Browsing by Subject "aggregation"

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  • Papaevgeniou, Nikoletta; Sakellari, Marianthi; Jha, Sweta; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Holmberg, Carina I.; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Chondrogianni, Niki (2016)
    Aims: Proteasomes are constituents of the cellular proteolytic networks that maintain protein homeostasis through regulated proteolysis of normal and abnormal (in any way) proteins. Genetically mediated proteasome activation in multicellular organisms has been shown to promote longevity and to exert protein antiaggregation activity. In this study, we investigate whether compound-mediated proteasome activation is feasible in a multicellular organism and we dissect the effects of such approach in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Results: Feeding of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans with 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (18 alpha-GA; a previously shown proteasome activator in cell culture) results in enhanced levels of proteasome activities that lead to a skinhead-1- and proteasomeactivation-dependent life span extension. The elevated proteasome function confers lower paralysis rates in various AD nematode models accompanied by decreased A beta deposits, thus ultimately decelerating the progression of AD phenotype. More importantly, similar positive results are also delivered when human and murine cells of nervous origin are subjected to 18 alpha-GA treatment. Innovation: This is the first report of the use of 18 alpha-GA, a diet-derived compound as prolongevity and antiaggregation factor in the context of a multicellular organism. Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasome activation with downstream positive outcomes on aging and AD, an aggregation-related disease, is feasible in a nongenetic manipulation manner in a multicellular organism. Moreover, they unveil the need for identification of antiaging and antiamyloidogenic compounds among the nutrients found in our normal diet.
  • Dusa, Filip; Chen, Wen; Witos, Joanna; Wiedmer, Susanne Kristina (2019)
    The importance of using biomimicking membranes for various biological applications is rising, as such models are relevant for imitating real organisms. In addition, biomimicking membranes are usually much more repeatable in preparation and easier to handle during analysis than real organisms or biological membranes. In this work, we developed a method for the adsorption of intact small unilamellar Escherichia coli (E. cols) vesicles (Z-average size of 73 nm) on SiO2 substrate material. We describe the adsorption process based on the use of two surface sensitive techniques, i.e., nanoplasmonic sensing (NPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The acquired data show that the adsorption follows a two-step process. The first step is a slow adsorption of E coil vesicle aggregates held together by 5 mM of calcium (Z-average size of 531 nm). The Z-average of the aggregates decreased almost three times when the calcium concentration was decreased to 0.1 mM. This suggests that the aggregates were disassembling to some extent when calcium was removed from the system. With both techniques, i.e., NPS and QCM, we observed a second rapid adsorption step after the solution was changed to deionized water. In this second step, the aggregates started to fall apart as the calcium concentration dropped, and the released vesicles started to adsorb onto unoccupied spots at the SiO2 surface of the sensors. Extensive release of mass from the surface was confirmed by QCM, where it was reflected by a sharp increase of frequency, while NPS, due to its lower sensing depth of a few tens of nanometers, did not record such a change. Taken together, we have developed a protocol to form a supported vesicle layer (SVL) of E coli vesicles on SiO2 surface using sodium 4-(2-hydroxyethyppiperazine-1-ethanesulfonate buffer, thus enabling the preparation of E coli biomimicking SVLs for interaction studies of compounds of interest. The immobilization happens via a two-step adsorption process.
