Browsing by Subject "adeno-associated virus"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Albert, Katrina; Voutilainen, Merja H.; Domanskyi, Andrii; Airavaara, Mikko (2017)
    Gene delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a widely used method to transduce neurons in the brain, especially due to its safety, efficacy, and long-lasting expression. In addition, by varying AAV serotype, promotor, and titer, it is possible to affect the cell specificity of expression or the expression levels of the protein of interest. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum, comprising the nigrostriatal pathway, are involved in movement control and degenerate in Parkinson's disease. AAV-based gene targeting to the projection area of these neurons in the striatum has been studied extensively to induce the production of neurotrophic factors for disease-modifying therapies for Parkinson's disease. Much less emphasis has been put on AAV-based gene therapy targeting dopamine neurons in substantia nigra. We will review the literature related to targeting striatum and/or substantia nigra dopamine neurons using AAVs in order to express neuroprotective and neurorestorative molecules, as well as produce animal disease models of Parkinson's disease. We discuss difficulties in targeting substantia nigra dopamine neurons and their vulnerability to stress in general. Therefore, choosing a proper control for experimental work is not trivial. Since the axons along the nigrostriatal tract are the first to degenerate in Parkinson's disease, the location to deliver the therapy must be carefully considered. We also review studies using AAV--synuclein (-syn) to target substantia nigra dopamine neurons to produce an -syn overexpression disease model in rats. Though these studies are able to produce mild dopamine system degeneration in the striatum and substantia nigra and some behavioural effects, there are studies pointing to the toxicity of AAV-carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP), which is often used as a control. Therefore, we discuss the potential difficulties in overexpressing proteins in general in the substantia nigra.
  • Shyng, Charles; Nelvagal, Hemanth R.; Dearborn, Joshua T.; Tyynela, Jaana; Schmidt, Robert E.; Sands, Mark S.; Cooper, Jonathan D. (2017)
    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, or CLN1 disease) is an inherited neurodegenerative storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). It was widely believed that the pathology associated with INCL was limited to the brain, but we have now found unexpectedly profound pathology in the human INCL spinal cord. Similar pathological changes also occur at every level of the spinal cord of PPT1-deficient (Ppt1(-/-)) mice before the onset of neuropathology in the brain. Various forebrain-directed gene therapy approaches have only had limited success in Ppt1(-/-) mice. Targeting the spinal cord via intrathecal administration of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer vector significantly prevented pathology and produced significant improvements in life span and motor function in Ppt1(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, forebrain-directed gene therapy resulted in essentially no PPT1 activity in the spinal cord, and vice versa. This leads to a reciprocal pattern of histological correction in the respective tissues when comparing intracranial with intrathecal injections. However, the characteristic pathological features of INCL were almost completely absent in both the brain and spinal cord when intracranial and intrathecal injections of the same AAV vector were combined. Targeting both the brain and spinal cord also produced dramatic and synergistic improvements in motor function with an unprecedented increase in life span. These data show that spinal cord pathology significantly contributes to the clinical progression of INCL and can be effectively targeted therapeutically. This has important implications for the delivery of therapies in INCL, and potentially in other similar disorders.