Browsing by Subject "adoption"

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  • Kortelainen, Tina Helena Katrin (2010)
    This thesis examines some of the ideals and values associated with family in the context of adoption in Finland, and takes a look at how normative conceptions such as these come into being. The discussion is based on material collected through ethnographic fieldwork including public information sessions held for people interested in adoption and interviews with staff members at adoption agencies. The analysis has been divided into two parts. Firstly, I explore the regulations that govern the adoption process in Finland and ask where it is that decision-making power lies. The adoption system is presented as an example of Foucault’s view that modern society does not have one centre of power from which it is steered but control rather happens through infinite smaller and larger channels and processes. Some central decision-makers that dominate the power dynamics at work can nevertheless be identified and are discussed here. Secondly, this thesis asks how adoption, family and kinship are talked about in Finland and the discourses surrounding adoption thereby remain the central object of study. The discussion identifies the dictum “the best interest of the child” as the central logic governing discourse on adoption and looks at how this brings about a discourse of “warning” and a discourse of “risk” and permeates a discourse of “understanding”. The way in which the slogan is furthermore used as an instrument of concealment is also discussed, and the saddening reality of the hierarchy in adoptive children, which is rationalised through a discourse governed by terms of supply and demand and market forces, comes into focus. Most importantly, this thesis wishes to explore the political significance of the power dynamics and the complex set of discourses characterising the adoption process in Finland. Contrary to an overarching discourse of “equality” that claims everyone is treated equally in Finland, the adoption process is marked by an inequality that “labels” applicants as “suitable” or “unsuitable” as adoptive parents. Those considered “unsuitable” are openly discriminated against on the basis of their age, health or sexual orientation, while the system proclaims not only the right to discriminate, but the importance of doing so. By asking the question whether adoption in Finland is “in everyone’s best interest”, this thesis wishes to deconstruct and criticise underlying discourses of power.
  • Samuelson, Olle; Björk, Bo-Christer (2011)
    Three strategically important uses of IT in the construction industry are the storage and management of project documents on webservers (EDM), the electronic handling of orders and invoices between companies (EDI) and the use of 3-D models including non-geometrical attributes for integrated design and construction (BIM). In a broad longitudinal survey study of IT use in the Swedish Construction Industry the extent of use of these techniques was measured in 1998, 2000 and 2007. The results showed that EDM and EDI are currently already well-established techniques whereas BIM, although it promises the biggest potential benefits to the industry, only seems to be at the beginning of adoption. In a follow-up to the quantitative studies, the factors affecting the decisions to implement EDM, EDI and BIM as well as the actual adoption processes, were studied using semi-structured interviews with practitioners. The theoretical basis for the interview studies was informed by theoretical frameworks from IT-adoption theory, where in particular the UTAUT model has provided the main basis for the analyses presented here. The results showed that the decisions to take the above technologies into use are made on three differ- ent levels: the individual level, the organizational level in the form of a company, and the organiza- tional level in the form of a project. The different patterns in adoption can to some part be explained by where the decisions are mainly taken. EDM is driven from the organisation/project level, EDI mainly from the organisation/company level, and BIM is driven by individuals pioneering the technique.