  • Prinkkilä, Maija-Liisa (University of Helsinki, 1993)
  • Pursiainen, Heikki (2005)
    Dissertationes Oeconomicae ; 106:2005
    In calculation of economic aggregates it is often necessary to compute the value of such aggregates for some relevant subgroups of statistical units as well as for the entire population of interest. A method of aggregation is said to be consistent in aggregation if it gives the same result regardless of whether the method is applied directly to the whole data or in two (or more) steps. The latter route consists of first partitioning the data into subgroups and applying the aggregation method in these, and then in the second step aggregating these sub-aggregates into a total aggregate using the same method. This intuitively appealing and practically important property has lacked a general definition until now. In this thesis such a definition is given and it is shown that any aggregation method with this property corresponds to repeated application of an Abelian semigroup operation and vice versa. The range of aggregation problems the result covers is quite broad, as semigroup operations may be defined for example on sets of real numbers, vectors of real numbers, sets, functions such as stochastic processes etc. The semigroup interpretation makes it possible to formulate many classical aggregation problems using algebraic concepts such as isomorphisms between semigroups, sub-semigroups and homomorphisms. The strength of the algebraic approach is demonstrated by applying algebraic techniques to index number theory. One of the main results is that under general conditions an index number formula that is consistent in aggregation has a simple quasilinear representation, that is, the semigroup that defines the index number formula is isomorphic to an addition semigroup. This representation allows the use of functional equations techniques to prove many results concerning the possible functional form of formulas that satisfy interesting axiomatic criteria, such as reversibility and proportionality tests. Finally, the relation of these results, which are in the axiomatic or test-theoretic tradition of index number theory, to utility-maximizing behaviour, is explored. First a critical review of the economic approach is presented, and a large class of new, asymmetric superlative index number formulas emerges as a by-product. It is then shown, that the quasilinear indices and their subindices quadratically approximate meaningful economic indices and sub-indices under standard regularity assumptions.
  • Miajee, Md. Jahidul Hasan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The agricultural management of soil organic carbon (SOC) is highly important to build a climate-smart and eco-friendly agricultural system. For this reason, our study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the effect of different treatments consisting of soil textures and crop varieties on SOC stock has a major influence on any loss or accumulation of SOC storage. We also test the hypothesis that equivalent soil mass (ESM) is more consistent than fixed depth (FD) in estimating SOC content. In our study, the results were not found statistically significant but they showed minor differences in the SOC estimation. The difference was not clearly observed between ESM and FD methods. The influence of soil textures and crop varieties on SOC content was not significantly different. However, the cultivation of grass in fine-textured soils slightly increased the SOC stock compared with that in coarse-textured soils probably due to enhanced grass root growth and aggregation in fine-textured soils that protects soil organic matter from microbial oxidation.
  • Lehtonen, Topi Kasperi; Kaitala, Arja Leena (2020)
    Spatial distributions of sexual competitors and potential mating partners have a large impact on sexual selection and mating systems. Typically, such effects are investigated with regard to male aggregations. However, females may also need to compete for mating opportunities. Here, we investigated the consequences of clustering and rival attractiveness on female mate attraction success under field conditions in a nocturnal beetle, the common glowworm, Lampyrus noctiluca. We placed dummy females of two glow intensity (attractiveness) levels either alone or in clusters of varying attractiveness compositions. We found that, by displaying alone rather than in a cluster, females have a higher probability of mating and greater potential to exercise mate choice. Within clusters, females of both attractiveness levels had the highest probability of mating when having neighbors of only the less attractive type. These results show that both the presence and attractiveness of rivals can strongly influence females’ mate attraction. The findings also suggest that the typical distribution of glowing females in the wild is better explained by female than male benefits. Hence, the results highlight the important links between spatial distribution of females, male mate searching, and sexual selection.
  • Kirila, Tatyana; Smirnova, Anna; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenkovtsev, Andrey; Tenhu, Heikki; Filippov, Alexander (2021)
    The behavior of star-shaped six-arm poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazines and poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazolines in aqueous solutions on heating was studied by light scattering, turbidimetry and microcalorimetry. The core of stars was hexaaza [2(6)] orthoparacyclophane and the arms were poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazine, poly-2-isopropyl-2-oxazine, poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, and poly-2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline. The arm structure affects the properties of polymers already at low temperatures. Molecules and aggregates were present in solutions of poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazines, while aggregates of two types were observed in the case of poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazolines. On heating below the phase separation temperature, the characteristics of the investigated solutions did not depend practically on temperature. An increase in the dehydration degree of poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazines and poly-2-alkyl-2-oxazolines led to the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and aggregation was the dominant process near the phase separation temperature. It was shown that the characteristics of the phase transition in solutions of the studied polymer stars are determined primarily by the arm structure, while the influence of the molar mass is not so significant. In comparison with literature data, the role of the hydrophobic core structure in the formation of the properties of star-shaped polymers was analyzed.
