Browsing by Subject "ajattelun taidot"

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  • Hopiavuori, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In the national core curriculum published in 2014, the first section of the transversal competence is thinking and learning to learn. The purpose of this thesis is to examine, how the teachers who participated in the study support the development of thinking and learning to learn through a concrete model and mediated learning. In addition, the impact of the theory of mediated learning on the teachers' thinking is examined. Five primary school teachers and 20 students participated in the study. The data was gathered by observing lessons and interviewing both teachers and students. The methods used to analyze the data were content analysis and grounded theory. Three main goals were discovered in teaching thinking and learning to learn that were pursued by specific methods of mediated learning: 1) The student's independent thinking was enhanced by supporting and activating the student's thinking. 2) The awareness of one's thinking was developed by asking the student to explain or justify his or her thinking. 3) In order for the skills of thinking and learning to learn to become a permanent capital of the student, the skills were bridged from the lessons to reality. Based on the data material, the adopting of the theory of the mediated learning had had an impact on the teacher's thinking and pedagogic actions. The teacher's awareness of his or her own thinking and assumptions seemed to be important in supporting the students' thinking and learning to learn.
  • Vuorela, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Goals. The objective of this Master´s Thesis was to examine the development of learning to learn and thinking skills of 5th graders with special needs during the school year intervention. Another objective was to examine which thinking and learning to learn skills would develop and which not. The specific interest was to find out differences and similarities between the students with special educational needs and general education students. The theories used in this thesis are Piaget´s and Demetriou´s theories of cognitive development. Thinking and learning to learn skills and development of those have been current topics in studies of behavioural sciences. There have been few intervention studies in Finland too, where the de-velopment of children´s learning to learn skills have been examined during several years. In six-years intervention study showed how the future working life demands thinking and reasoning skills for problem solving, and it can be influenced already at the primary school (Vainikainen, Wüstenberg, Kupiainen, Hotulainen, & Hautamäki, 2015). In the new national core curriculum (2014) the transversal competence is essential and one of the multidisciplinary modules is thinking and learning to learn. (POPS 2014, 20.) Methods. The participants of this study consisted of the 5th graders in the municipalities of Akaa, Lappeenranta and Liperi, who responded to the evaluation study of learning to learn during the school year 2017–2018 (N=245). In this study those students who were in the lowest quarter regarding to tasks of competence were separated as own group. The compaction of data was executed with online tasks of competence and online inquiries related to attitude both in autumn and spring. The data was analysed by using the independent samples t-test. Results and conclusions. There were no significant differences between the experimental and the control group. The only variable which exceeded the significant level, was deduction. In the comparison of the lowest and the highest quartet´s results there were significant changes in the group variables of competence. Instead no significant changes between the beliefs were noticed. Compared to the earlier research, it seems one-year intervention study is too short to show the differences.
  • Aalto, Liina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Goals. The aim of this thesis was to examine how Finnish curriculums of 2004 and 2014 differ from each other in relation to thinking skills, learning to learn and multidisciplinary learning sets. These three themes were selected as subjects for research, as they are an integral part of the concept of broad-based competence introduced in the new curriculum. Broad-based competence is defined as the skills that the learner is expected to need in order to cope with future challenges. The purpose of this thesis was to find out whether these themes are also present in the Finnish curriculum of 2004 and if so, how their discourse may differ from the 2014 curriculum. This type of systematic comparison has not been made between these curricula before and also not with these themes. Thinking skills and learning to learn were studied separately from the multidisciplinary learning sets, as they are areas of broad-based competence, whereas multidisciplinary learning sets are more of its method. Thinking skills and learning to learn were dealt with, in particular, Robert Sternberg's theories of intelligence and its sub-areas. Methods. The data of the thesis are therefore the Finnish curriculums of 2004 and 2014. However, only the general parts were included in this thesis, as the goal was to get a picture of the underlying ideas and perspectives of each curriculum. The study was carried out using two mutually supportive analytical methods. The analysis started with a computer-based, instrumental thematic text analysis, which aims to find references to certain themes from the texts using a dictionary built by the researcher. This method was chosen because it was a clear and simple way to visualize the differences between the references in the texts. Another analytical method was a content analysis in which theory-based and data-based methods were used. Concerning thinking skills and learning to learn, content analysis was made by using the theory-based method with Sternberg's theories as a basis. Data-based analysis was used when studying multidisciplinary learning sets. Results and conclusions. The thinking skills were referred to equally as much in the general parts of the curricula of 2004 and 2014, but the content of the curriculum for 2014 was more comprehensive and could easily be categorized using Sternberg's theories. The same was true of learning to learn, although it was apparent that in relation to the curriculum of 2004, there were more references to learning to learn than in the curriculum of 2014. In the case of multidisciplinary learning sets, the result again indicated that the curriculum of 2014 was broader both in terms of content and text. Based on these results, it can be generally interpreted that although these same themes have been dealt with in the previous curriculum, the new curriculum has really become substantively centralized and sought to find a wide range of these perspectives.
