Browsing by Subject "alakoulu"

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  • Laaksonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    International policy documents (FN (UN), 1989; WHO & BZgA, 2010, 2013; WAS, 2014; UNESCO, 2018) recommend that children should receive age-appropriate sexuality education, but it is unclear whether this is fulfilled in practice. There is relatively little research on sexuality education for younger students. Therefore, it is relevant to research how sexuality education for younger students is delivered. The purpose of this study is to describe how sexuality education is delivered in grades 1-2 in Finland and to examine teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students. In this study I would like to draw attention to the potential of the Finnish curriculum when it comes to sexuality education. Five teachers, who at the time of the study taught grades 1-2 in Finnish primary schools, participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews that were recorded, transcribed, and analysed with thematic analysis. The results found that teachers had difficulties defining sexuality education. Teachers taught sexuality education across subjects, spontaneously and sometimes also unconsciously. Teachers need help defining what sexuality education is and what themes are to be addressed. Sexuality education should be made an evident part of the subject environmental studies in the Finnish curriculum. This can hopefully encourage teachers to teach sexuality education. The sexuality education was not really planned, evaluated, or developed in any of the schools. This is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Local plans for sexuality education should be written. The teachers had generally positive attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students, but in some situations sexuality education could be perceived as a difficult subject. Several of the teachers showed interest in promoting diversity and equal treatment in their teaching. This study failed in providing any deeper insight into how teachers work with norms in sexuality education.
  • Kuoppala, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine class teachers' opinions and experiences of teaching health education in primary school level. The main purpose was to explore what kind of significant experiences do teachers have of teaching health education, in which kinds of situations do they teach contents of health education, and do they appreciate health education as a school subject in primary school. The health of children and youth has gotten worse during the last decades. It provides food for thought about the importance of coherent health education even for young kids. Methods. The study involved six class teachers, men and women, aged between 26 and 55. They worked as class teachers in the metropolitan area or in the North of Finland. They all had taken university degree of education in a Finnish university. Three of them worked as teachers for second graders, three of them taught pupils at 5th or 6th grade. Research material was collected by interviewing the teachers with structured theme-interview in April-May 2016. After interviews the recordings was transcribed and analyzed using the methods of content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results show that the class teachers give health education mainly without consciously considering that as health education. For the most part, the interviewees didn't consider the contents as a health education except for when they taught contents of puberty and sexuality at grades five and six. Overall, health education as a school subject is experienced challenging because of its common essence. The conclusions are that teachers teach health education according to their own values of health and when the topics come up in the daily life. The teachers aren't conscious enough about the contents of curriculum of health education and aren't that sure about the role of health education as a school subject in primary school level.
  • Särkelä, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objectives. Sexuality is a part of humanity. Sexuality develops through our lives and includes various stages of growth and development. Sex education is part of human rights and WHO (World Health Organization) has defined Europe wide standards for sex education. Previous studies show that sex education increases more knowledge and strengthens the child’s self-esteem. On the other hand, studies have shown teachers experiencing sex education challenging and they need further education on it. The aim of this research was to determine perceptions and experiences of primary school teachers about sex education. Methods. The data of this qualitative research was collected by interviewing five primary school teachers. The material is analyzed by the method of analysis of the content. Interviews are transcribed and transcribed material decrypted into sections sorted by the topic. These themes emerged from the data itself and on research issues. By using content analysis, the purpose was to create a view of teacher’s perceptions and experiences and reflect them with the theoretical frame of reference of research. Results and conclusions. Teachers considered sex education important and relevant. The world is changing all the time and teacher’s knowledge should keep up with the change. Content areas of sex education were mainly familiar to teachers, but some flaws in their knowledge were also found. Teachers perceived the subject as a natural thing, but they also identified the challenging nature of the subject. Sex education raised some uncertainty among teachers which was mostly due to lack of education. Further education of teachers would improve sex education on primary schools and strengthens teachers’ faith in themselves as sex educators.
