Browsing by Subject "acute pancreatitis"

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  • Hungarian Pancreatic Study Grp; Farkas, Nelli; Hanak, Lilla; Miko, Alexandra; Sallinen, Ville; Hegyi, Peter (2019)
    Background: C-reactive protein level (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) have been variably used in clinical trials on acute pancreatitis (AP). We assessed their potential role. Methods: First, we investigated studies which have used CRP or WBC, to describe their current role in trials on AP. Second, we extracted the data of 1435 episodes of AP from our registry. CRP and WBC on admission, within 24 h from the onset of pain and their highest values were analyzed. Descriptive statistical tools as Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Levene's F tests, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and AUC (Area Under the Curve) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were performed. Results: Our literature review showed extreme variability of CRP used as an inclusion criterion or as a primary outcome or both in past and current trials on AP. In our cohort, CRP levels on admission poorly predicted mortality and severe cases of AP; AUC: 0.669 (CI:0.569-0.770); AUC:0.681 (CI: 0.601-0.761), respectively. CRP levels measured within 24 h from the onset of pain failed to predict mortality or severity; AUC: 0.741 (CI:0.627-0.854); AUC:0.690 (CI:0.586-0.793), respectively. The highest CRP during hospitalization had equally poor predictive accuracy for mortality and severity AUC:0.656 (CI:0.544-0.768); AUC:0.705 (CI:0.640-0.769) respectively. CRP within 24 h from the onset of pain used as an inclusion criterion markedly increased the combined event rate of mortality and severe AP (13% for CRP > 25 mg/l and 28% for CRP > 200 mg/l). Conclusion: CRP within 24 h from the onset of pain as an inclusion criterion elevates event rates and reduces the number of patients required in trials on AP.
  • Belfrage, Hanna; Lankinen, Emiel; Kylänpää, Leena; Louhimo, Johanna (2023)
    Objectives Updated population-based studies on acute pancreatitis (AP) in Finland are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the current data for AP in Helsinki. Materials and methods We performed an electronic health care records (EHRs) search on AP patients treated at Helsinki University Hospital between the years 2016 - 2018. Incidence was calculated, etiological and potential risk factors, as well as severity of AP were documented and analyzed. Results Between 2016 and 2018 we found 1378 AP episodes on 1084 patients, 35% of the patients had several AP episodes, i.e., recurrent AP (RAP). The domicile-adjusted incidence was 42.2/100 000. 47% of the patients had alcohol etiology (59% men, 27% women) and 23% had biliary etiology, 21% were idiopathic and 2.9% were post-ERCP pancreatitis. 13.1% of the patients had passed at the end of September 2021. 45% of the patients were currently smoking, 11% were ex-smokers, and the highest percentage of smokers was in the group of alcohol-caused AP with 74% ever-smokers. Biliary AP had the highest amount of overweight patients. 24% of the patients used anticoagulation (AC) medication, and the percentage was significantly higher with idiopathic AP (48%). RAP, female sex and normal BMI associated with a mild form of AP. Conclusions Incidence of AP and the percentage of alcohol etiology are lower than earlier reported for Finland although still higher than in other Nordic countries. Smoking and the use of AC medication associate with AP.