  • Eriksson, Pia (2008)
    Avhandlingens syfte var att undersöka synligt och osynligt utlandsadopterade ungdomars upplevelser relaterade till etnisk identitet och identitet som adopterad, samt deras upplevda sociala stöd i dessa frågor. Studien är fenomenologisk och undersöker dessa fenomen i ungdomarnas livsvärld ur deras subjektiva perspektiv. Teoretiskt vilar studien på tre grundstenar: den sociala identitetsteorin, den psykodynamiska identitetsteorin och teorin om socialt stöd. Som viktigaste källor i identitetsteorierna fungerar: Branscombe, Ellemers, Spears & Doosje (1999), Ellemers, Spears & Doosje (2002), Erikson (1978; 1993), Grotevant, Dunbar & Lash Esau (2000), Liebkind (1992; 2006) samt Verkuyten (2005). Gällande socialt stöd är den centrala källan Pierce, Sarason, B., Sarason, I., Joseph & Henderson (1996). Förutom dessa utgör även Irhammars (1997) och Rastas (2002; 2004; 2007) undersökningar viktiga källor. Det empiriska materialet samlades in genom kvalitativa temaintervjuer med tio synligt och osynligt utlandsadopterade ungdomar i åldern 15–20 år. Som viktigaste metodologisk källa i den fenomenologisk-hermeneutiska analysen fungerade Perttula (1995). I ungdomarnas livsvärld visade sig utlandsadoptionen på olika sätt i mötet med omvärlden och familjen. Från omvärldens sida mötte de utlandsadopterade extern kategorisering medan mobbning och rasism var närvarande i en del ungdomars liv. Adoptivfamiljen utgjorde däremot ett ställe där ungdomarna accepterades och familjen fungerande också som den viktigaste källan till socialt stöd. Kommunikation om biologisk familj och etniskt ursprung var till en viss grad öppen i alla familjer. Syskonrelationerna upplevdes som viktiga av ungdomarna, men kommunikation om adoptionsrelaterade frågor med syskon förekom bara med syskon som hade samma biologiska familj. Betydelsen av det sociala stödet från andra adopterade var mycket liten i detta skede av livet.
  • Kujala, Sari; Ammenwerth, Elske; Kolanen, Heta; Ervast, Minna (2020)
    Background: The number of public eHealth services that support patient self-management is rapidly increasing. However, the implementation of these eHealth services for self-management has encountered challenges. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to analyze the challenges and opportunities of implementing eHealth services for self-management by focusing on the fit between the technical solution and clinical use. Methods: We performed in-depth interviews with 10 clinical project coordinators and managers who were responsible for developing and implementing various eHealth services for self-management interventions in five university hospitals in Finland The results were analyzed using content analysis and open coding. The Fit between Individuals, Task, and Technology (FITT) framework was used to interpret the findings. Results: The implementation of self-management services involved many challenges related to technical problems, health professional acceptance, patient motivation, and health organization and management. The implementers identified practices to manage the identified challenges, including improving the design of the technology, supporting health professionals in the adoption of the eHealth services, changing the work processes and tasks, involving patients, and collectively planning the implementation inside an organization. The findings could be mostly attributed to the dimensions of the FITT framework. Conclusions: The FITT framework helped to analyze the challenges related to the implementation, and most of them were related to poor fit. The importance of patients as stakeholders in eHealth services for patient self-management needs to be highlighted. Thus, we propose that patients should be added as a different type of individual dimension to the FITT framework. In addition, the framework could be extended to include organization and management in a new context dimension.
  • Ala-Harja, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The SAVE gypsum pilot project investigated the suitability of gypsum amendment as a new means of agricultural water protection in cooperation with local farmers. The participating farmers acted not only as testers of the method, but also as co-developers, whose expertise, observations and experience were used as part of the effort to produce a new cost-effective, widely accepted method of water protection from gypsum. The study investigated the factors that influenced the participation of farmers in the pilot project developing a new potential water protection method and, on the other hand, the factors that influenced their acceptance of gypsum amendment. The results tell about the acceptance of the method from the point of view of future users and about which factors in the method are relevant for farmers. The information helps in the evaluation, development, furthering and marketing of the method. The thesis was based on research related co-creation of innovations and acceptance of new agri-environmental methods. The material of the study was the answers of the farmers' surveys of the SAVE gypsum project. The surveys were conducted for three consecutive winters, beginning in December 2016 and ending in January 2019. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, logistic regression analysis and cross-tabulation (χ² test and McNemar test). According to the results, the main reasons for participating in the pilot were related to the improvement of the environmental reputation of the Finnish agricultural sector, curiosity about the effects of gypsum and the opportunity to promote water protection and related research. These factors, as well as the desire to strengthen Finnish agriculture, the sense of responsibility and the sense of community of farmers, also best predicted the acceptance of the method for reasons of participation. Positive factors in approving the method were the perception of local people's positive attitude towards the method, the experience of gypsum as an easy method for water protection, and the fact that the farmer was not concerned about the effects of gypsum on field condition and productivity or the surrounding environment.
