Browsing by Subject "adaptive immunity"

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  • Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika (2016)
    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced 'omics' technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account.
  • Ylösmäki, Erkko; Fusciello, Manlio; Martins, Beatriz; Feola, Sara; Hamdan, Firas; Chiaro, Jacopo; Ylösmäki, Leena; Vaughan, Matthew J.; Viitala, Tapani; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2021)
    Background Intratumoral BCG therapy, one of the earliest immunotherapies, can lead to infiltration of immune cells into a treated tumor. However, an increase in the number of BCG-induced tumor-specific T cells in the tumor microenvironment could lead to enhanced therapeutic effects. Methods Here, we have developed a novel cancer vaccine platform based on BCG that can broaden BCG-induced immune responses to include tumor antigens. By physically attaching tumor-specific peptides onto the mycobacterial outer membrane, we were able to induce strong systemic and intratumoral T cell-specific immune responses toward the attached tumor antigens. These therapeutic peptides can be efficiently attached to the mycobacterial outer membrane using a poly-lysine sequence N-terminally fused to the tumor-specific peptides. Results Using two mouse models of melanoma and a mouse model of colorectal cancer, we observed that the antitumor immune responses of BCG could be improved by coating the BCG with tumor-specific peptides. In addition, by combining this novel cancer vaccine platform with anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, the number of responders to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy was markedly increased. Conclusions This study shows that intratumoral BCG immunotherapy can be improved by coating the bacteria with modified tumor-specific peptides. In addition, this improved BCG immunotherapy can be combined with ICI therapy to obtain enhanced tumor growth control. These results warrant clinical testing of this novel cancer vaccine platform.
  • Liikanen, Ilkka; Basnet, Saru; Quixabeira, Dafne C. A.; Taipale, Kristian; Hemminki, Otto; Oksanen, Minna; Kankainen, Matti; Juhila, Juuso; Kanerva, Anna; Joensuu, Timo; Tähtinen, Siri; Hemminki, Akseli (2022)
    Background Oncolytic viruses are a potent form of active immunotherapy, capable of invoking antitumor T-cell responses. Meanwhile, less is known about their effects on immune checkpoints, the main targets for passive immunotherapy of cancer. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) is a coinhibitory checkpoint driving T-cell exhaustion in cancer. Here we investigated the effects of oncolytic adenovirus on the TIM-3 checkpoint on tumor-infiltrating immune cells and clinical impact in patients with cancer receiving oncolytic immunotherapy. Methods Modulation of TIM-3 expression on tumor-infiltrating immune cells was studied preclinically in B16 melanoma following intratumoral treatment with Ad5/3 increment 24-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor oncolytic adenovirus. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal analysis of 15 patients with advanced-stage cancer with tumor-site biopsies before and after oncolytic immunotherapy, treated in the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ISRCTN10141600, April 5, 2011). Following patient stratification with regard to TIM-3 (increase vs decrease in tumors), overall survival and imaging/marker responses were evaluated by log-rank and Fisher's test, while coinhibitory receptors/ligands, transcriptomic changes and tumor-reactive and tumor-infltrating immune cells in biopsies and blood samples were studied by microarray rank-based statistics and immunoassays. Results Preclinically, TIM-3(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in B16 melanoma showed an exhausted phenotype, whereas oncolytic adenovirus treatment significantly reduced the proportion of TIM-3(+) TIL subset through recruitment of less-exhausted CD8(+) TIL. Decrease of TIM-3 was observed in 60% of patients, which was associated with improved overall survival over TIM-3 increase patients (p=0.004), together with evidence of clinical benefit by imaging and blood analyses. Coinhibitory T-cell receptors and ligands were consistently associated with TIM-3 changes in gene expression data, while core transcriptional exhaustion programs and T-cell dysfunction were enriched in patients with TIM-3 increase, thus identifying patients potentially benefiting from checkpoint blockade. In striking contrast, patients with TIM-3 decrease displayed an acute inflammatory signature, redistribution of tumor-reactive CD8(+) lymphocytes and higher influx of CD8(+) TIL into tumors, which were associated with the longest overall survival, suggesting benefit from active immunotherapy. Conclusions Our results indicate a key role for the TIM-3 immune checkpoint in oncolytic adenoviral immunotherapy. Moreover, our results identify TIM-3 as a potential biomarker for oncolytic adenoviruses and create rationale for combination with passive immunotherapy for a subset of patients.
  • Pietiäinen, Milla; Liljestrand, John M.; Akhi, Ramin; Buhlin, Kåre; Johansson, Anders; Paju, Susanna; Salminen, Aino; Mäntylä, Päivi; Sinisalo, Juha; Tjäderhane, Leo; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Pussinen, Pirkko (2019)
    Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory reaction at the apex of an infected tooth. Its microbiota resembles that of marginal periodontitis and may induce local and systemic antibodies binding to bacteria- and host-derived epitopes. Our aim was to investigate the features of the adaptive immune response in apical periodontitis. The present Parogene cohort (n = 453) comprises patients with cardiac symptoms. Clinical and radiographic oral examination was performed to diagnose apical and marginal periodontitis. A three-category endodontic lesion score was designed. Antibodies binding to the bacteria- and host-derived epitopes were determined from saliva and serum, and bacterial compositions were examined from saliva and subgingival samples. The significant ORs (95% CI) for the highest endodontic scores were observed for saliva IgA and IgG to bacterial antigens (2.90 (1.01-8.33) and 4.91 (2.48-9.71)/log10 unit), saliva cross-reacting IgG (2.10 (1.48-2.97)), serum IgG to bacterial antigens (4.66 (1.22-10.1)), and Gram-negative subgingival species (1.98 (1.16-3.37)). In a subgroup without marginal periodontitis, only saliva IgG against bacterial antigens associated with untreated apical periodontitis (4.77 (1.05-21.7)). Apical periodontitis associates with versatile adaptive immune responses against both bacterial- and host-derived epitopes independently of marginal periodontitis. Saliva immunoglobulins could be useful biomarkers of oral infections including apical periodontitis-a putative risk factor for systemic diseases.