  • Lankinen, Emiel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Akuutti haimatulehdus on tavallinen sairaus kirurgian päivystyksessä akuutti vatsa -potilailla. Haimatulehduksen etiologian määrittämisellä on tärkeä rooli toisaalta mahdollisesti tarvittavien hoitotoimenpiteiden valitsemisessa, mutta ennen kaikkea uusiutumisen estossa. Yleisimmät etiologiset tekijät akuutin pankreatiitin taustalla ovat alkoholin liiallinen käyttö sekä sappikivitauti. Harvinaisempia aiheuttajia ovat haiman tai haimatiehyen mekaaninen ärsytys toimenpiteen seurauksena, hypertriglyseridemia, autoimmuunitulehdus sekä tietyt lääkeaineet. Osassa tapauksista aiheuttajaa ei löydetä ja nämä jäävät ns. idiopaattisiksi. Teimme retrospektiivisen katsauksen Helsingin Yliopistolliseen sairaalaan kuuluvassa Meilahden sairaalassa vuosina 2016-2018 hoidetuista akuuttiin pankreatiittiin sairastuneista potilaista. Tarkoituksenamme oli selvittää akuutin haimatulehduksen tämänhetkinen ilmaantuvuus sekä mahdolliset muutokset haimatulehdusten etiologiajakaumassa. Lisäksi arvioimme tarkasteltavina olleiden suureiden mahdollista osuutta altistavina tekijöinä akuuttiin haimatulehdukseen sairastumiselle. Arvioitavia suureita olivat potilaiden ikä, sukupuoli, tupakointihistoria, alkoholinkäyttö, BMI sekä veren hyytymistä estävän lääkityksen käyttö. Tarkistimme myös potilaiden elossaolotiedot sekä selvitimme ilmenneet haimasyöpätapaukset akuuttiin pankreatiittiin sairastaneilla potilailla. Akuutin pankreatiitin insidenssi oli matalampi kuin aiemmissa suomalaisissa tutkimuksissa. Alkoholipankreatiittien osuus oli vähentynyt, mutta oli edelleen korkeampi kuin muissa Pohjoismaissa. Sappipankreatiittien osuus oli noussut. Idiopaattisiksi jääneissä ja alkoholin aiheuttamissa tapauksissa tupakointi esittäytyi merkittävänä riskitekijänä. Idiopaattisissa tapauksissa myös antikoagulanttien käyttö oli mahdollinen haimatulehduksen riskitekijä. Obesiteetti vaikutti olevan merkittävä riskitekijä sekä idiopaattiselle että sappikivitaudin aiheuttamalle pankreatiitille.
  • Seppänen, H.; Puolakkainen, P. (2020)
    Background: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease, the incidence of which is 75-100/100,000/year in Finland. The worldwide incidence of acute pancreatitis is increasing. The identified mildcases usually show rapid recovery with conservative treatment allowing early discharge. Severe cases need early intensive care to reduce the risk of serious complications such as multi-organ failure. The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 2012-2013. A recurrent acute pancreatitis is defined as two or more well-documented separate attacks of acute pancreatitis with complete resolution in between. Alcoholic pancreatitis is the most common recurrent acute pancreatitis type. Methods: In this review current severity classifications and literature on the prevention of recurrent acute pancreatitis are analyzed. Results: The severity of the disease is classified as mild, moderately severe, and severe acute pancreatitis. Novel entities include acute peripancreatic fluid collections in mild acute pancreatitis and acute necrotic collections in necrotizing acute pancreatitis lesser than 4 weeks after the onset and pancreatic pseudocyst in mild acute pancreatitis and walled-off necrosis in necrotizing acute pancreatitis more than 4 weeks after the onset of the disease. After the first attack of alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis, 46% of the patients develop at least one recurrence within 10- to 20-year follow-up. With repeated intervention against alcohol consumption, it is possible to reduce the recurrences. Removing the gall bladder after biliary pancreatitis is the key preventing recurrences. In mild cases, even during the index admission; in severe cases, it is recommended to wait until the inflammatory changes have resolved. Of total, 59% of the idiopathic pancreatitis had sludge of stones in the gall bladder. In other etiologies, addressing the etiological factor may prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: This review describes current use of novel severity classifications and also different possibilities to prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis with different etiologies including idiopathic.
  • Hungarian Pancreatic Study Grp; Kui, Balazs; Pinter, Jozsef; Molontay, Roland (2022)
    Background Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potentially severe or even fatal inflammation of the pancreas. Early identification of patients at high risk for developing a severe course of the disease is crucial for preventing organ failure and death. Most of the former predictive scores require many parameters or at least 24 h to predict the severity; therefore, the early therapeutic window is often missed. Methods The early achievable severity index (EASY) is a multicentre, multinational, prospective and observational study (ISRCTN10525246). The predictions were made using machine learning models. We used the scikit-learn, xgboost and catboost Python packages for modelling. We evaluated our models using fourfold cross-validation, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the ROC curve (AUC), and accuracy metrics were calculated on the union of the test sets of the cross-validation. The most critical factors and their contribution to the prediction were identified using a modern tool of explainable artificial intelligence called SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP). Results The prediction model was based on an international cohort of 1184 patients and a validation cohort of 3543 patients. The best performing model was an XGBoost classifier with an average AUC score of 0.81 +/- 0.033 and an accuracy of 89.1%, and the model improved with experience. The six most influential features were the respiratory rate, body temperature, abdominal muscular reflex, gender, age and glucose level. Using the XGBoost machine learning algorithm for prediction, the SHAP values for the explanation and the bootstrapping method to estimate confidence, we developed a free and easy-to-use web application in the Streamlit Python-based framework ( Conclusions The EASY prediction score is a practical tool for identifying patients at high risk for severe AP within hours of hospital admission. The web application is available for clinicians and contributes to the improvement of the model.
