Browsing by Subject "adolescence"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 36
  • Flykt, Marjo; Vänskä, Mervi; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Heikkilä, Lotta M.; Tiitinen, Aila; Poikkeus, Piia; Lindblom, Jallu (2021)
    This person-oriented study aimed to identify adolescents’ hierarchical attachment profiles with parents and peers, and to analyze associations between the profiles and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 449 Finnish 17–19-year-olds reporting their attachments to mother, father, best friend, and romantic partner and details on mental health (internalizing symptoms, inattention/hyperactivity, and anger control problems) and risk-taking behavior (substance use and sexual risk-taking). Attachment was measured with Experiences in Close Relationships – Relationship Structures (ECR-RS); internalizing, inattention/hyperactivity, and anger control problems with Self-Report of Personality — Adolescent (SRP—A) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, third edition (BASC-3); substance use with the Consumption scale of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) and items from the Finnish School Health Promotion Study; and sexual risk-taking behavior with the Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE). Latent profile analysis identified five attachment profiles: “All secure” (39%), “All insecure” (11%), “Parents insecure – Peers secure” (21%), “Parents secure – Friend insecure” (10%), and “Parents secure – Partner insecure” (19%). “All insecure” adolescents showed the highest and “All secure” adolescents the lowest levels of mental health problems and substance use. Further, parental attachment security seemed to specifically prevent substance use and anger control problems, while peer attachment security prevented internalizing problems. Our findings help both understand the organization of attachment hierarchies in adolescence and refine the role of specific attachment relationships in psychosocial adjustment, which can be important for clinical interventions in adolescence.
  • Flykt, M. S.; Prince, M.; Vänskä, M.; Lindblom, J.; Minkkinen, J.; Tiitinen, A.; Poikkeus, P.; Biringen, Z.; Punamäki, R. L. (2022)
    STUDY QUESTION Does adolescent attachment to parents and peers differ between singletons and twins born with ART or natural conception (NC)? SUMMARY ANSWER Adolescent attachment anxiety with the father was higher among NC singletons than among ART and NC twins, whereas attachment avoidance with the father was higher in ART singletons than in NC singletons and NC twins. No differences were found in attachment to the mother, best friend or romantic partner. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Most studies have not found differences between ART and NC singletons in parent-adolescent relationships, but twin relationships may be more at risk. No previous study has examined all four groups in the same study, or specifically looked at attachment relationships. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was an 18-year, prospective and controlled longitudinal study with families of 496 ART singletons, 101 ART twin pairs, 476 NC singletons and 22 NC twin pairs. Families were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy; the ART group was recruited from five infertility clinics in Finland and the control group was recruited from a hospital outpatient clinic during a routine visit. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Mothers and fathers gave background information for this study during pregnancy, and during the child's first year and early school age (7-8 years). For the ART group, infertility characteristics and prenatal medical information was also obtained from the patient registry of the infertility clinics. Children (originally 50% girls) filled in electronic questionnaires related to their attachment to mother, father, best friend and romantic partner (Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures) at 17-19 years of age. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Adolescent attachment anxiety to father was higher in NC singletons than in ART twins, P = 0.004 and marginally higher than in NC twins, P = 0.06. Adolescent attachment avoidance to father was higher in ART singletons than in NC singletons, P = 0.006 and marginally higher than in NC twins, P = 0.055. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size was small especially in the NC twin group and there was drop-out over the 18-year time period, especially among boys and families with lower parental education level. The study only included native Finnish-speaking families. The results could differ in a more diverse population. ART singletons were younger and had fewer siblings than ART twins and NC children, and ART and NC twins had more newborn health risks than ART and NC singletons. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The study adds to a growing body of evidence that neither ART treatments nor being a twin places mother-child relationships or peer relationships at long-term risk. However, in our study, which was the first to examine both ART and twinhood simultaneously, we found that there may be more problems in father-adolescent relationships, but only in ART singletons and only related to attachment avoidance. Our findings suggest that men, as well as women, should receive enough support in pre- and peri-natal health care during and after infertility treatments. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by Academy of Finland (grant number 2501308988), the Juho Vainio Foundation and the Finnish Cultural Foundation. The authors report no conflict of interest.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Marttunen, Mauri (2019)
