Browsing by Subject "activation"

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  • Ikonen, Jaakko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The long-lasting and persistent issues of high unemployment levels and increases in long-term unemployment have presented a difficult challenge to welfare states. The political focus in addressing unemployment has slowly shifted from large supply-side solutions towards activation, which aims to guide the unemployed into employment as swiftly as possible by increasing the responsibilities of welfare recipients and reforming the terms of social aid and the service system in order to promote a more active and self-reliant approach among citizens. This paper aims to add to the understanding of activation policies by studying views that the long-term unemployed hold on the concept of activation and their participation in activation measures. The research question is 1) How do respondents view activation and particularly work-based activation measures, with a strong focus on examining whether they consider activation meaningful or beneficial in their situation and 2) How do the unemployed view the legitimacy and justification of activation policies? The perspective of the unemployed in this study is provided through eleven in-depth research interviews conducted with long-term unemployed participants from the city of Rauma, the forerunner of current Finnish activation policies. The 18 190 word final transcription of the interviews is analysed through qualitative content analysis, which is used to produce a condensed description of the researched phenomenon. The inductive approach of the study manifests as a reliance on the experiences of the interview subjects in creating an understanding on activation, rather than approaching their reality through a predetermined theory or presupposed notions. The respondents consider their participation in activation to serve one of the following purposes: 1) inclusion in society or 2) a bureaucratical means of categorizing and controlling them during their unemployment. As lack of employment and the associated inactivity are difficult issues for the respondents, their mostly positive reaction to work-based activation measures is natural. Respondents appreciate the activities provided to them and give intrinsic value to the provision of these activities, somewhat regardless of their actual contents. As the respondents generally have very low hopes of finding work, participation in activation measures satisfies many needs which are typically fulfilled through work, including those related to status, recognition, social interaction and meaningful activities. Reactions towards compulsory participation in activation measures can be categorized as either positive, negative or conflicted. As can be expected, these views reflect broader social discourses on unemployment and activation. The most alarming finding of this study is that while many participants are satisfied with taking part in activation measures, this activation does not help them towards their objective of finding employment. The respondents share a desire to find paid work but don't see how participating in active labour market policies will benefit them in this field. While the respondents identify many important aspects of life where they directly benefit from participation in activation measures, it is problematic that a large part of participants have almost completely given up on their goal of finding work.
  • Attoui, Michel; Kangasluoma, Juha (2019)
    Tetraheptylammonium bromide (THABr), tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) and tetraethylammonium bromide (TEABr) dissolved in methanol or water methanol mixtures (similar to 1 mM) produce via positive electrospray atomization and high resolution classification electrical classification standard clean ions (monomer and dier) which are singly charged. THABr is hydrophobic and insoluble in water, TBABr and TEABr are hygroscopic and water soluble (0.6 and 2.8 kg/L respectively). These ions are used to study the effect of hygroscopicity on the activation of aerosol particles in the sub 2 nm range via the detection efficiency measurement of a boosted ultrafine TSI condensation particle counter (3025A). Water solubility of particles seems to play a role in the activation and growth with butanol vapor in the CPC (condensation particle counter) independently of the size.
  • Hietaniemi, Eila (2003)
    The study has examined the effects of the actions aimed at deterring exclusion especially on the activation, labourmarket placement, and the life control of the aging and inadequately trained unemployed. As the theoretical frame of reference, e.g. Pierre Bordieu's theories about the meanings of capitals and fields to individuals and from the viewpoint of social actors have been used. Under examination has been the social capital manifesting itself as trust or confidence in social relationships. Theoretical background for the study has been found from e.g. the frameworks of exclusion, unemployment research, organizing of social welfare, and from the frameworks of the operational conditions and environments of anticipatory socialpolicies, and activating labourpolicies. The empirical material was collected from the eight development plans targeted towards the people 45 years or older who were unemployed or threatened by unemployment, chosen from the Finnish ESR- program period 1995-1999. The basic population of 377 persons and the standardized control group was collected manually from the registries of the labour administration in February 2002, and the questionnaire as a postal survey also in the spring of 2002. The survey was sent to 196 persons chosen from the basic population. Because of the disparity of the materials and several different methods and theories used, the research methodology was chosen to be triangulation. In the examination of the factor of social capital and life control e.g. the methods of sum variables, means of variable ratios, and variance analysis. The interview material has been utilized as factual information whenever relevant. As one result, the most significator prohibitive factor in trying to employ the aging unemployed people was inadequate vocational training, and not so much aging. The roots of the structural unemployment affecting the current labourmarket are thus located: the post World War II radical change, when the educational requirements of workers were low. Of the factors of anticipation, activation, and the strength of the life control, the trust towards to the institutional actors turned out to be weak. The dominant factor expressing the strength of external and internal life control was the ethos of 'coping on your own'. The study used as source material the works, articles of e.g. the following authors: S. Aho, P. Bourdieu, J. Coleman, I. Culpit, T. Helne, K. Ilmonen, J. Kajanoja, P. Putnam, R. Raitasalo, J. P. Roos, H. Silver, and K. Vähätalo.
  • Rajavaara, Marketta; Saikku, Peppi; Määttä, Anne (2019)
    Työvoimapolitiikan pohjoismainen suunta painottaa heikossa työmarkkina-asemassa olevien henkilöiden aktivointia henkilökohtaisin ratkaisuin. Työllistymistä edistävässä monialaisessa yhteispalvelussa (TYP) selvitetään pitkään työttöminä olleiden palvelutarpeita ja pyritään tarjoamaan asiakkaille yksilöllisesti räätälöityjä palvelukokonaisuuksia kuntien työllistämis-, sosiaali- ja terveyspalvelujen sekä TE-palvelujen ja Kelan yhteistyönä. Henkilökohtaisen palvelun edellytyksiä ovat asiakkaiden tarkoituksenmukainen ohjaus palveluun, monialaisen palvelutarpeen tunnistaminen, palvelujen riittävyys ja yhteensovittaminen sekä palvelun todennettu vaikuttavuus.