Browsing by Subject "air pollution"

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  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2013)
    Reports of The Finnish Environment Institute 25/2013
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance • A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades • A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe • National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2014)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 23/2014
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2013/2014 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ICP IM sites - A report on mass balances for sulphur and nitrogen at ICP IM sites in 1990-2012 - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 31/2015
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2014/2015 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ICP IM sites - A progress report on trend assessment for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry and climatic variables at ICP IM sites in 1990–2013 - A progress report on heavy metal trends at ICP IM sites - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2016)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 29/2016
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2015/2016 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ecosystem monitoring and research sites - An interim report on trend assessment for deposition and runoff water chemistry and climatic variables at ICP IM sites in 1990–2013 - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2017)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 24/2017
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2016/2017 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on connections between calculated Critical Load exceedances and observed fluxes and concentrations of nitrogen in runoff - A report on concentrations of heavy metals in important forest ecosystem compartments - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2018)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 20 /2018
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2017/2018 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM data base, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on long-term changes in the inorganic nitrogen output fluxes in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments and an assessment of the role of internal nitrogen parameters - A progress report on dynamic soil-vegetation modelling - A literature review: Post disturbance vegetation succession and resilience in forest ecosystems - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 33/2019
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2018/2019 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - An interim report on aluminium fractions in surface waters draining catchments of ICP Integrated Monitoring network - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2020)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 31/2020
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarises the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2019/2020 including: A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on temporal trends and input - output budgets of heavy metals in ICP IM catchments - An interim assessment of the impact of internal nitrogen-related parameters and exceedances of critical loads of eutrophication on long-term changes in the inorganic nitrogen output in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2021)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 37/2021
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2020/2021 including: a short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a report on the recovery of epiphytic lichen communities in Sweden over 20 years of rapid air pollution decline, a report on long-term impacts of air pollution and climate change at Finnish ICP IM sites, National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Rufelt, Henry; Wiese, Björn (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Mortensen, Lisbeth; Weisberg, Knud V. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Mäkelä, A.; Hari, P.; Kellomäki, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Grennfelt, Peringe; Engleryd, Anna; Forsius, Martin; Hov, Oystein; Rodhe, Henning; Cowling, Ellis (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Ambio
    Because of its serious large-scale effects on ecosystems and its transboundary nature, acid rain received for a few decades at the end of the last century wide scientific and public interest, leading to coordinated policy actions in Europe and North America. Through these actions, in particular those under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, air emissions were substantially reduced, and ecosystem impacts decreased. Widespread scientific research, long-term monitoring, and integrated assessment modelling formed the basis for the policy agreements. In this paper, which is based on an international symposium organised to commemorate 50 years of successful integration of air pollution research and policy, we briefly describe the scientific findings that provided the foundation for the policy development. We also discuss important characteristics of the science–policy interactions, such as the critical loads concept and the large-scale ecosystem field studies. Finally, acid rain and air pollution are set in the context of future societal developments and needs, e.g. the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We also highlight the need to maintain and develop supporting scientific infrastructures.