  • Korsumäki, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The target phenomenon of the study is the experiences of adoptive parenting and family life by those parents who has a child adopted from South Africa. The object of interest is the adoptive parenthood and the experience of the adoptive family's everyday life. In Finland the interest about international adoption is great. As a contact country, South Africa has steadily raised interest. My goal in this study together with the wide theory of adoptions and adoptive parents' personal experiences is to serve those parents who are considering participate to international adoption process and especially thinking to adopt a child from South Africa. The frame of reference of this research is qualitative and theory guiding. The theoretical background examines the nature of the adoption process, the various stages of the process, as well as jurisprudence and ethics through the process as part of the protection of children. The approach in this study is a narrative. I gathered the research data by writing quest for the adoptive parents. The data consists the total of the six subjective reports written by six adoptive parents whose children where born in South Africa. The study revealed how the adoption is a very strongly legal process which is closely linked to the authorities' actions. During the process of adoption, the adoptive applicants are required to make a number of informed choices. During this process related to every party – both children and parents – there are always present the changes, losses, and hopes. While examining and comparing the data it became clear how an adoptive parenting is pretty much the same as a biological parenthood. Despite this, the adoptive parenting is always at the same a time different and special. The challenges of the spectrum appears to be mostly: adoptive children with special needs and responding to those special needs, attachment relationship and sometimes in different ways racist encounters.
  • Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Känkänen, Hannu; Joona, Juuso; Hydén, Tony; Mattila, Tuomas J. (MDPI AG, 2022)
  • Tanskanen, Antti O.; Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Rotkirch, Anna (2020)
    Based on kin selection theory, amounts of grandparental investment should reflect the probability to share common genes with offspring. Adoption may represent a special case, however, yet grandparental investment in adopted children has previously been both theoretically misconstrued and little investigated. Here, we study for the first time how grandparental childcare provision is distributed between biological, adopted, and step-offspring. Using Generations and Gender Surveys (n = 15,168 adult child–grandmother and 12,193 adult child–grandfather dyads) and the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (n = 17,233 grandmother–adult child and 13,000 grandfather–adult child dyads), we find that grandparents were less likely to provide care to stepchildren than to adopted and biological children, but no difference between adopted and biological children. These findings were present in both data sets and for both grandmothers and grandfathers, after several potentially confounding factors were taken into account. The stepchild disadvantage is in line with kin selection theory. The congruent amounts of care provided to adopted and biological children may reflect similar levels of adult–child attachment, selection effects, and greater need in adoptive families, as well as some degree of genetical relatedness in the case of kin adoption. The study provides new evidence of biased kin investments in contemporary societies and stresses the importance of psychological motivation and attachment in evolutionary studies of kin investment.
  • Mäki, Tarja; Kerosuo, Hannele; Koskenvesa, Anssi (2020)
    This study examines the learning processes of the adoption of the Last Planner System (LPS) and mechanisms of learning indicating the successes and failures of their establishment in three organisations. The organisations under study are a public building agency, an engineering office, and a construction company. One practice-based methodology by Engeström and Sannino of organisational learning based on the theory of expansive learning was applied in the analysis. The ethnographic research data included the observation of LPS adoption processes and the interviews of the participants. This study links the epistemic learning actions of the theory of expansive learning to the adoption process of LPS. It also reveals the mechanisms that indicate the success or failure of the adoption process. A successful adoption process seems to require strong ownership, enough time, resources, and opportunities for learning together in practical project work, and the combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches.