Browsing by Subject "advertising"

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  • Lindeman, Mikaela; Katainen, Anu Hannele; Svensson, Johan; Kauppila, Emmi Katariina; Hellman, Carin Matilda Emelie (2019)
    Introduction and Aims This study has, for the first time, mapped the extent to which alcoholic beverage brands operating on the Swedish market follow national advertising regulations and industry self‐regulating codes in their postings on social media. Design and Methods All social media content posted on YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram by 52 brands operating in the Swedish market was gathered from three sample months in 2014, 2016 and 2017. A content analysis was performed. Results An audit of the 1204 posts shows that the brands’ social media content conforms rather well with the industry's own self‐regulation codes. However, the studied beverage brands had alarmingly inadequate age‐gates to social media accounts. Advertisements for alcoholic beverages must be clearly distinguishable from advertisements for non‐alcoholic beverages, according to the Swedish Alcohol Act criteria. These criteria are fulfilled to a varying degree among the posts in the analysed data. Advertisements for non‐alcoholic beverages give companies a greater leeway in terms of shape and content of the post through logotypes, settings and connotations. However, advertisements of non‐alcoholic beverages continue to convey the brand connotations and image to consumers. Discussion and Conclusions Regulating alcohol advertising in online milieus can be very difficult because of the complex mixture between quickly evolving techniques and the diverse nature of communication messages targeting consumers. Many countries, including Sweden, are now focusing on how to enforce effective policies. This short report strives to shed some light on the scope and content of commercial messages on Swedish social media platforms.
  • Saari, Eeva-Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The thesis is a study of journalists ethics in health and beauty field. The research is aiming to answers questions as follows. Firstly, how do PR agencies get publicity for their clients and their products by using journalists as a tool? Secondly, how does it affect journalists ethics when a PR company wants to achieve the best results for their clients project? Thirdly, how do journalists experience objectivity towards readers when dealing with PR practitioners? Advertisers influence in the process is also taken into account. The starting point for the study is the hypothesis that British journalists are more biased than their Finnish colleagues because the industry is bigger in the UK and they get more gifts from public relations machinery. My view changed towards the end of the research; the study results indicate that both countries are in a similar situation. The readers are one of the main reasons why this study was conducted. They are the ones that suffer from unethical journalism. Journalism industry has its own code of conduct in both countries and the thesis examines the impact on journalists attitudes. The study is qualitative and the method used is thematic interviews. For this study seven journalists from Finnish and six from British monthly magazines were interviewed. The interview questions were designed to find out what is the public relations practitioners impact on journalists work. The theory of the thesis includes theories of ethics, journalism, journalism ethics and public relations. The concept of ethics used n this research is western. Thematic analysis is used in order to find out research results. Main result is that it is not the amount of gifts that affects journalists ethics but rather the relationship between the journalist and a public relations practitioner. Journalists get harassed by the public relations practitioners to the point that a journalist gives in just that she can have a peace of mind. The relationship between PR people and journalists can also be extremely friendly and as a result a journalist might feature their products. Advertisers play a key role on editorial content. They have power to tell what to feature and which launch event a journalist should attend. The results were similar in both Finland and in the UK other than one exception. A publisher in the UK has its own ethical rules that employees have to obey. The concept is more helpful when resolving ethical issues comparing to codes of conducts that are issued from an institution such as National Union of Journalists.
  • Kalli, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Aim of this master's thesis paper for consumer economics, is to research gambling advertisements in Finland over a period of 35 years, from 1970 to 2006. Veikkaus Oy (later Veikkaus), was founded in 1940, as one of the three licensed gambling organizations in Finland. Material for the current research comprised 1494 advertisements published by Veikkaus in newspapers and magazines at that time. Veikkaus has the exclusive licence to organize lotto games, sport games, instant games and other draw games in Finland. The other two operators, The Finnish Slot Machine Association RAY and Fintoto (on-track horse betting), were not included in the current analysis. This study has been completed according to research contract and grand by the Finnish Foundation for Gaming Research (Pelitoiminnan tutkimussäätiö). In general, advertisements reflect surrounding culture and time, and their message is built on stratified meanings, symbols and codes. Advertising draws the viewer's attention, introduces the advertised subject, and finally, affects the individual's consumption habits. However, advertisements not only work on individual level, but also influence public perception of the advertised product. Firstly, in order to assess gambling as a phenomenon, this paper discusses gambling as consumer behaviour, and also reviews history of gambling in Finland. Winning is a major feature of gambling, and dreaming about positive change of life is a centre of most gambling ads. However, perceived excitement through risk of losing can also be featured in gambling ads. Secondly, this study utilizes Veikkaus’ large advertising archives, were advertising data is analyzed by content analysis and the semiotic analysis. Two methods have been employed to support analyzing outcome in a synergistic way. Content analysis helps to achieve accuracy and comprehensiveness. Semiotic analysis allows deeper and more sensitive analysis to emerged findings and occurrences. It is important to understand the advertised product, as advertising is bound to the culture and time. Hence, to analyze advertising, it is important to understand the environment where the ads appear. Content analysis of Veikkaus data discovered the main gambling and principal advertisement style for each.period. Interestingly, nearly half of Veikkaus’ advertisements promoted topic other than “just winning the bet”. Games of change, like Lotto, typically advertised indirectly represented dreams about winning. In the category of skill gambling, features were represented as investment, and the excitement of sporting expertise was emphasized. In addition, there were a number of gambling ads that emphasize social responsibility of Veikkaus as a government guided organization. Semiotic methods were employed to further elaborate on findings of content analysis. Dreaming in the advertisements was represented by the product of symbols, (e.g. cars and homes) that were found to have significance connection with each other. Thus, advertising represents change of life obtained by the winning. Interestingly, gambling ads promoting jackpots were often representing religious symbolisms. Ads promoting social responsibility were found to be the most common during economical depression of the 90’s. Deeper analysis showed that at that time, advertisements frequently represented depression-related meanings, such as unemployment and bank loans. Skill gaming ads were often represented by sports expertise – late 90’s, their number started sky rocketing, and continued increasing until 2006 (when this study ended). One may conclude that sport betting draws its meanings from the relevant consumer culture, and from the rules and features of the betted sport.