  • Sokhi, Ranjeet S.; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Baklanov, Alexander; Bartzis, John; Coll, Isabelle; Finardi, Sandro; Friedrich, Rainer; Geels, Camilla; Grönholm, Tiia; Halenka, Tomas; Ketzel, Matthias; Maragkidou, Androniki; Matthias, Volker; Moldanova, Jana; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Schäfer, Klaus; Suppan, Peter; Tsegas, George; Carmichael, Greg; Franco, Vicente; Hanna, Steve; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Velders, Guus J. M.; Kukkonen, Jaakko (Copernicus Publ., 2022)
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    This review provides a community’s perspective on air quality research focusing mainly on developments over the past decade. The article provides perspectives on current and future challenges as well as research needs for selected key topics. While this paper is not an exhaustive review of all research areas in the field of air quality, we have selected key topics that we feel are important from air quality research and policy perspectives. After providing a short historical overview, this review focuses on improvements in characterizing sources and emissions of air pollution, new air quality observations and instrumentation, advances in air quality prediction and forecasting, understanding interactions of air quality with meteorology and climate, exposure and health assessment, and air quality management and policy. In conducting the review, specific objectives were (i) to address current developments that push the boundaries of air quality research forward, (ii) to highlight the emerging prominent gaps of knowledge in air quality research, and (iii) to make recommendations to guide the direction for future research within the wider community. This review also identifies areas of particular importance for air quality policy. The original concept of this review was borne at the International Conference on Air Quality 2020 (held online due to the COVID 19 restrictions during 18–26 May 2020), but the article incorporates a wider landscape of research literature within the field of air quality science. On air pollution emissions the review highlights, in particular, the need to reduce uncertainties in emissions from diffuse sources, particulate matter chemical components, shipping emissions, and the importance of considering both indoor and outdoor sources. There is a growing need to have integrated air pollution and related observations from both ground-based and remote sensing instruments, including in particular those on satellites. The research should also capitalize on the growing area of low-cost sensors, while ensuring a quality of the measurements which are regulated by guidelines. Connecting various physical scales in air quality modelling is still a continual issue, with cities being affected by air pollution gradients at local scales and by long-range transport. At the same time, one should allow for the impacts from climate change on a longer timescale. Earth system modelling offers considerable potential by providing a consistent framework for treating scales and processes, especially where there are significant feedbacks, such as those related to aerosols, chemistry, and meteorology. Assessment of exposure to air pollution should consider the impacts of both indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as application of more sophisticated, dynamic modelling approaches to predict concentrations of air pollutants in both environments. With particulate matter being one of the most important pollutants for health, research is indicating the urgent need to understand, in particular, the role of particle number and chemical components in terms of health impact, which in turn requires improved emission inventories and models for predicting high-resolution distributions of these metrics over cities. The review also examines how air pollution management needs to adapt to the abovementioned new challenges and briefly considers the implications from the COVID-19 pandemic for air quality. Finally, we provide recommendations for air quality research and support for policy.
  • Forsius, Martin; Posch, Maximilian; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Kleemola, Sirpa; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Beudert, Burkhard; Bochenek, Witold; Clarke, Nicholas; de Wit, Heleen A.; Dirnböck, Thomas; Frey, Jane; Grandin, Ulf; Hakola, Hannele; Kobler, Johannes; Krám, Pavel; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Löfgren, Stefan; Pecka, Tomasz; Rönnback, Pernilla; Skotak, Krzysztof; Szpikowski, Józef; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Valinia, Salar; Váňa, Milan (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 753 (2021), 141791
    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990–2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H+ concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
  • Zaidan, Martha A.; Wraith, Darren; Boor, Brandon E.; Hussein, Tareq (2019)
    Black carbon (BC) is an important component of particulate matter (PM) in urban environments. BC is typically emitted from gas and diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and other sources that burn fossil fuel. In contrast to PM, BC measurements are not always available on a large scale due to the operational cost and complexity of the instrumentation. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop a mathematical model for estimating the quantity of BC in the air, termed a BC proxy, to enable widening of spatial air pollution mapping. This article presents the development of BC proxies based on a Bayesian framework using measurements of PM concentrations and size distributions from 10 to 10,000 nm from a recent mobile air pollution study across several areas of Jordan. Bayesian methods using informative priors can naturally prevent over-fitting in the modelling process and the methods generate a confidence interval around the prediction, thus the estimated BC concentration can be directly quantified and assessed. In particular, two types of models are developed based on their transparency and interpretability, referred to as white-box and black-box models. The proposed methods are tested on extensive data sets obtained from the measurement campaign in Jordan. In this study, black-box models perform slightly better due to their model complexity. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that the performance of both models does not differ significantly. In practice, white-box models are relatively more convenient to be deployed, the methods are well understood by scientists, and the models can be used to better understand key relationships.
