Browsing by Subject "agroteknologia"

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  • Hakojärvi, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Precision farming is a set of advanced technologies and cultivation practices that aim to enhance crop growing conditions in a site-specific manner. Current machinery offers many technical tools for such actions, but information about when and where it is necessary to use the developed machinery effectively is lacking. The use of crop models has been proposed to combine the effects of growing season conditions and field spatial properties. However, in a timely and spatially variable environment, which a field often is, much information about site-specific growing conditions should be available in order for an advanced crop model to reproduce the site-specific growth in a detailed manner. Unfortunately the information from fields has often been very limited, and insufficient for such purposes. Furthermore the set of precision farming tools and the number of growth factors that can be managed is limited. For describing maximal biomass accumulation, a simple crop model was introduced and evaluated in this thesis. The model is mechanistic, and it uses a minimal number of parameters that all are based on physics, chemistry or physiology. The model can be used for calculating the radiation or radiation and water limited biomass accumulation of a C3-crop. A field experiment equipped with continuous measurements was used for model establishment and after model establishment the model was evaluated with a field experiment with various radiation, nitrogen fertilization and precipitation conditions. In both the studies the crop model was found to produce the maximal biomass accumulation when parameter values measured in the experiment were used. The model was applied in a study evaluating the effects of selected site- and depth-specific soil properties on yield variation on three different clay soil fields located in southern Finland. In order to evaluate the effects of selected soil properties under various weather conditions a Monte Carlo method was used with the biomass accumulation model and generated precipitations. The yield variation was evaluated according to temporal mean biomass yield and temporal standard deviation of the biomass yield. For studying the use of the model in a spatial environment, the introduced biomass accumulation model was applied in a simulator built for simulating a fully automated crop farm. In addition, the use of continuous soil moisture measurements for measuring the crop water use and further for biomass accumulation was tested. According to the results, the crop model was capable of simulating the highest biomass accumulation of the crops used in the experiments. This was the case for all radiation-limited simulations and for most of the water-limited simulations. In a few cases the values of the observed soil properties were found to cause too low biomass accumulation in simulations but in such cases the problem was also present in the comparisons of observed soil properties and observed soil water content during the growing season. For future research with the model, the next phase will be to test the model use in precision farming-related decision making. The structure of the model enables its use with other C3-crops than small grain cereals. Therefore testing of the model with other C3-crops could be performed in future research.
  • Karttunen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries based on occupational injury rates. In addition to injuries, occupational and other work-related diseases constitute a major threat to the health of the farmers. Severe outcomes may also cause high financial costs, major changes in production, premature retirement from farming, or even death. Preventive efforts have been implemented to reduce the occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture, but to date, there is little scientific evidence that these efforts have been effective. Research confirms that occupational or other injuries are not distributed evenly on the general populations. However, there is limited information on recurrent occupational injuries and diseases among farmers. The objective of this doctoral thesis was to generate knowledge that can be used to enhance the prevention of occupational injuries, diseases, and declined work ability among the self-employed farming population in Finland. This research was based on four separate studies: a postal survey addressing work ability among dairy farmers, two longitudinal analyses of occupational injury and disease claims data of farmers, and a combined postal/telephone survey among case and control dairy farm couples. These data were augmented with national insurance and agricultural statistic data. The results were reported in five peer-reviewed articles. Prior injuries and diseases diagnosed by a physician were strongly associated with declined work ability of dairy farmers measured either by the standard Work Ability Index, or a single question addressing the self-assessed current work ability. However, the temporal order of the above-mentioned health conditions requires further study. Analyses of claims data indicated both occupational injuries and diseases were clearly clustered among farmers. Livestock farmers in particular were at risk of recurrent injury and disease. Both minor and serious claims frequently resulted from work activities and causes related to animal husbandry. Recurrent injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system in particular were caused by strenuous working motions and postures in animal husbandry. However, the relative frequency of serious injury was highest among cereal crop farmers, and in work activities related to seasonal crop farming regardless of the claimants' main type of production. Risk of occupational injuries, diseases, and disability was particularly high among aging livestock farmers in general and dairy farmers in particular. These full-time farmers or farm couples typically had a long work history of mixed livestock and crop farming. Dairy farmers with small and middle-sized farms with arduous working conditions were at the highest risk. In contrast, expanding the production and improving the working environments and methods protected against adverse health outcomes. Supplemental data indicated a downward trend in the annual number and rate of both occupational injuries and diseases after insurance policy changes in 2005. Simultaneously, the proportion of serious injuries has grown significantly. Based on the current structural changes including the aging of farmers and transition from full-time mixed livestock and crop farming to seasonal crop farming, these trends may prevail in the future. The identified risk and protective factors could be used for selecting high-risk target populations among farmers to increase the cost-effectiveness of preventive efforts in Finland and elsewhere. Finally, various measures are suggested to prevent hazardous working conditions, adverse health outcomes, and premature retirement from farming among Finnish farmers.