  • Raivonen, Petra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The aim of the present study is to identify factors influencing primary school teachers' perceptions of their own competence in teaching programming. Programming was included in the Finnish curriculum in 2016 and has consequently not yet been studied in depth. Thus, the factors influencing teachers' competence in this study were initially selected through discourse with teachers and from studies examining the problems in teaching ICT. In this study emotions affecting teaching (enthusiasm, fear/anxiety), previous experiences, other teachers and school administration are treated as factors potentially influencing teachers' competence. Methods. Teachers' evaluations of their attitudes and emotions towards teaching programming as well as background information were obtained using a web-based questionnaire with 7-point Likert and open-ended complementary items. A total of 253 participants completed the questionnaire. The data was analyzed using a mixed methods design which comprised i) conducting a multiple linear regression analysis and ii) qualitative examination of common themes found in open-ended questions. Conclusions. Seven significant predictors to teaching competence were found in multiple regression modelling. Regression analysis determined that the most influential variables to competence were enthusiasm, teacher's awareness of what teaching programming requires of her/him and previous experiences as trainings or trying programming with students. The open-ended questions revealed that teachers emphasized the importance of being able to try new teaching subjects and the need to be explained what is expected of them regarding new procedures as including programming in the curriculum. Importantly, teachers were largely unaware of what teaching programming required of them. Finally, the results indicate that offering possibilities to try programming at school and explaining teachers what it means to teach programming in practice increases teachers' competence.
  • Jahkola, Tuuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aim of the study. Traditionally teaching has been lonely work. Demands for towards teaching has been increased during the last decade: need for special education is growing, the contents of the curriculum has grown and there are also new challenges in the co-operation between school and families. Finnish students rank well in international comparison, but feel less comfortable at school. Teachers are tiring themselves out and choose other professions. Lack of resources does not allow smaller class sizes or more input in special education. Interest in a collegial collaboration between teachers has been suggested as a solution. The idea of inclusion and the changing law of special education stating that all pupils would attend the same classes are in the background. Co-teaching aims at avoiding extra special education by using existing resources, by combining two classes and with collaboration of teachers. The aim of the study is to find out the characteristics of co-teaching with two teachers and its added value to the teaching work. Methods. Eight pairs of co-teachers were interviewed, five of them co-teaching full time and in three cases the other teacher joining the class only for certain lessons. Research type was qualitative multi-case study. The study material was collected by observing the classes and by interviewing the pairs. The observations were reported as narratives describing the co-teaching of each teacher pair. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis, which was steered by the theory and the collected material. Results and conclusions. According to this study co-teaching was considered as a means to enhance quality of teaching, reduce teachers' work load, increase professionality, and to increase the motivation of pupils. Nineteen different forms of co-teaching were formulated based on the literature and the material collected at observations and interviews. These forms may be useful in better recognizing the individual needs of pupils and to better use the presence and experience of two teachers. As a conclusion, the didactic triangle was extended to form a didactic-collegial square, where the collegial relationship between the two teachers brings a new dimension to the picture reflecting the many dimensions of co-teaching and difference to the work of a teacher alone.
  • Olkkonen, Hanna-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Finnish elementary school has been the solid foundation for Finnish education for decades. While the elementary school's name has stayed the same it has still been in a continuous process of change. Our elementary school is a time-related institution that changes and evolves together with the curriculum, teachers and pupils, and the prevailing culture. The environment and the people living in it are always interacting with each other and together they create a social or relational space. The school building and its surroundings are a special social space. The relation between people and the school makes the building a school and turns the people into teachers and pupils. Despite the fact that the school is an important social institution that has been created especially for children and their learning, there have been few studies about school from the children's perspective. This study aims to find out what is the social space of school like for pupils. How do the pupils display physical or social space in their photographs and texts? How does power divide between teachers and pupils? What kinds of feelings do the pupils attach to the photographs and texts they produced? The study involved seven sixth-grade pupils. They photographed their own school days for four consecutive days. After each photograph the pupils filled out a questionnaire in which they reported things regarding the photograph such as who was in charge at the time and how did the pupil feel at the moment. The study consisted of 122 photographs and texts related to the photographs. The material was analysed with the Collier & Collier visual content analysis. The study showed that the pupils photographed the school's physical rather than social space. Most pupils took photographs of different teaching aids such as text books on their desks. Social space was displayed in photographs taken during recesses when the pupils were playing with their friends. The pupils took very few photographs of the teachers. The most common answer to the questionnaire's question about who is in charge was "the teacher" though in many cases said question was left unanswered. This means that the pupils did not really pay attention to the teachers' use of power. The most common feelings of pupils during school hours were joy and tiredness.
