Browsing by Subject "ajattelu"

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  • Honkasalo, Tiinakaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Verkkari 2012 (5)
  • Ristikangas, Marjo-Riitta (2006)
    Itseään johtava yksilö, pro gradu -tutkielmassa on syvennetty tarkastelemaan olemassa olevia itsensä johtamisen viitekehyksiä ja malleja sekä tutkittu empiirisellä aineistolla itsensä johtamisen mallin soveltuvuutta suomalaisessa kontekstissa. Tunteet, tahto ja motivaatio, uskomukset sekä ajattelu ja sen johtaminen ovat kaikki yksilöpsykologisia termejä, jotka vaikuttavat itsensä johtamisen käsitteen taustalla. Lisäksi tarkastelussa oleva käsite on liittyy läheisesti oppimiseen ja käyttäytymisen muutokseen. Itsensä johtamisen keskeisenä teoreetikkona on Charles Manz, joka on kolme vuosikymmentä kehittänyt itsensä johtamisen malleja amerikkalaisessa yliopistokentässä. Houghton ja Neck ovat Manzin työn seuraajina rakentaneet mallille myös mittarin, jossa kysymykset liittyvät itsensä johtamisen kannalta kolmeen rajattuun osa-alueeseen: käyttäytymispainotteisiin strategioihin, luontaisen palkitsemisen strategioihin sekä rakenteellisen ajattelun strategioihin. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin kontrolloituna kyselynä ja postikyselynä työllistäviltä hiusalan yrittäjiltä (n=119). Aineisto analysoitiin hyödyntäen pääkomponenttianalyysiä, faktorianalyysiä ja rakenneyhtälömallinnusta. Tutkimuskysymykset painottuivat itsensä johtamisen mallin ja siitä rakennetun suomennetun itsensä johtamisen mittarin (SSLQ) analysointiin: (1) Miten luotettava on suomennettu itsensä johtamisen mittari(SSLQ)? (2) Miten empiirinen aineisto tukee itsensä johtamisen mallia? (3) Miten suomalaiset työllistävät hiusalan yrittäjät johtavat itseään? Mittarin reliabiliteettitarkastelussa verrattiin aineistoa uudistettun itsensä johtamisen mittarilla (RSLQ) tehtyihin luotettavuustesteihin. Suomen- ja englanninkielen semanttisista eroista huolimatta, suomennetun mittarin luotettavuustaso oli (0,53< a <0,85). Myös itsensä johtamisen malliin liittyvän rakenteen osalta validiteettitarkastelu tuki itsensä johtamisen kolmiportaista muotoa, joka käsittää käyttäytymiseen, luontaiseen palkitsemiseen sekä rakenteelliseen ajatteluun liittyvät näkökulmat. Lisäksi tutkimus selvitti itsensä johtamisen tasoa kohderyhmässä. Hiusalan yrittäjät käyttävät itsensä johtamisessa eniten menestyksellisen suorituksen mallintamista, tavoitteenasettamista ja sekä itsensä että työympäristön havainnointia. Vähiten he käyttävät itsensä palkitsemista ja konkreettisia muistuttamiskeinoja.
  • Järvinen, Katriina (2004)
    My research subject was how parents view the relation between knowledge and common sense when raising children. I studied the subject from the point of view of rhetorical social psychology. The study was based on the dilemmatic nature of thinking, which means that a person often ends up talking against one of his values while defending another. I was interested in if the parents under my study experienced a conflict between knowledge and common sense and how a possible dilemma was dealt with in argumentation. In the theoretical part I examined discussions considering the concept of common sense and anti-scientific thinking. I also took a look at the history of Finnish upbringing. I made a connection between the resent discussion about the parents high education in relation to the distress of their children and the tradition of viewing scientific knowledge as some kind of a threat to common sense. My empiric source material was the interviews of 21 parents living in the capital area. In the interviews I used the method of qualitative attitude research. The parents were commenting on seven different sentences with claims, which were formed using research literature and views that have appeared in public discussion. The subject of the analysis was the argumentative speech produced by the interviewees. In the analysis I focused mainly on the processes of arguments and on how the dilemmatic nature of the thoughts provoked by the claims was dealt with. The interviewees were able to consider how their views could be questioned and they used various rhetorical methods in their arguments. A dilemma arose between knowledge and common sense but rhetorical methods led rather to approval of expertise in bringing up of children, than disapproval. Also a picture of the 21st century's sensible bringing up of children was formed, based on the source material. The 'love and limits'-upbringing, as I call it, can be interpreted as a taking of an attitude to the views of previous generations. The underlining of love and respect in relation to the child, that was eminent in the source material, could be interpreted as a counter argument to the discipline and humiliation culture that prevailed until the 1950 -60's and the underlining of limits as a counter argument to the free upbringing of the 60 - 70's. My interviewees considered the balancing of work and family life as the biggest problem of modern parents. My primary sources were the works of Michael Billig (rhetorical social psychology and qualitative attitude research), the works of Kari Vesala and Teemu Rantanen (qualitative attitude research), Benjamin Spock's 'The Common Sense Book Of Baby And Child Care' (the dilemma of knowledge and common sense in bringing up of children) and Janne Kivivuori's book 'Paha tieto' (anti-scientific thinking).
  • Unknown author (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Verkkari 2008 (10)
  • Forsman, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Verkkari 2006 (7)
  • Gillberg, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of the study. In preschool, children talk daily with peers and educators. This study examines the children's thinking and communication skills mainly through the concepts that Neil Mercer and his colleagues have defined. In light of earlier studies on the subject, an exploratory talk is especially meaningful in developing children's social and cognitive skills. In an exploratory talk, the children talk together using different methods to find agreement. This kind of discussion means they are thinking together. The aim of the study was to find out how children in early childhood education think together. The earlier study focused mainly on the school context; therefore, this study focuses on the early childhood education context. The main questions in the study are the following: what are the factors that make thinking together possible and what is the role of an educator? Methods. The research material consists of 25 episodes that were chosen from material filmed in two groups of 5-year-olds, with two days per group. In all of these episodes, there is interaction between the children and between an adult and the children. The episodes were categorised in groups depending on the way the children talked during the discussions. The main focus was on the exploratory talk. The main results. Three things made thinking together possible: the conversational culture in the group, the disagreements in conversations and problem solving, and a calm space for playing and immersion in the discussions. The role of the educator was incoherent. Either the educators were not present in the discussion events or they mostly interrupted them. The main problem was the quality of interaction. The questions the educators asked were simple right or wrong kinds of questions. When the children asked more thoughtful and open-ended questions when talking to each other, it led them to think together. These results are important, because transferring them to practice in early childhood education may support children's interaction, discussion and thinking skills, as well as developing a conversational culture in preschools.
  • Honkasalo, Tiinakaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Verkkari 2012 (1)