  • Tiusanen, Johannes (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tässä väitöskirjassa esitellään langattomien maanalaisten peltotiedustelijoiden järjestelmän tavoitteet ja rajoitukset. Tarkoitus oli kehittää käytännön viljelyyn sovellettava pellon seurantajärjestelmä, sillä reaaliaikaisen kosteus- ja lämpötilatiedon keruulaitteiden puuttuminen haittaa viljelytoimenpiteiden suunnittelua. Mittaus-aineistosta voi tehdä sekä havaintoja pellon ominaisuuksista että muutoksista niissä. Tulevaisuudessa tiedustelijalla saatetaan voida mitata ravinteita tai kemikaaleja. Kun peltotiedustelijan 869 MHz:n radioaalto saavuttaa vastaanottoantennin, on 1) maa-aines vaimentanut sitä; 2) osa aallosta heijastunut rajapinnoilta; 3) pellosta ulos taittuva aalto hajaantunut ja; 4) aallon intensiteetti alentunut etäisyyden kasvaessa. Maan sähkökenttäkäyttäytymistä kuvaava permittiivisyys on kompleksinen suure, jonka reaaliosa kuvaa varautumiskykyä (polarisoitumista) ja imaginaariosa häviöllisyyttä (sähkönjohtavuutta). Pellon pinnassa aalto on pallomainen, joten heijastumisen lisäksi hajaannuttaa taittuminen suurilla taitekulmilla sen tehoa. Tiedustelijan prototyyppiä varten kehitettiin maa-aineksessa toimivat antennit, joiden taajuuskaistat kattoivat ne aallonpituudet, jotka 869 MHz:n radioaalto saa kuivassa ja märässä mullassa, sillä aallon etenemisnopeus ja pituus muuttuvat maan kosteudesta riippuen. Vaimennusmallin testausmittauksiin tehtiin discone-antenni, ja tiedustelijaa varten piirilevytekniikalla pienikokoinen elliptinen monopoliantenni, jonka piirikortille ladottiin myös tiedustelijan elektroniikka. Multalaatikkoon upotettujen antennien säteilyominaisuudet määritettiin piirianalysaattorilla heijastusvaimennusmittauksin. Elektroniikkasuunnittelun tavoitteita oli pieni koko ja pitkä toimintaikä. Näihin päästiin komponenttivalinnoilla sekä ohjelmoinnin keinoin. Tiedustelija teki mittaukset ja lähetti tulokset 10 min välein ja sen keskivirrankulutus oli 4,2 uA käytettäessä 3 V:n paristoa, jonka 1800 mAh kapasiteetti riittäisi huonollakin hyötysuhteella yli 10 vuodeksi. Vuoden mittaisen 12 prototyypin käytön perusteella voidaan kantamaa parantaa yli nykyisen 200 m:n ilman käyttöiän lyhentymistä 1) nostamalla laitteen lähetystehoa ja pariston käyttöastetta lisäkomponenteilla; 2) parantamalla vastaanottoantennin vahvistusta; 3) pidentämällä lähetysten jaksoa; 4) ohjelmoimalla tiedustelija suodattamaan mittaustietoja ja; 5) koodaamalla useita tuloksia samaan lähetteeseen. Järjestelmän ja mittaustulosten käytettävyyttä voidaan parantaa paikantamalla tiedustelijoiden syvyydet aaltoilevan lämpötilan vaihe-erojen perusteella ja ohjelmoimalla tiedustelijaan opastava asennustoiminto. Lisäksi maahan asennetun tiedustelijan toimintaparametrit tai jopa koko ohjelmisto voidaan vaihtaa langattomasti. Vastaanottoasemat matkapuhelinmastoissa voisivat vastaanottaa viestejä parin kilometrin säteeltä. Koostettu aineisto maaperäsimulaattoreihin yhdistettynä antaisi kuvan alueellisesta tilanteesta ja viljelijän omille lohkoille sijoitetut tiedustelijat korjauspisteitä keskiarvosta.
  • Mikkola, Hannu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production were studied in this thesis. Special attention was paid to indirect energy inputs and how to treat them in energy analysis. Manufacturing of machines and agrochemicals and production of seeds are examples of indirect energy inputs. The bioenergy potential of the Finnish field crop production could be as large as 12 – 22 TWh, or 3 – 5% of the total energy consumption in Finland in 2008. The major part of this energy would originate from straw and biomass like reed canary grass cultivated for energy use. However, only 0.5 TWh of the potential is utilized. The output/input energy ratios of the studied field crops varied from 3 to 18, being highest (18) for reed canary grass and second highest (7) for sugar beet and grass cultivated for silage. The energy ratio of cereals and oil seed crops varied from 3 to 5 if only the yield of seeds was considered. If the yield of straw and stems was also taken into account the energy ratios would have been almost twofold. The energy ratios for Finnish wheat and barley were as high as those gained in Italian and Spanish conditions, respectively. However, the energy ratios of maize, elephant grass and giant reed were even over 50 in Central and Southern Europe. Plants that use the C4 photosynthesis pathway and produce high biomass yields thrive best in warm and sunny climate conditions. They use nitrogen and water more sparingly than C3 plants typically thriving in the cooler part of the temperate zone. When evaluating energy ratios for field crops it should be kept in mind that the maximal energy potential of the energy crop is the heating value of the dry matter at the field gate. Transportation of the crop and production of liquid fuels and electricity from biomass lowers the energy ratio. A comparison of field energy crops to a reforested field suggested that fast growing trees, as hybrid aspen and silver birch, would yield almost as high energy ratio (47 – 53) as obtained from the C4 plants cultivated in warmer regions. The net energy yield of trees would also be competitive with those of the Finnish field energy crops (51 – 85 GJ ha-1). Energy analysis methods for field crops should be unified in order to ease comparison of results. Analyses of energy inputs could be improved by establishing an open, international data base that would contain results from only transparent and well-documented studies. Such a data base would standardize analysis methods but it would also speed up analysing, improve the quality of the results and ease the interpretation.