    Purpose: To explore whether sexual harassment experiences are more common among adolescents reporting romantic and erotic interests in the same sex and both sexes, when sociodemographic and mental health confounding are controlled for, and whether the associations are similar in both sexes and in different phases of adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a nationally representative dataset of 25,147 boys and 25,257 girls in comprehensive school, and 33,231 boys and 36,765 girls in upper secondary education. Self-reports of experiences of sexual harassment, and emotional (depression) and behavioral (delinquency) symptoms were used. Results: All associations between sexual minority status and harassment diminished clearly when mental disorder dimensions were controlled for. In the comprehensive school sample (mean age 15.4 years), sexual harassment experiences were 4-7-fold more common among boys, and 1.5-3-fold among girls, with same-sex/both-sexes interest, compared to those interested exclusively in the opposite sex. In the upper secondary education sample (mean age 17.4 years), among boys, sexual harassment was reported 3-6-fold more commonly by those not exclusively heterosexually interested. Among older girls, a slight increase in sexual harassment experiences was seen among those interested in both sexes. Conclusions: Sexual harassment experiences are associated with sexual minority status, particularly among boys. Confounding by mental disorders needs to be accounted for when studying sexual minority status and sexual harassment.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Salmela, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims of the study. Earlier studies focusing on diagnosed autism spectrum disorders have found high prevalence of sleep problems and other psychiatric disorders among adolescents. Moreover, subclinical variation of autistic traits has been shown to be associated with social deficits and psychiatric symptoms. However, little is known about the possible connection between subclinical autistic traits and sleep. This study explores whether adolescents with elevated levels of subclinical autistic traits are at heightened risk for sleep problems. Methods. This study used follow-up data from the GLAKU (Glycyrrhizin in Licorice) cohort study. The sample consisted of 157 (57% girls) 17-year-old adolescents. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. The Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale were utilized to control for comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Sleep was measured using actigraphs. Associations between autistic traits and sleep were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results and conclusions. Elevated levels of autistic traits were significantly associated with shorter weekday sleep duration. Moreover, autistic traits remained as an independent predictor of short sleep duration when comorbid psychiatric symptoms were controlled for. Risk for short sleep duration was more pronounced among boys. The results suggest that subclinical autistic traits should be considered as a possible underlying mechanism affecting adolescent sleep.
  • Immonen, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aims of the study. The aim of this study was to examine normative development of sleep patterns and circadian rhythmicity during adolescence. Previous studies have found that sleep duration shortens across the lifespan, and especially adolescents’ sleep timing shifts later due to physiological and psychological factors. Sleep patterns in adolescence are connected to individual’s endogenous circadian rhythms, usually measured by delayed melatonin secretion in the evening. There is a lack of understanding how sleep patterns are related to circadian body temperature rhythms during adolescence. Methods. This study was part of SleepHelsinki! cohort study of the Sleep & Mind Research Group. Adolescents’ sleep patterns were measured with actigraphies, whereas circadian body temperature was measured from the skin surface. Circadian temperature rhythmicity was inspected by circadian period length, the mesor of skin surface temperature and the amplitude of daily changes within the rhythm. Baseline measurements were measured from 215 (71.6 % girls) adolescents aged 16–18 years. At one-year follow-up, 156 (76.3 % girls) adolescents were measured again. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to examine changes over the year in sleep patterns and endogenous circadian temperature rhythm, separately for both girls and boys. Sex differences were tested with one-way variance analysis. Linear and ordinal regressions were used to predict sleep and circadian rhythm over the year. Results and conclusions. Over the year, adolescents’ sleep duration became longer during the week, while weekend sleep shortened. However, this change was only significant for girls. Sleep schedule became more delayed for both girls and boys during the week, as sleep onset, midpoint and offset occurred at a later time. Circadian rhythm changed for boys, as their average skin surface temperature increased, and their circadian temperature amplitude became smaller. Boys also had significantly lower circadian temperature amplitude than girls at the follow-up. Compared to boys, girls were 5.85 times more likely to have a high circadian temperature amplitude at the follow-up measurement. Changes in sleep length during the week was moderated by temperature amplitude, with higher circadian amplitude predicting sleep duration to become longer. Still, the likelihood to have long sleep duration was affected by past sleep duration.
