Browsing by Subject "adaptation to climate change"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Nurmi, Väinö (2019)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 152
    This thesis applies cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to certain environmental questions and through its results contributes to both the theoretical literature on CBA in environmental economics and practical issues in the application of CBA to environmental problems. The work comprises an introduction and four articles, which address three common thematic areas: 1) distributional issues, 2) climate change adaptation, and 3) urban ecosystem services. Article I contributes to the literature through analyses that i) provide a connection between the income effect and distributional issues; ii) compare weighting schemes both theoretically and empirically; iii) show how weights could be incorporated into a CBA in practice; and iv) demonstrate that results are sensitive not only to whether weights are applied, but also to the choice of the inequality parameter and spatial resolution. Article II analyzes whether over-investment in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation is a legitimate economic concern and examines how the public reacts to major infrastructure investments. The results constitute a contribution to both the theoretical and empirical literature on the economics of climate change adaptation. Article III evaluates how potential innovations in weather services can reduce weather sensitivity and, consequently, decrease the negative effects of climate change on transport, particularly in the road transport sector. The article illustrates how innovations in the provision and use of weather and climate information can be beneficial for adapting to the changing climate and contributes to the empirical literature on the economics of climate change adaptation. Article IV presents a CBA of a relatively novel feature in the urban green portfolio: green roofs. The specific objectives of the research are i) to facilitate benefit-transfer of ecosystem services from one urban area to another by providing detailed information on valuation methods and the role of different assumptions and parameter values and ii) to include scenic values as a benefit item based on a formal and trackable analysis rather than on a guess. The article contributes to the empirical literature related to both the cost-benefit analysis of urban ecosystem services and the economics of climate change adaptation. *** Tässä tutkielmassa sovelletaan kustannushyötyanalyysiä (KHA) ympäristöön liittyviin kysymyksiin. Tulokset vievät eteenpäin sekä KHA-analyysin teoreettista kirjallisuutta että käytännön sovellettavuutta ympäristökysymyksiin. Työ koostuu neljästä artikkelista, joissa on kolme poikkileikkaavaa teemaa: 1) tulojakauma-kysymykset, 2) ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutuminen ja 3) urbaanit ekosysteemipalvelut. Artikkeli I pääkontribuutio kirjallisuuteen on i) luoda yhteys tulovaikutuksen ja tulojakauma-kysymyksen välille, ii) vertailla eri painotustapoja teoreettisesti ja empiirisesti, iii) osoittaa, miten painotukset voidaan käytännössä sisällyttää KHA:n, iv) näyttää tulosten herkkyys paitsi siihen, painotetaanko hyötyjä vai ei, myös siihen, mikä painotustapa valitaan ja mitä maantieteellistä tarkkuutta käytetään. Artikkeli II analysoi esimerkin avulla, onko liiallinen panostaminen ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutumiseen ja onnettomuusriskien vähentämiseen todellinen huolenaihe. Liiallinen panostus määritellään taloudellisen tehokkuuden avulla. Tulokset myötävaikuttavat ilmastonmuutokseen liittyvän taloustieteen teoreettiseen ja käytännön kirjallisuuteen. Artikkelissa III arvioimme, miten sääpalveluihin liittyvät innovaatiot voivat vähentää yhteiskunnan sääherkkyyttä ja vähentää ilmastonmuutoksen tuomia negatiivisia vaikutuksia tieliikenteelle. Artikkelissa näytetään, miten sääpalveluiden jakeluun ja käytettävyyteen liittyvät innovaatiot ovat hyödyllisiä ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutumiselle. Tulokset myötävaikuttavat ilmastonmuutokseen liittyvän taloustieteen käytännön kirjallisuuteen. Artikkeli IV käsittelee viherkattojen kustannushyötyanalyysiä. Tämän tutkimuksen päätavoitteet ovat: i) mahdollistaa tulosten siirtäminen toiselta urbaanilta alueelta toiselle antamalla mahdollisimman tarkat tiedot tutkimuksessa käytetyistä menetelmistä ja parametreista, ii) sisällyttää viherkattojen maisemahyödyt yhtenä hyötylajina mukaan. Tulokset myötävaikuttavat sekä ekosysteemipalveluihin liittyvän KHA:n käytännön kirjallisuuteen että ilmastonmuutokseen liittyvän taloustieteen käytännön kirjallisuuteen.
  • Evokari, Viliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The impacts of climate change are going to be significant in Finland, thus the need to adapt is inevitable. Municipalities are the key to adaptation because the impacts of climate change are met locally. Several cities have developed their measures to climate impacts. However, multiple barriers may hinder the planning and implementation of adaptation measures in the cities. The purpose of this research is to identify and overcome the barriers in urban climate change adaptation in the City of Helsinki. The main data of this research was collected in a workshop and it consists of the blank form replies collected with 6-3-5 method and focus group discussions. 11 civil servants from the City of Helsinki who deal with adaptation issues in their daily work participated in the workshop. The participants identified the barriers and evaluated the most important ones in the workshop: lack of cost-benefit analyses, rivalry of the resources with other interests, lack of urgency regarding adaptation, lack of information, fragmentation of the organization and unclear roles and responsibilities. Identifying the barriers does not solely promote the resilience of the cities but it is an important step in the development of adaptation work. It is essential to seek possible solutions to overcome the identified barriers. Six solutions that can tackle simultaneously several barriers emerged from the data gathered in the workshop: costbenefit analyses, increasing training and information, concrete examples, increasing co-operation, clear modes of action and responsibilities and the support and commitment of the management. With these solutions, the City of Helsinki has the possibility to simultaneously overcome several barriers that were identified in this research. To conclude, the responsibility of climate change adaptation should be clarified in the new city organization and silos between different sectors should be addressed, if possible. It would be useful to utilise the multi-criteria decision analysis in prioritising and argumenting of the adaptation measures in the city. As additional conclusions, it seems that improved co-operation with the universities and research institutions, and legislation indicating clear roles and responsibilities in terms of adaptation might benefit the adaptation work in the City of Helsinki. As for the need for further research, the analytical framework developed and utilized in this research needs to be tested in other case studies also.
  • Venäläinen, Ari; Ruosteenoja, Kimmo; Lehtonen, Ilari (2019)
    Raportteja – Rapporter – Reports 2019:3
    This report deals with projected climatic changes in four areas of operation of the UPM-Kymmene company: Finland, southern Germany, Uruguay and eastern China. The implications of the projected changes for forestry, including forest growth and productivity and possible climate change induced disturbances, are discussed as well. Climate projections have been derived from the output of 28 global climate models. Analyses focus on the RCP4.5 greenhouse gas scenario that represents an alternative of moderately large emissions. Mainly, projections calculated for the period 2040–2069 (relative to 1971–2000) have been examined. All the models analyzed simulate higher temperatures for the future. However, the degree of warming varies quite a lot among the models. For many other climate variables, like precipitation and incident solar radiation, even the sign of the future change can be uncertain. Even so, in the regions examined mean precipitation is more likely to increase than decrease, except for southern Germany in summer and early autumn, Uruguay in Southern Hemisphere winter and spring and China in late autumn. Rising temperatures enhance evaporation and increase drought risks despite modest increases in precipitation. In some seasons, both the intense rainfall events and dry periods are projected to become more severe. In recent decades, forest resources have been increasing in Europe. Especially in Northern Europe, forests have benefitted from the warmer climate and increased CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. During the coming decades, this positive development may at least partly be cancelled due to potentially increasing disturbances for the forest growth. For example, drought, fire and insect pests may cause damage. The role of forests as a carbon sink is an important aspect in the context of climate change mitigation activities, and vivid discussion on the most beneficial and sustainable use of forest resources is foreseen to continue. If global climate policy proves to be successful, it is possible that future changes in climate will be weaker than those based on the RCP4.5 scenario discussed in this report. However, this requires rapid restrictions of the greenhouse gas emissions globally.