Browsing by Subject "ajaminen"

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  • Tuhkanen, Samuel; Pekkanen, Jami; Lehtonen, Esko; Lappi, Otto (2019)
    In complex dynamic tasks such as driving it is essential to be aware of potentially important targets in peripheral vision. While eye tracking methods in various driving tasks have provided much information about drivers’ gaze strategies, these methods only inform about overt attention and provide limited grounds to assess hypotheses concerning covert attention. We adapted the Posner cue paradigm to a dynamic steering task in a driving simulator. The participants were instructed to report the presence of peripheral targets while their gaze was fixed to the road. We aimed to see whether and how the active steering task and complex visual stimulus might affect directing covert attention to the visual periphery. In a control condition, the detection task was performed without a visual scene and active steering. Detection performance in bends was better in the control task compared to corresponding performance in the steering task, indicating that active steering and the complex visual scene affected the ability to distribute covert attention. Lower targets were discriminated slower than targets at the level of the fixation circle in both conditions. We did not observe higher discriminability for on-road targets. The results may be accounted for by either bottom-up optic flow biasing of attention, or top-down saccade planning.
  • Lappi, Otto; Rinkkala, Paavo; Pekkanen, Jami (2017)
    In this paper we present and qualitatively analyze an expert driver’s gaze behavior in natural driving on a real road, with no specific experimental task or instruction. Previous eye tracking research on naturalistic tasks has revealed recurring patterns of gaze behavior that are surprisingly regular and repeatable. Lappi (2016) identified in the literature seven “qualitative laws of gaze behavior in the wild”: recurring patterns that tend to go together, the more so the more naturalistic the setting, all of them expected in extended sequences of fully naturalistic behavior. However, no study to date has observed all in a single experiment. Here, we wanted to do just that: present observations supporting all the “laws” in a single behavioral sequence by a single subject. We discuss the laws in terms of unresolved issues in driver modeling and open challenges for experimental and theoretical development.
  • Itkonen, Teemu Henrik; Pekkanen, Jami Joonas Olavi; Lappi, Mikko Otto Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki; Luttinen, Tapio; Summala, Kari Heikki Ilmari (2017)
    Variation in longitudinal control in driving has been discussed in both traffic psychology and transportation engineering. Traffic psychologists have concerned themselves with “driving style”, a habitual form of behavior marked by it’s stability, and its basis in psychological traits. Those working in traffic microsimulation have searched for quantitative ways to represent different driver-car systems in car following models. There has been unfortunately little overlap or theoretical consistency between these literatures. Here, we investigated relationships between directly observable measures (time headway, acceleration and jerk) in a simulated driving task where the driving context, vehicle and environment were controlled. We found individual differences in the way a trade-off was made between close but jerky vs. far and smooth following behavior. We call these “intensive” and “calm” driving, and suggest this trade-off can serve as an indicator of a possible latent factor underlying driving style. We posit that pursuing such latent factors for driving style may have implications for modelling driver heterogeneity across various domains in traffic simulation.