  • Tammilehto, Jaakko; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Flykt, Marjo; Vänskä, Mervi; Heikkilä, Lotta M.; Lipsanen, Jari; Poikkeus, Piia; Tiitinen, Aila; Lindblom, Jallu (2021)
    The quality of parenting shapes the development of children's emotion regulation. However, the relative importance of parenting in different developmental stages, indicative of sensitive periods, has rarely been studied. Therefore, we formulated four hypothetical developmental timing models to test the stage-specific effects of mothering and fathering in terms of parental autonomy and intimacy in infancy, middle childhood, and late adolescence on adolescents' emotion regulation. The emotion regulation included reappraisal, suppression, and rumination. We hypothesized that both mothering and fathering in each developmental stage contribute unique effects to adolescents' emotion regulation patterns. The participants were 885 families followed from pregnancy to late adolescence. This preregistered study used data at the children's ages of 1 year, 7 to 8 years, and 18 years. At each measurement point, maternal and paternal autonomy and intimacy were assessed with self- and partner reports using the Subjective Family Picture Test. At the age of 18 years, adolescents' reappraisal and suppression were assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and rumination using the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Stage-specific effects were tested comparing structural equation models. Against our hypotheses, the results showed no effects of mothering or fathering in infancy, middle childhood, or late adolescence on adolescents' emotion regulation patterns. The results were consistent irrespective of both the reporter (i.e., self or partner) and the parental dimension (i.e., autonomy or intimacy). In addition to our main results, there were relatively low agreement between the parents in each other's parenting and descriptive discontinuity of parenting across time (i.e., configural measurement invariance). Overall, we found no support for the stage-specific effects of parent-reported parenting in infancy, middle childhood, or late adolescence on adolescents' emotion regulation. Instead, our findings might reflect the high developmental plasticity of emotion regulation from infancy to late adolescence.
  • Ellonen, Noora; Pitkanen, Joonas; Miller, Bryan L.; Remes, Hanna; Aaltonen, Mikko; Oksanen, Atte; Martikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Introduction The aim was to analyse whether age at first drug offense predicts premature mortality and morbidity due to substance use and violence among adolescents and young adults. Methods A prospective longitudinal register-linkage study based on a total population sample from Finland including individuals born between 1987 and 1992 and aged 15-25 years during follow-up in 2002-2017 (n = 386 435). Age-specific rates of deaths and health-care admissions (morbidity) during a 5-year follow-up were calculated from the first drug offense. Cox regression models were used to estimate differences in mortality and morbidity at ages 21-25. Results Of all 15- to 20-year-olds, 1.4% (n = 5540) have had a police contact. The 5-year mortality rates (per 1000 person-years) among those with first drug offense at ages 15-16 was 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-6.18], and 5.26 (CI 4.00-7.07) and 5.05 (CI 4.06-6.38) at ages 17-18, and 19-20, respectively. The rates of morbidity varied between 61.20 (CI 52.43-71.76) and 87.51 (CI 82.11-93.33). Both mortality and morbidity rates were over 10 times higher than among the general population. In models adjusted for family background, first police contact at an early age (15-16) did not increase the risk of mortality at ages 21-25 compared with first police contact at ages 17-18 (hazard ratio 1.55, CI 0.77-3.09) or 19-20 (hazard ratio 1.52, CI 0.78-2.98). The results were similar for morbidity. Discussion and Conclusions Adolescents with drug-related police contacts have high risk of mortality and morbidity due to substance use and violence regardless of age of first contact.