  • Junkkari, Ella; Hukkinen, Maria; Merras-Salmio, Laura; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objective. Recent studies have reported an increasing incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) in children. The etiology of AP in children is more diverse compared to adults. All patients treated for acute pancreatitis (AP) or acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) in Helsinki University Children’s hospital during 1999-2018 were reviewed. Methods. ARP was considered as two or more episodes of AP over a lifetime. Demographics, clinical findings, laboratory test results, genetic assessment, imaging findings, endoscopic and surgical treatment, duration of hospital stay, number of pancreatitis episodes, and outcome were analyzed. Results. Of a total of 34 identified patients [n=22 (64%) AP; n=12 (35%) ARP; n=17 (50%) females] none died. The most frequent etiologies were pancreaticobiliary (26%), drug-induced (21%), hereditary (18%), autoimmune (9%) and idiopathic (21%) pancreatitis. An underlying SPINK1 (n=4) and PRSS1 mutation was found in five (15%) patients. Median age at diagnosis was 9.8 (8.2-11) years. Patients with pancreaticobiliary pancreatitis were younger at presentation [4.3 (2.5-9.8) vs. 10 (8.5-12) years, p=0.025] and underwent ERCP (n=7/9 vs. 8/25, p=0.025), and surgical or endoscopic interventions (n= 8/9 vs. 8/25 p=0.006) more frequently compared to the rest of the cohort. The most common long-term complications affecting 29% of patients were chronic upper abdominal pain and diarrhea, occurring each in three patients (8.8%), respectively. Four patients received pancreatic enzyme substitution, while none developed diabetes. Conclusions. Our study highlights the diverse etiology of pediatric pancreatitis necessitating comprehensive diagnostic work-up and management options with relatively low long-term morbidity.
  • Hungarian Pancreatic Study Grp; Szentesi, Andrea; Parniczky, Andrea; Vincze, Aron; Sallinen, Ville; Hegyi, Peter (2019)
    Introduction: The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are growing worldwide. Several studies have confirmed that obesity (OB), hyperlipidemia (HL), or diabetes mellitus (DM) can increase severity, mortality, and complications in AP. However, there is no comprehensive information on the independent or joint effect of MetS components on the outcome of AP. Our aims were (1) to understand whether the components of MetS have an independent effect on the outcome of AP and (2) to examine the joint effect of their combinations. Methods: From 2012 to 2017, 1435 AP cases from 28 centers were included in the prospective AP Registry. Patient groups were formed retrospectively based on the presence of OB, HL, DM, and hypertension (HT). The primary endpoints were mortality, severity, complications of AP, and length of hospital stay. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: 1257 patients (55.7 +/- 17.0 years) were included in the analysis. The presence of OB was an independent predictive factor for renal failure [OR: 2.98 (CI: 1.33-6.66)] and obese patients spent a longer time in hospital compared to non-obese patients (12.1 vs. 10.4 days, p = 0.008). HT increased the risk of severe AP [OR: 3.41 (CI: 1.39-8.37)], renal failure [OR: 7.46 (CI: 1.61-34.49)], and the length of hospitalization (11.8 vs. 10.5 days, p = 0.020). HL increased the risk of local complications [OR: 1.51 (CI: 1.10-2.07)], renal failure [OR: 6.4 (CI: 1.93-21.17)], and the incidence of newly diagnosed DM [OR: 2.55 (CI: 1.26-5.19)]. No relation was found between the presence of DM and the outcome of AP. 906 cases (mean age +/- SD: 56.9 +/- 16.7 years) had data on all four components of MetS available. The presence of two, three, or four MetS factors increased the incidence of an unfavorable outcome compared to patients with no MetS factors. Conclusion: OB, HT, and HL are independent risk factors for a number of complications. HT is an independent risk factor for severity as well. Components of MetS strongly synergize each other's detrimental effect. It is important to search for and follow up on the components of MetS in AP.