  • Rantakari, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to describe what kind of understanding pre-service class teachers have about thinking skills and teaching thinking in primary school. In addition, I am interested to find out whether or not the students in the field of educational sciences and the students in the field of educational psychology differ in their perceptions of thinking. The study examines thinking skills from the perspective of cognitive processes and uses the Integrated Model developed by Moseley and his group (2005a) to support the definition. The study was conducted as a phenomenographic study. The data consisted of 12 individual interviews and was collected in February 2021 from pre-service class teachers. Data analysis was performed using phenomenographic analysis. The study showed that the pre-service class teachers perceive thinking skills as a complex concept for which there was not seen a clear definition. Thinking skills were described as individual and evolving skills whose interrelationships were described in different ways. Thinking skills were perceived as tools that a person uses to perform various tasks. The teaching of thinking skills was seen as an investment for the future, as it was believed to promote learning and cultivate citizenship. Teaching was seen to take place mainly through pedagogical means. According to the subjects, thinking skills should be developed through diverse ways, with an emphasis on co-operation and supporting student agency. In addition, the importance of the teacher, the school and the learning environment was emphasized. Teaching thinking was also seen challenging. The students in the field of educational psychology and in the field of educational sciences largely followed a common line in their perceptions of thinking, but differences were found at the subcategory level. The most significant difference can be considered as the lack of creative thinking in the responses of educational psychology students. In addition, the study found that the pre-service class teachers had challenges in defining thinking skills as well as justifying pedagogical choices. This could suggest that they lack the metacognitive and pedagogical knowledge of thinking skills that Zohar (2005) considers as a prerequisite for teaching thinking skills. In the future, it would be good to further study the abilities of pre-service class teachers in terms of teaching thinking skills.
  • Kukkonen, Ada (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objectives. The aim of education is to prepare the students with proper knowledge and skills for the unknown future. The academic field introduces the term 21st Century Skills as a response to the rapidly changing world. Definitions suggest that thinking skills are one of the main skills needed in the future. However previous study has not been able to deliver a solution on how these skills could be effectively taught and learned at the school level. Alternative pedagogues have offered alternative methods for the traditional school – methods that closely remind the objectives of the 21st Century Skills. Maria Montessori developed concrete materials in order to teach thinking skills to the children already in the 19th Century. The purpose of this study is to research on whether the Montessori materials could provide a solution on how the 21st Century Skills also known as future thinking skills can be taught and learned. Methods. The data was collected with a web-based questionnaire that was designed for the study from international Montessori network. The target group of this study was Montessori coaches (N = 39) and the majority of the responses came from North America (N = 21). The e-form consisted of a multi-choice questionnaire and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analyzed with a factor analysis which helped the further data analysis. The qualitative data was analyzed with theory-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. The Montessori coaches agreed that Montessori materials support the development of thinking skills today. The results also indicated that Montessori Education is an entity and the materials work most effectively as part of the existing method of Montessori Education. As a conclusion, I present that Montessori materials are suitable tools for teaching thinking skills if the teacher has proper knowledge of the Montessori Education and its principles.
  • Schreck, Salli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in pupils' performance in the cross-curricular learning-to-learn (LTL) assessment during the follow-up period between the sixth and ninth grade in 2013-2016. Furthermore, the aim was to examine how other variables explain the ninth-graders' assessed task-performance. According to Finnish LTL research tradition the learning-to-learn skills were defined as cognitive competences and learning-related attitudes. The present study's data is a part of longitudinal data drawn from a nine-year LTL study in Helsinki in 2007-2016, conducted by the Centre for Educational Assessment at the University of Helsinki. The aim of the study was to examine how pupils' (N = 952) cognitive competences, learning-related self-concepts and motivational beliefs developed during the lower secondary school. Additionally, the differences between sexes and also between three groups based on pupils' GPA were examined. The data was analyzed statistically: the comparisons were made by traditional methods and the path modelling was used to examine the other variables' effects on the ninth graders' task-performance. The study showed that during the lower secondary school the pupils improved their task-performance in LTL assessment 5 percentage units, on average. The effect size (Cohen d) of the improvement for the whole sample in all assessed cognitive tasks was 0.33. The development of the reasoning skills varied a bit according to the sixth grade's school achievement: pupils with weak GPA seemed to improve more than others. The cognitive competences of boys and girls instead developed similarly. The learning-related attitudes declined slightly during the lower secondary school but were still relatively positive in the end of the ninth grade. The sixth grade's task-performance proved to be the strongest predictor of the ninth grade's task-performance. The learning-related self-concept had a small independent effect on the test score. In the present study the sex did not have independent effect on the test score; nevertheless, it was connected to school grades (girls were slightly better) and to the self-concept (boys were slightly better). GPA, the earlier task-performance, sex and the learning-related self-concept together explained 50 percent of the share of accounted for variance in ninth graders' cognitive competences.