Browsing by Subject "aerosolit"

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  • Hari, Pertti.; Kulmala, Markku.; Pohja, Toivo; Lahti, Tapani.; Siivola, Erkki.; Palva, Lauri; Aalto, Pasi; Hämeri, Kaarle; Vesala, Timo; Luoma, Sari.; Pulliainen, Erkki. (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1994)
    The Värriö environmental measurement station has been designed and constructed during 1991 and 1992. The measurement system consists of measurement units for gases (sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon dioxide), particles, photosynthesis and irradiation. A meteorological station is also included. The preliminary measurement period was started on August, 1991. During the first year (1991–1992) some parts of the system were redeveloped and rebuilt. Full, continuous measurements started in August 1992. The system has been working quite reliably, with good accuracy. The preliminary results show that pollution episodes are observed when the wind direction is from Monchegorsk or Nikel, the main emission sources in Kola Peninsula.
  • Kuhn, Thomas; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Kokkola, Harri; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Laakso, Anton; Tonttila, Juha; Van Dingenen, Rita; Kulovesi, Kati; Karvosenoja, Niko; Lehtonen, Kari E.J. (EGU, 2020)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 9 (2020)
    We use the ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model to assess the effects of black carbon (BC) mitigation measures on Arctic climate. To this end we constructed several mitigation scenarios that implement all currently existing legislation and then implement further reductions of BC in a successively increasing global area, starting from the eight member states of the Arctic Council, expanding to its active observer states, then to all observer states, and finally to the entire globe. These scenarios also account for the reduction of the co-emitted organic carbon (OC) and sulfate (SU). We find that, even though the additional BC emission reductions in the member states of the Arctic Council are small, the resulting reductions in Arctic BC mass burdens can be substantial, especially in the lower troposphere close to the surface. This in turn means that reducing BC emissions only in the Arctic Council member states can reduce BC deposition in the Arctic by about 30 % compared to the current legislation, which is about 60 % of what could be achieved if emissions were reduced globally. Emission reductions further south affect Arctic BC concentrations at higher altitudes and thus only have small additional effects on BC deposition in the Arctic. The direct radiative forcing scales fairly well with the total amount of BC emission reduction, independent of the location of the emission source, with a maximum direct radiative forcing in the Arctic of about −0.4 W m−2 for a global BC emission reduction. On the other hand, the Arctic effective radiative forcing due to the BC emission reductions, which accounts for aerosol–cloud interactions, is small compared to the direct aerosol radiative forcing. This happens because BC- and OC-containing particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei, which affects cloud reflectivity and lifetime and counteracts the direct radiative forcing of BC. Additionally, the effective radiative forcing is accompanied by very large uncertainties that originate from the strong natural variability of meteorology, cloud cover, and surface albedo in the Arctic. We further used the TM5-FASST model to assess the benefits of the aerosol emission reductions for human health. We found that a full implementation in all Arctic Council member and observer states could reduce the annual global number of premature deaths by 329 000 by the year 2030, which amounts to 9 % of the total global premature deaths due to particulate matter.
  • Leskinen, Ari (2008)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions
  • Nordling, Kalle (Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2021)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 176
    Anthropogenic aerosols alter the climate by scattering and absorbing the incoming solar radiation and by modifying clouds’ optical properties, causing a global cooling or warming effect. Anthropogenic aerosols are partly co-emitted with anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and future climate mitigation actions lead to the decline of anthropogenic aerosols’ cooling effect. However, the exact cooling effect is still uncertain. Part of this uncertainty is related to the structural differences of current climate models. This work evaluates the present-day anthropogenic aerosol temperature and precipitation effect and factors affecting the model difference. The key objectives of this thesis were: 1) What are the climate effects of present-day anthropogenic aerosols?, 2) What mechanisms drive the model-to-model differences?, and 3) How do future reductions affect local and global climates? The global models ECHAM6 and NorESM1 were used to evaluate the present-day climate effects with theidentical anthropogenic aerosol scheme MACv2-SP. Results reveal that an identical anthropogenic aerosol description does not reduce the uncertainty related to anthropogenic aerosol climate effects, and the difference in the estimated difference is due to model dynamics and oceans. The key mechanism driving the difference in the models was evaluated using data from the Precipitation Driven Model Intercomparison Project (PRMIP). Similar mechanisms drive the model-to-model difference for greenhouse gases and aerosols, where the key drivers are the differences in water vapor, the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere, and sea ice and snow cover changes. However, on a regional scale, the key drivers differ. Future anthropogenic aerosol effects were evaluated using new CMIP6 data. This work shows the importance of anthropogenic aerosols for current and future climate change. For amore accurate assessment of climate impacts of anthropogenic aerosols, one needs to also consider remote effects of the local aerosols. The Arctic regions are particularly sensitive to midlatitude aerosols, such as Asian aerosols, which are expected to decline in the next decades. To gain a more accurate estimation of anthropogenic aerosols, it is not sufficient to only focus on composition and geographical distribution of aerosols, as the dynamic response of climate is also important. On global temperature results did not indicate clear aerosols signal, however future temperature development over the Asian regions is modulated by the future Asian aerosol emissions.