  • Tåg, Joacim (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Economics and Society
    The growth of the information economy has been stellar in the last decade. General-purpose technologies such as the computer and the Internet have promoted productivity growth in a large number of industries. The effect on telecommunications, media and technology industries has been particularly strong. These industries include mobile telecommunications, printing and publishing, broadcasting, software, hardware and Internet services. There have been large structural changes, which have led to new questions on business strategies, regulation and policy. This thesis focuses on four such questions and answers them by extending the theoretical literature on platforms. The questions (with short answers) are: (i) Do we need to regulate how Internet service providers discriminate between content providers? (Yes.) (ii) What are the welfare effects of allowing consumers to pay to remove advertisements from advertisement-supported products?(Ambiguous, but those watching ads are worse off.) (iii) Why are some markets characterized by open platforms, extendable by third parties, and some by closed platforms, which are not extendable? (It is a trade-off between intensified competition for consumers and benefits from third parties) (iv) Do private platform providers allow third parties to access their platform when it is socially desirable? (No.)
  • Sears, Austin (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Modern life is saturated with advertisements that use images. We see them on our phones, our TVs, on billboards and signs, though very few are memorable or meaningful to us once they have reached the end of their lifecycle. One campaign that challenged the notion of traditional advertisements was HSL’s “Faces of Public Transport” campaign, which ran in autumn of 2013 and winter of 2014 in Helsinki. The HSL campaign featured 526 portraits of people from the Helsinki area who utilize public transportation in a unique and notable campaign in celebration of HSL reaching an annual ridership of one million people in the Helsinki region. The HSL campaign brings up questions about representation, the intersection of identities, and the power of images and the creator of images. Dyer (1997) and Hall (2003), among others, inform the theoretical background of the research on identity and representation, though the main focus of this work is methodological development and practice, specifically in terms of visual research methods and the use of photography as an ethnographic research tool. As the results show, making meaning from images does not produce neat datasets, but instead prompts further interrogation of local, national and global power structures that affect how identities are represented.
  • Kortelainen, Kimmo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Advertising creates images around products. The idea of advertising images is to bring value to the product in the eyes of the consumer. Advertising links various images to products. Images are designed to bring more allure to the products. For example advertising associate products with images of social relationships and well–being. The image that is linked to the product usually represents something positive from the view point of the consumer. The research goes through Finnish beer advertising from the years of 2000–2010. In the material of the research there are 62 different commercials. With content analysis there have been formed different advertising images theme classifications from the base material. 8 commercials have been selected. These commercials represent the most common image themes. These commercials have been analysed more qualitatively. In this qualitative analysis have been used semiotics, advertising formats and advertising theories. In the research the focus has been on what kind of images there is in the commercials, what is the structure of the images and what are the reasons behind these images. For example the advertising images in beer advertising are social person, humour, masculinity and nature. Different elements are used in the commercials in order to create the images mentioned before. Beer is linked to these stories and images of the commercials. The stories of the commercials appeal more to feelings than contain a lot of information. For example the advertising images are creating feelings about being fun and being a social person or being in the social situation linked with beer consumption. The commercials are intended to entertain and create humour. The alcohol law prohibits advertising that describes increase of enjoyment and social success as result of beer consumption. The allure and persuasiveness meaning of the commercials is less exposed or it is not clearly stated in the messages of the commercials. The entertainment in the commercials diminishes the meaning of clear sales purpose of the messages.