  • Sofiev, Mikhail; Sofieva, Svetlana; Palamarchuk, Julia; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Kadantsev, Evgeny; Atanasova, Nina; Fatahi, Yalda; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Kuula, Joel; Noreikaite, Auste; Peltonen, Martina; Pihlajamäki, Timo; Saarto, Annika; Svirskaite, Julija; Toiviainen, Linnea; Tyuryakov, Svyatoslav; Šukienė, Laura; Asmi, Eija; Bamford, Dennis; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Karppinen, Ari (Elsevier., 2022)
    Environmental research
    A coordinated observational and modelling campaign targeting biogenic aerosols in the air was performed during spring 2021 at two locations in Northern Europe: Helsinki (Finland) and Siauliai (Lithuania), approximately 500 km from each other in north-south direction. The campaign started on March 1, 2021 in Siauliai (12 March in Helsinki) and continued till mid-May in Siauliai (end of May in Helsinki), thus recording the transition of the atmospheric biogenic aerosols profile from winter to summer. The observations included a variety of samplers working on different principles. The core of the program was based on 2- and 2.4–hourly sampling in Helsinki and Siauliai, respectively, with sticky slides (Hirst 24-h trap in Helsinki, Rapid-E slides in Siauliai). The slides were subsequently processed extracting the DNA from the collected aerosols, which was further sequenced using the 3-rd generation sequencing technology. The core sampling was accompanied with daily and daytime sampling using standard filter collectors. The hourly aerosol concentrations at the Helsinki monitoring site were obtained with a Poleno flow cytometer, which could recognize some of the aerosol types. The sampling campaign was supported by numerical modelling. For every sample, SILAM model was applied to calculate its footprint and to predict anthropogenic and natural aerosol concentrations, at both observation sites. The first results confirmed the feasibility of the DNA collection by the applied techniques: all but one delivered sufficient amount of DNA for the following analysis, in over 40% of the cases sufficient for direct DNA sequencing without the PCR step. A substantial variability of the DNA yield has been noticed, generally not following the diurnal variations of the total-aerosol concentrations, which themselves showed variability not related to daytime. An expected upward trend of the biological material amount towards summer was observed but the day-today variability was large. The campaign DNA analysis produced the first high-resolution dataset of bioaerosol composition in the NorthEuropean spring. It also highlighted the deficiency of generic DNA databases in applications to atmospheric biota: about 40% of samples were not identified with standard bioinformatic methods.
  • Cape, J. N.; Fowler, D. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Kupiainen, Kaarle Juhana; Aamaas, Borgar; Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Paunu, Ville-Veikko (European Geosciences Union, 2019)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 7743–7757
    We present a case study where emission metric values from different studies are applied to estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of emissions from a northern European country. This study assesses the climate impact of Finnish air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from 2000 to 2010, as well as future emissions until 2030. We consider both emission pulses and emission scenarios. The pollutants included are SO2, NOx, NH3, non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O, and our study is the first one for Finland to include all of them in one coherent dataset. These pollutants have different atmospheric lifetimes and influence the climate differently; hence, we look at different climate metrics and time horizons. The study uses the global warming potential (GWP and GWP*), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the regional temperature change potential (RTP) with different timescales for estimating the climate impacts by species and sectors globally and in the Arctic. We compare the climate impacts of emissions occurring in winter and summer. This assessment is an example of how the climate impact of emissions from small countries and sources can be estimated, as it is challenging to use climate models to study the climate effect of national policies in a multi-pollutant situation. Our methods are applicable to other countries and regions and present a practical tool to analyze the climate impacts in multiple dimensions, such as assessing different sectors and mitigation measures. While our study focuses on short-lived climate forcers, we found that the CO2 emissions have the most significant climate impact, and the significance increases over longer time horizons. In the short term, emissions of especially CH4 and BC played an important role as well. The warming impact of BC emissions is enhanced during winter. Many metric choices are available, but our findings hold for most choices.