolvien harteille merkittäviä paineita niin opiskelun kuin työelämänkin saralla. Tutkimuksen taustalla ja punaisena lankana kulkee teoria Koreasta maana, jossa kulttuurin individualistiset ja kollektivistiset elementit ovat näkyvillä samanaikaisesti muodostaen monella tapaa uniikin yhtälön perinteisiä konfutselaisia arvoja ja modernia, länsimaalaistunutta elämäntyyliä. Tutkielma esittelee individualismin ja kollektivismin peruskäsitteiden lisäksi juuri korealaiselle kulttuurille erityisiä kollektivismin ja individualismin erityispiirteitä ja pohtii niitä motivaatioteorian ja korealaisen nyky-yhteiskunnan näkökulmasta. Tutkielma ammentaa kulttuurintutkimuksen lisäksi mm. psykologiasta ja yhteiskuntatieteistä, sekä uutisartikkeleista ja sosiaalisesta mediasta, jotka rikastuttavat teoriataustaa ajankohtaisuudellaan ja ihmisläheisyydellään. Varsinaiseksi tutkimusmetodiksi on valittu narratiivinen tutkimus, jonka vahvuus on niin ikään mahdollisuudessa kuulla vastaajia suoraan heidän omien kertomustensa kautta. Narratiivit on koottu sähköisellä kirjoituspyynnöllä, ja sen kautta tarinansa jakoi yhteensä kuusi nuorta korealaista, joiden joukossa on sekä opiskelijoita että jo työelämään siirtyneitä. Sekä kirjoituspyyntö että saadut tarinat on kirjoitettu koreaksi. Narratiivien kautta välittyviä kokemuksia tavoitteiden saavuttamisesta analysoidaan teemoittelun ja kategorisoinnin keinoin. Keskeisiksi teemoiksi kerätyissä narratiiveissa nousevat se, millaisina suorittajina nuoret korealaiset itsensä näkevät, kuinka he kokevat ympäröivän korealaisen yhteiskunnan vaikuttavan tavoitteiden saavuttamiseen, ja millaisia syitä heillä on tavoitteidensa taustalla. Tavoitteiden saavuttaminen on vahvasti osa heidän minuuttaan, ja siinä yhdistyivät niin yhteisölliset periaatteet kuten yhteiskunnan auttaminen, että yksilöllisemmät unelmat ja oman sydämen seuraaminen. Vertautuminen muihin värittää korealaisten saavutuskokemuksia ja esimerkiksi hyvään yliopistoon pääsemistä pidetään tärkeänä etappina ja päämääränä. Samanaikaisesti tavoitteiden saavuttamisen pakollisuus sekä suorituspaineet herättävät lannistusta, jossa heijastuu vahvasti korealaisen yhteiskunnan kilpailuhenkisyys. Tutkielma tuottaa yksityiskohtaista tietoa siitä, kuinka korealaisen yhteiskunnan suorituskeskeisyys heijastuu nuorten aikuisten kokemuksiin heidän tavoitteidensa saavuttamisesta ja myös heidän minäkuvastaan. Myös individualististen ja kollektivististen elementtien yhteenkietoutuminen korealaisessa kulttuurissa tuodaan esiin konkreettisin esimerkein ja sanoin vastaajien omista tarinoista.