  • Airaksinen, Timo (2019)
    From the point of view of conflict theory, I argue for the following pessimistic conclusion: a silent conflict of interests exists between the entrepreneur and the customer, as the former must advertise and promote his/her innovations and merchandise. It looks innocent enough, but by doing so, the entrepreneur interferes with the needs and desires of the customer, and especially with the latter's conditional needs even when the customer does not appreciate it, or when the entrepreneur does it against the customer's will. From the customer's point of view, it is disturbing and negatively affects his/her happiness level. What are, therefore, the responsibilities of the entrepreneur? I provide a detailed analysis of the concept of need and desire, and explain how desires develop on the basis of the desirability of objects of desire. It shall allow us to see how desires can be manipulated and, perhaps, how such manipulation can be avoided. Keywords: desire, need, marketing, conflict, customer. (original abstract)
  • Malmelin, Nando Kristian (2001)
    The purpose of 'The Media Rhetorics of Advertising Film' is to clarify the conditions of and possibilities for the study of the production and interpretation of meaning in advertising film. I have attempted to answer the following questions: How is advertising film constituted from the producers' and the interpreters' point of view? How can advertising film be constituted as a research subject from those premises? In general, the aim of the research is to locate some basis for the study of meaning in advertising film. The nature of the research is theoretical, concept-analytical and descriptive. The research approaches advertising film from the premises of semiotics, media studies, literary studies and cognitive psychology. The research is preparatory in analysing the literature and concepts of advertising film, but also in aiming to develop some basic frameworks to the future study of advertising. There has been a twofold approach to the subject of the study. It has been discussed as 'advertising film' or 'commercial film', but on the other hand it is usually referred to as 'television commercial'. The most common media of advertising film is television, but advertising films are presented on the internet and in movie theaters as well. The concept of media rhetorics refers to the dynamics of persuasion in advertising. Media rhetorics has to do with the strategies of production and design, as well as with the contemplation of the conditions of intrepretation. The study consists of three distinct parts: 'Rhetorics of Production', 'Hermeneutics of Contexts' and 'Analysis of Advertising Film'. One purpose of the study has been to extend the model of radical contextualism in the direction of production. I have proposed two different types of approaches to advertising, 'reception semiotics' and 'metadesign'. The research concludes with some suggestions for further studies. When advertising film is studied, its multimodal nature and the fact that the subject is interdisciplinary should be taken into consideration.
  • Hakoköngäs, Juho Eemeli; Sakki, Inari (2019)
    This study investigates the role of advertising and visual rhetoric in political persuasion. Analysis of Finnish dairy product video advertisements from 2010–2016 focuses on those that exploit time as the main reference framework. A better understanding of how advertising is used as a tool of political persuasion is sought by exploring the following questions: How are advertisements used in political communication? How is time used as a means of persuasion in advertising? What role do visual rhetoric and social representations have in the process of persuasion? The analysis shows how advertisements objectify work as a tradition and anchor it as a Finnish value. The results show how advertisements employ enthymeme as a major rhetorical tool to assert that the tradition of Finnish employment is under threat but the consumption of Finnish dairy products and favouring a pro-agrarian policy would ensure that the tradition is transmitted to new generations. The contributions of the study are twofold: First, the combination of social representations theory and classic rhetoric provides a theoretical and analytical perspective for the analysis of visual rhetoric in political persuasion. Secondly, by exploring the advertisements as political communication, the study shows how commercials are used to advocate ideological and political projects, such as certain kind of agricultural policy – an angle largely overlooked in the previous research of social and political psychology.
  • Lind, Alina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Due to historical and political reasons, a lot of Belarusians face a challenge regarding the understanding of their national identity. This thesis aims at analysing the ways tourism advertisements contribute to the nation’s representation to Belarusians. The study’s objectives concentrate on the formulation of the most recurring cultural representations of Belarusian nation portrayed in the advertisements and evaluation of their contribution to nation-building processes. In the following thesis, I am answering the research questions regarding the markers of cultural representation (e.g., signs, symbols) seen in tourism advertising contributing to Belarusian identity, their cultural connotations, and the differences in the representation of such symbols in governmental and private Belarusian tourist advertisements. Since the thesis is analysing Belarusian national identity features, I also provide a historical and political background of the republic since the thirteenth century. By doing so, the reader gets a comprehensive picture of the events that influenced the problem of national identity and the topicality of this issue nowadays. The data consist of 44 images and snapshots taken from Belarusian online travel resources. As a rule, these images have a direct connection to traditions, myths, and national heritage of the republic. The materials were classified according to their references to geography, leisure practices, cultural heritage, and social relationships. Such references facilitate the classification of the data and allow to identify the national identity markers in a structured way. In this research, I applied the semiology analysis method that analyses denotative and connotative meanings of an image. This method helps to identify “symbols” depicted in the tourist advertisements regarding Belarusian national identity which involves reading between the lines and understanding the historical and cultural “baggage” of the nation in question. This study demonstrated the most representative markers of cultural representation used in the tourist advertisements of Belarus, the way they “speak” to the citizens, and shape Belarusian national identity in the modern context.