  • Li, Jichen; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo; Kiani, Mina; Quideau, Sylvie; Smith, Elwin G.; Janzen, Henry; Larney, Francis J.; Puurveen, Dick (2018)
    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a major driver of key agroecosystem functions. Our objective was to examine the dynamics of organic matter in whole soil, particulate (POM; > 53 mu m size), and mineral-associated (MAOM) fractions under varying crop rotations and nutrient managements at two long-term experimental sites (Breton and Lethbridge). Soil samples were collected from simple (2 yr) and complex (5 or 6 yr) crop rotations at the 5 - 10 cm depth. We found associations between SOM pools versus microbial community and soil aggregation. Compared to cropped soils, an adjacent forest exhibited a significantly higher soil total organic carbon (TOC) and a shift in SOM fractions with substantially higher POM. However, the forest soil had the lowest microbial biomass C among all the assessed land use systems (P <0 .05), suggesting that other factors than the amount of labile SOM (i.e., POM-C) were controlling the microbial community. When contrasted to simple 2 yr rotations, the complex rotations including perennials and legumes significantly raised TOC and soil total nitrogen as well as the stable SOM fraction (i.e., MAOM-C and -N)consistently for both Breton and Lethbridge sites. Our findings highlight that varying land managements have profound feedbacks on soil quality as mediated by alterations in long-term SOM dynamics.
  • Fowler, Michael; Duhamel, Jean; Qiu, Xing Ping; Korchagina, Evgeniya; Winnik, Francoise M. (2018)
    Aqueous solutions of a series of monodisperse poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)s end-labeled with n-butyl-1-pyrene at one or both chain ends (Py-n-PNIPAMs with n=1 or 2) were studied by turbidimetry, light scattering, and fluorescence. For a given polymer concentration and heating rate, the cloud point (T-c) of an aqueous Py-n-PNIPAM solution, determined by turbidimetry, was found to increase with the number-average molecular weight (M-n) of the polymer. The steady-state fluorescence spectra and time-resolved fluorescence decays of Py-n-PNIPAM aqueous solutions were analyzed and all parameters retrieved from these analyses were found to be affected as the solution temperature passed through T-c, the solution cloud point, and T-m, the temperature where dehydration of PNIPAM occurred. The trends obtained by fluorescence to characterize the aqueous Py-n-PNIPAM solutions as a function of temperature were found to be consistent with the model proposed for telechelic PNIPAM by Koga et al. in 2006. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2018, 56, 308-318
  • Rosa, Elena; van Nouhuys, Saskya; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2017)
    Aggregation can confer advantages in animal foraging, defense, and thermoregulation. There is a tight connection between the evolution of insect sociality and a highly effective immune system, presumably to inhibit rapid disease spread in a crowded environment. This connection is less evident for animals that spend only part of their life cycle in a social environment, such as noneusocial gregarious insects. Our aim was to elucidate the effects of group living by the gregarious larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly with respect to individual performance, immunity, and susceptibility to a parasitoid. We were also interested in the role of family relative to common postdiapause environment in shaping life-history traits. Larvae were reared at high or low density and then exposed to the pupal parasitoid wasp Pteromalus apum, either in presence or absence of a previous immune challenge that was used to measure the encapsulation immune response. Surviving adult butterflies were further tested for immunity. The wasp offspring from successfully parasitized butterfly pupae were counted and their brood sex ratios assessed. Larvae reared at high density grew larger and faster than those at low density. Despite high mortality due to parasitism, survival was greater among individuals with high pupal immunity in both density treatments. Moreover, butterfly pupae reared at high density were able to kill a larger fraction of individuals in the parasitoid broods, although this did not increase survival of the host. Finally, a larger proportion of variation observed in most of the traits was explained by butterfly family than by common postdiapause rearing environment, except for adult survival and immunity, for which this pattern was reversed. This gregarious butterfly clearly benefits from high conspecific density in terms of developmental performance and its ability to fight a parasitoid. These positive effects may be driven by cooperative interactions during feeding.