  • Laivo, Soila Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis answers to a question “Why adolescent girls drop out of school in Northern Uganda?” In Uganda, approximately 70% of the children drop out of public school before 7th grade, the final year of primary school. In northern Uganda, girls drop out of school in more significant numbers than boys, and it happens around the age when girls reach puberty. Northern Uganda is also a particular location because it is recovering from long conflict, affecting strongly the whole population living in the area. The thesis is based on two-month ethnographic fieldwork in northern Uganda during the spring of 2015. To answer the main research question this study seeks to analyse it through taking a look how the school, the community and the girls themselves experience and talk about dropping out, education and growing up in the current post-conflict state of the social life. The thesis argues that the dropout rate is linked to the adolescence as life-stage of becoming an adult that is making the girls to make decisions about the future. The analysis is done through three different perspectives – the educational, societal and personal narratives of the youth. The first perspective is the education and schooling in northern Uganda. It explores the concept of ’educated person’ by Levinson and Holland through sexual education and gender in education. The study shows that Ugandan public primary and secondary education is deriving its ideas and understanding of educated person from the national curriculum, which often conflict with the local concepts of the educated person in the Acholi community, influencing the blamed and real reasons for dropping out. The second perspective looks into the community and the societal pressures the girls are facing when growing up. It will describe family, kinship, marriage and gender in post-conflict context and show how in these areas of life, the past conflict, “loss of culture”, generational conflicts and subsequent disobedience are presented as reasons behind the challenges to stay in school. The third perspective tells the stories of the girls met and talked to during the ethnographic fieldwork in Northern Uganda. It answers the question “What is happening in the life of a girl when she drops out of school?”. It is argued that the girls take actions of a gendered agency to further their lives and become adults. Thus, dropping out of school cannot just be explained as a simple event just suddenly happening without their own will. It will further answer the question “What makes some girls stay in school?” to show how those girls still in school manage the crosscurrents of growing up in Acholiland. The thesis argues that the girls in northern Uganda are active appropriators and social agents who through their own actions contest, struggle and penetrate the structures in their society while also at the same time reproduce them. In Northern Uganda, both the community and the state together with different international agencies will have plans and expectations for the girls’ future. The study shows how the girls navigate the school, community and peer expectations and sociocultural and economic structures to stay or finally drop out of school. These structures are state organised and aid-infused formal schooling and society in amidst of post-conflict recovery which creates a framework where the girls are acting. The school presents the modern and globally orientated educated person, and in contrast to it, the community is looking for to restore ‘traditional’ way of life. It is argued that these two sides are often in conflict and in the middle of this conflict the girls act and solve their way out of it, looking for adulthood and gaining respectable status in the society. The schools, the community and even sometimes the development actors see the girls as passively following the things they will encounter. The thesis will show that they are not. The girls either stay in school or drop out of it, but more often as a consequence of their own decisions and actions than passively because the school or the community could not support them. It is demonstrated that dropping out of school looks more of line a tactic for the future as a respectable grown-up than mere problem to be solved.
  • Verrastro, Valeria; Albanese, Clarissa A.; Ritella, Giuseppe; Gugliandolo, Maria C.; Cuzzocrea, Francesca (2021)
    This study aims to investigate the relationship between empathy, social self-efficacy, problematic Internet use (PIU), and problematic online gaming (POG) and to evaluate how such relationship varies according to the age of the participants. A sample of 1,585 Italian students, both genders, aged 12-20 years, were divided into three groups according to the age filled in these self-report questionnaires: PIU; Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents; Interpersonal Reactivity Index; Scale of Social Self-Efficacy; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results allow to confirm that in the Italian context the relationships between the examined constructs change across the three age groups considered in the study. PIU and POG, as well as prosocial behaviors and personal distress, tend to significantly decrease in late adolescence (age 18-20 years); 15-17 years adolescents reported more empathic concern compared with the other groups. PIU and POG are affected by empathy and social-self efficacy in different ways depending on age, suggesting that the two conditions have an at least partially different nature. The different components of empathy seem to play a different role in the development of either PIU or POG confirming the need to separate the components of empathy.
  • Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Williams, Garrath; Michels, Nathalie; Molnar, Denes; Page, Angie S.; Pala, Valeria; Papoutsou, Stalo; Pigeot, Iris; Reisch, Lucia A.; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Moreno, Luis A.; Lissner, Lauren; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I. Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2-19 years old children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated for relative pairs. Familiality was estimated using variance component methods. Parent-offspring (r = 0.11-0.33), sibling (r = 0.21-0.43), and spouse (r = 0.15-0.33) correlations were modest. Parent-offspring correlations were stronger for the intake of healthy (r = 0.33) than unhealthy r = 0.10) foods. Familiality estimates were 61% (95% CI: 54-68%) for the intake of fruit and vegetables and the sum of healthy foods and only 30% (95% CI: 23-38%) for the sum of unhealthy foods. Familial factors explained a larger proportion of the variance in healthy food intake (71%; 95% CI: 62-81%) in younger children below the age of 11 than in older children equal or above the age of 11 (48%; 95% CI: 38-58%). Factors shared by family members such as genetics and/or the shared home environment play a stronger role in shaping children's intake of healthy foods than unhealthy foods. This suggests that family-based interventions are likely to have greater effects when targeting healthy food choices and families with younger children, and that other sorts of intervention are needed to address the intake of unhealthy foods by children.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Sirola, Anu; Savolainen, Iina; Kaakinen, Markus (2019)
    Background and aims: In recent years online gambling has become a potential risk for young people. The purpose of this study was to analyse patterns of gambling activities and their association with behavioural risk factors and protective factors. Data and Method: A demographically balanced sample of Finnish respondents aged 15-25 years (N = 1200) filled out an online survey in March-April 2017. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the variables on gambling activities to smaller sets of components, and regression analysis was used to analyse whether behavioural risk factors and protective factors were associated with the gambling patterns found. Results: Two main components were found: online- and skill-based competent gambling and chance-based entertainment gambling. Competent gambling had statistically significant associations with a variety of behavioural problems and risks, including psychological distress, lower social support, lower delay of gratification, hazardous drinking, regular drug use, compulsive Internet use, and problem gambling. Entertainment gambling was associated with lower delay gratification, hazardous drinking, and problem gambling. Entertainment gambling had a negative association with compulsive Internet use and a positive association with social support. Conclusions: Online-based competent gambling is a potentially hazardous form of gambling. New forms of online gambling are potential risks for younger generations. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online gambling and associated activities.
  • Ilomaki, Essi; Hakko, Helina; Ilomaki, Risto; Rasanen, Pirkko; Study-70 Workgrp; Marttunen, Mauri (2012)
    Objectives: Conduct disorder (CD) refers to a pattern of severe antisocial and aggressive behaviour manifested in childhood or adolescence, with heavy costs to society. Though CD is a common psychiatric diagnosis among adolescents of both genders, gender differences in comorbidity of CD have been little studied. In this study we examined gender differences among adolescents with CD in causes for hospitalization, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and somatic conditions. Study design: The original study sample consisted of 508 inpatient adolescents in Northern Finland (age 12-17); 155 of them (65 girls, 92 boys) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for CD. Methods: Diagnosis of CD and psychiatric comorbidities were obtained from the K-SADS-PL and somatic conditions from the EuropAsi. Results: As compared to boys with CD, suicidality (including suicidal ideation and behaviour) was significantly more commonly the cause of hospitalization among girls with CD (43% vs. 24%, p = 0.013). Among somatic conditions, there was a significant predominance in self-reported allergies among girls (60% vs. 25%, p Conclusions: Girls with CD seem to have an increased tendency to develop both comorbid psychiatric and somatic conditions as well as suicidality. New clinical aspects in treatment of CD and comorbid disorders among girls are discussed.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Lindberg, Nina (2019)
    The aim of this study was to explore whether there has been an increase in prevalence and changes in sex ratio in feelings of gender dysphoria (GD) in an adolescent population in Northern Europe, and to study the impact of invalid responding on this topic. We replicated an earlier survey among junior high school students in Tampere, Finland. All first and second year students, aged 16-18, in the participating schools were invited to respond to an anonymous classroom survey on gender experience during the 2012-2013 school year and in the spring and autumn terms of 2017. Gender identity/GD was measured using the GIDYQ-A. A total of 318 male and 401 female youth participated in 2012-2013, and 326 male and 701 female youth in 2017. In the earlier survey, the GIDYQ-A scores, both among males and females, were strongly skewed toward a cis-gender experience with very narrow interquartile ranges. Of males, 2.2%, and of females, 0.5% nevertheless reported possibly clinically significant GD. The 2017 GIDYQ-A distribution was similarly skewed. The proportion of those reporting potentially clinically significant GD was 3.6% among males and 2.3% among females. Validity screening proved to have a considerable impact on conclusions. GD seems to have increased in prevalence in the adolescent population.
