Browsing by Subject "adaptation (change)"

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  • Major, David C.; Juhola, Sirkku K. (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
    This guidebook presents a framework for climate adaptation planning for coastal cities, large and small, focused on the central roles of citizens, public officials, and planners. The book is designed to help all stakeholders in coastal cities understand and develop effective adaptation measures in a sustainable way. Within a framework of eight key planning steps, guidance is provided for stakeholders in the adaptation process from initial assessments of climate impacts to final planning. The work sets out general principles and methods of adaptation to climate change for many types of coastal communities. Adaptation is seen throughout the work as a process that should take into account all coastal assets, including economic, environmental, social, cultural and historical assets, with due attention to disadvantaged communities. Among the adaptation elements covered in the book are: a review of the current climate situation; climate impacts and vulnerabilities; climate models and future scenarios; physical, economic, social and other characteristics of coastal cities and towns; the range of available adaptations, including management, infrastructure, and policy adaptations; evaluation of projects and programs; and working together to develop and finance adaptations. Numerous tables are presented to help organize information and guide planning, and examples of adaptation challenges and opportunities are provided from both developed and developing coastal cities and towns. The volume is copiously illustrated, with extensive up-to-date references to provide the reader with additional sources of information. David C. Major holds a PhD in Economics from Harvard University. He has been a faculty member at MIT and Clark University, and a long-time Senior Research Scientist at Columbia University (now retired). His scientific research focus is the adaptation of coastal cities and towns, large and small, to climate change. Sirkku Juhola holds a PhD from the University of East Anglia, UK, and has worked in Japan, Sweden, and Finland. She is a Professor at the University of Helsinki, leading the Urban Environmental Policy Group. Her research interests focus on governance and decision-making, climate change policy, and climate risk. She is a member of the Climate Panel of Finland.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Melero, Yolanda; Evans, Luke C.; Kuussaari, Mikko; Schmucki, Reto; Stefanescu, Constantí; Roy, David B.; Oliver, Tom H. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Communications Biology
    Climatic anomalies are increasing in intensity and frequency due to rapid rates of global change, leading to increased extinction risk for many species. The impacts of anomalies are likely to vary between species due to different degrees of sensitivity and extents of local adaptation. Here, we used long-term butterfly monitoring data of 143 species across six European bioclimatic regions to show how species’ population dynamics have responded to local or globally-calculated climatic anomalies, and how species attributes mediate these responses. Contrary to expectations, degree of apparent local adaptation, estimated from the relative population sensitivity to local versus global anomalies, showed no associations with species mobility or reproductive rate but did contain a strong phylogenetic signal. The existence of phylogenetically-patterned local adaptation to climate has important implications for forecasting species responses to current and future climatic conditions and for developing appropriate conservation practices.
  • Van Looy, Kris; Tonkin, Jonathan D.; Floury, Mathieu; Leigh, Catherine; Soininen, Janne; Larsen, Stefano; Heino, Jani; Poff, N. LeRoy; Delong, Michael; Jaehnig, Sonja C.; Datry, Thibault; Bonada, Nuria; Rosebery, Juliette; Jamoneau, Aurélien; Ormerod, Steve J.; Collier, Kevin J.; Wolter, Christian (2019)
    River Research and Applications 35 (2): 107-120
    Resilience in river ecosystems requires that organisms must persist in the face of highly dynamic hydrological and geomorphological variations. Disturbance events such as floods and droughts are postulated to shape life history traits that support resilience, but river management and conservation would benefit from greater understanding of the emergent effects in communities of river organisms. We unify current knowledge of taxonomic-, phylogenetic-, and trait-based aspects of river communities that might aid the identification and quantification of resilience mechanisms. Temporal variations in river productivity, physical connectivity, and environmental heterogeneity resulting from floods and droughts are highlighted as key characteristics that promote resilience in these dynamic ecosystems. Three community-wide mechanisms that underlie resilience are (a) partitioning (competition/facilitation) of dynamically varying resources, (b) dispersal, recolonization, and recruitment promoted by connectivity, and (c) functional redundancy in communities promoted by resource heterogeneity and refugia. Along with taxonomic and phylogenetic identity, biological traits related to feeding specialization, dispersal ability, and habitat specialization mediate organism responses to disturbance. Measures of these factors might also enable assessment of the relative contributions of different mechanisms to community resilience. Interactions between abiotic drivers and biotic aspects of resource use, dispersal, and persistence have clear implications for river conservation and management. To support these management needs, we propose a set of taxonomic, phylogenetic, and life-history trait metrics that might be used to measure resilience mechanisms. By identifying such indicators, our proposed framework can enable targeted management strategies to adapt river ecosystems to global change.