  • Lindbäck, Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Locus of control of reinforcement is a concept which is embedded within Rotter's social learning theory. It is a generalized expectancy that reflects the consistent differences among individuals in the degree to which they perceive contingencies or independence between their behavior and subsequent events in social situations. If they expect that a reinforcement or an outcome is contingent on their behavior or their relatively permanent characteristics, it can be defined as a belief in internal control or, put differently, a belief in internal locus of control of reinforcement. Many essential things in adolescent's lives have been associated with internal locus of control. If they have an internal belief in the controllability of events in their lives it seems to lead to better health and greater academic achievement. One well known antecedent of internal control perception is a warm and nurturant family environment. Nevertheless the connection between breastfeeding and locus of control in adolescence is presumably never studied before. The purpose of this study was to explore, whether having been breastfed or duration of breastfeeding, predicts locus of control in adolescence. . In this study we used a sample (n=641) of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The study project was started in 1979, and the aim of the project was to study the levels of coronary heart disease factors and their determinants in children and adolescents. Information concerning breastfeeding and its duration was collected from parents in year 1983. The adolescent locus of control was measured in year 1986 by a shortened inventory which consists of 23 items. The original inventory has 40 items. Linear and logistic regression analysis' were used as statistical methods. The result of the study was that there was no connection between breastfeeding and locus of control in adolescents. By reason of no connection, breastfeeding did not predict locus of control in adolescence. Interestingly, two statistically significant predictors of internal locus of control were age of adolescent and educational level of parents. Family income was connected to internal locus of adolescent but it did not predict it. It is impossible to make any firm conclusions on the basis of one study. More studies are needed.
  • Sneck, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Attachment theory is a theory of social development and personality, known around the world. According to the theory, children have an innate tendency to develop a biologically based and central nervous system-regulated attachment bond to their primary caregivers in order to ensure safety, care, and survival. Early attachment experiences contribute to the way one sees oneself and others and lead to secure, insecure, or disorganized attachment styles, which affect rest of one’s life. Previous research has confirmed the universal nature of attachment, different attachment categories and styles, and early attachment’s links with future relationships and various internal and external problems. Attachment research has traditionally concentrated on early childhood and early childhood environments, whereas middle childhood, adolescence, and school context have been studied less. The objectives of the present study were to find out what kinds of links there are between attachment and the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, what kinds of attachment-related challenges teachers encounter at school, and how teachers could support their students with those attachment-related challenges. The aim is to explore attachment in the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including at school, to gain a better understanding and to create a valuable foundation for future research. Methodology. The present study was conducted as a systematic literature review, which allowed the gathering of diverse and comprehensive, yet relevant research material, while also supporting objectivity and reproducibility aspects of the study. The material, available through electronic databases, was comprised of research articles from around the world, published in peer-reviewed international research journals. The material was analyzed thematically by research questions and topics, which were then used as a framework in the Results section. Results and conclusions. Early attachment and attachment styles were directly and indirectly linked to the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, family relationships, and academic achievement, as well as internal and external problems. Various attachment-related challenges and problems were visible at school, but teachers had many ways to buffer them. Current attachment research has not affected or changed school environments enough. Much more attention should be given to attachment within schools, teacher education, and in-service training programs in order to give students better support for their attachment-related problems and challenges.
  • Castren, Sari; Järvinen-Tassopoulos, Johanna; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja (2021)
    Background and aims: The convergence of gaming and gambling may pose a risk for adolescents. Thus, it is important to find out how these behaviours are associated with other addictive behaviours in order to develop efficient preventive measures for youth. The aim of this study was to examine 1) whether problematic gaming and money used for gaming activities are risk factors for gambling, and 2) what kind of impact adolescents' substance use along with other factors related to friends and parents have on this association. Methods: The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs data, 2019 of Finnish adolescents aged 15 to 16 (N 5 4595). Cross-tabulations with Rao-Scott's chisquare tests were applied to study the associations of the background factors with gambling in the past 12 months. A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted for the outcome variable (gambling in the past 12 months) adjusted for all independent and background variables. Results: Problematic gaming alone was not associated with gambling participation, whereas using money for digital games increased the risk of gambling. Boys gamble more than girls. The use of alcohol and drugs increased the risk of gambling. Parental monitoring reduced the risk of gambling, whereas hanging around weekly with friends increased the risk. Discussion and conclusions: Using money on gaming sites may put some adolescents at risk of developing problems with either gaming or gambling. The link between using money in digital games and gambling participation calls for preventive measures, intervention and regulatory acts.
  • Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Carlson, Synnöve; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lonka, Kirsti; Hakkarainen, Kai; Alho, Kimmo (2018)
    Background: Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 167 human participants (13- to 14-year-old middle adolescents, 16- to 17-year-old late adolescents and 20-to 24-year-old young adults; 80 female, 87 male) while they performed attention and working memory tasks. The tasks were designed to tap into four putative sub-processes of executive function: division of attention, inhibition of distractors, working memory, and attention switching. Results: Behaviorally, our results demonstrated superior task performance in older participants across all task types. When brain activity was examined, young adult participants demonstrated a greater degree of overlap between brain regions recruited by the different executive tasks than adolescent participants. Similarly, functional connectivity between frontoparietal cortical regions was less task specific in the young adult participants than in adolescent participants. Conclusions: Together, these results demonstrate that the similarity between different executive processes in terms of both neural recruitment and functional connectivity increases with age from middle adolescence to early adulthood, possibly contributing to age-related behavioral improvements in executive functioning. These developmental changes in brain recruitment may reflect a more homogenous morphological organization between process-specific neural networks, increased reliance on a more domain-general network involved in executive processing, or developmental changes in cognitive strategy.
  • Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri (2018)
    Musical training has been associated with superior performance in various executive function tasks. To date, only a few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural substrates of the supposed "musician advantage" in executive functions, precluding definite conclusions about its neural basis. Here, we provide a selective review of neuroimaging studies on plasticity and typical maturation of executive functions, with the aim of investigating how proficient performance in executive function tasks is reflected in brain activity. Specifically, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced or mature executive functions are manifested as efficient use of neural systems supporting those functions. We also present preliminary results from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study suggesting-in line with this hypothesis-that musically trained adolescents recruit frontoparietal regions less strongly during executive functions tasks than untrained peers.
  • Riuttala, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2006)
    Personal goals offer an important aspect of personality and motivation. Personal goals are conscious and subjectively motivated objectives by which a person directs his or her life over time. Personal goals are related to adolescents' subjective well-being. The aim of the present research was to find out, what kinds of groups of adolescents can be formed by the content of personal goals and how these groups differ in goal appraisals, meaningful life events and subjective well-being. The second aim of the study was to detect gender differences and differences between vocational and high school students in goal appraisals, meaningful life events and subjective well-being. Adolescents in upper secondary education (N=1144) were grouped together by the content of their personal goals using a person oriented approach and a cluster analysis. Clusters found in the analysis were named by the centre goal as (1) a property group, (2) a vocation group, (3) a future education and personal relationships group and (4) a self-focused group. Adolescents in the property group put a little effort into their career goal, they were not exhausted in school work and their subjective well-being was average. Adolescents in the vocation group felt progress in their career goal and put effort into it. They had goals related to life-style. They did not feel exhausted and their subjective well-being was average. The future education and personal relationships group put effort into their career goal and considered progressing in it. Personal relationships were important in their lives. They were exhausted in their school work but they did not feel cynicism. Their own health was one of their goals and they felt satisfaction in their life. Adolescents in the self-focused group did not put effort into their career goal nor considered progressing in it. They were exhausted and especially cynical in their school work. They suffered from almost clinically significant depression. They had low life-satisfaction and low self-esteem. The following gender and educational differences were found. Compared with boys, girls felt their career goal was more important and stressful, and girls also put more effort into it. Girls were more exhausted, depressed and they had lower self-esteem than boys. High school students felt more stress with their career goal than vocational school students. High school students were more exhausted, but still they felt more satisfaction with their lives. In practice, to cover adolescents' personal goals is a possibility to find distressed individuals who might be in need for extra support.