  • Dillström, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tässä tapaustutkimuksessa selvitän, miten saksan kielen kielioppia, tarkemmin sanottuna säännöllisen perfektin muodostamista, voi opettaa luontaisen kaltaisen syötteen avulla. Tutkimuksen teoreettisen viitekehyksen muodostaa konstruktiokielioppi. Konstruktiokielioppi on kielenkäyttöön perustuva, käytännönläheinen kielitieteen suuntaus. Goldberg (2006) kuvaa teoksessaan, miten lasten kielenoppiminen tapahtuu. Tärkeää oppimisprosessissa on usein toistuva syöte, jonka avulla oppija muodostaa yhteyksiä muodon ja merkityksen välille luoden mieleensä konstruktioita. Erityisesti varhaisessa kielenoppimisprosessissa on havaittu, että pienet lapset tuottavat aluksi vain jo aikaisemmin kuulemiaan ilmaisuja. Vähitellen kielenoppija tekee kuulemistaan konstruktioista yleistyksiä ja tuottaa itsenäisesti uusia ilmaisuja. Tein opetuskokeiluja saksaa valinnaisena vieraana kielenä A2-oppimäärän mukaan opiskeleville 16 alakoulun viidesluokkalaisille. Opetuskokeilujen alkaessa oppilaat olivat opiskelleet saksaa kolme oppituntia viikossa reilun viiden kuukauden ajan. Opetuskokeiluissa tarjotun syötteen tarkoituksena oli erityisesti saada oppilaat kiinnittämään huomiota muotoon yhdessä merkityksen kanssa. Toimintatutkimuksen periaatteita noudattaen pyrin reflektoimaan jokaista opetustuokiota ja muokkaamaan opetustani jatkon kannalta mahdollisimman optimaaliseksi. Opetuskokeilut olivat vain osa muuta opetusta ja pyrin integroimaan tehtäviä käytössä olleen oppimateriaalin sisältöihin. Tallensin opetuskokeiluja äänitteiksi tutkimusta varten. Luontaisen kaltaisen syötteen tarjoamat tuokiot etenivät vaiheittain. Kokeilujen alussa saksan kielen perfektirakenteita esiintyi luontaisissa yhteyksissä, kun perfektiä käytettiin mm. oppilaiden lomakuulumisia kysellessä. Kokeilut keskittyivät säännölliseen perfektiin, ja muutamia verbejä valikoitui prototyypeiksi, joita lähdin suunnitelmallisesti tarjoamaan luontaisen kaltaisena syötteenä oppilaille erilaisten harjoitusten muodossa. Prototyyppien opetuskokeiluja seurasi variaatiovaihe, jossa esiintyi uusia verbejä, joiden perfektitaivutus on säännöllinen. Opetuskokeilujen jälkeen testasin opittua ensin testaustarkoitukseen suunnittelemani lautapelin avulla, jossa oppilaat liikkuivat Saksassa jäljittäen ”rosvoa” ja muodostaen mahdollisesti oppimiaan perfektirakenteita löytäessään ”johtolankoja” rosvon tekemisistä. Lautapelin lisäksi testasin opittua oppilaiden suomenkielisten haastattelujen yhteydessä, jolloin kartoitin ensin heidän kokemuksiaan opetuskokeiluista. Haastattelun yhteydessä oli lisäksi saksankielinen osuus, jonka tarkoituksena oli myös testata opittua. Puolet oppilaista tuotti testausvaiheessa pelatessaan joko kokeiluissa harjoiteltuja prototyyppejä tai variaatioita, ja noin kolmannes pystyi muodostamaan säännöllisen perfektin verbeillä, joita ei opetuksen yhteydessä esiintynyt perfektissä. Haastattelujen yhteydessä yhtä lukuun ottamatta kaikki (14/15) tuottivat jonkin prototyyppinä käytetyn perfektimuodon. Sen sijaan perfektin produktiivistumista haastattelujen yhteydessä esiintyi vain kahden oppilaan ilmaisuissa. Tutkimuksen myötä voidaan todeta, että luontaisen kaltaisen syötteen opetuskokeilut motivoivat oppilaita. Oppimistulokset olivat käytettyyn aikaan ja syötteen määrään nähden lupaavia. Niistä voi päätellä, että oppilaiden oppimismotivaation kohottamisen kannalta kieliopin opettaminen implisiittisesti ja luontaista tai luontaisen kaltaista syötettä systemaattisesti käyttäen on hyödyllistä. Oma ymmärrykseni kielten oppimisesta ja opettamisesta syveni. Opetuskokeiluja olisi mielekästä kehittää edelleen ja tarkentaa syötettä, erityisesti sen laatua ja määrää
  • Torvinen, Tia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Lukuklaani-hanke alkoi syksyllä 2017 ala- ja yhtenäiskoulujen koulukirjastojen kehittämiskilpailulla. Hankkeen ensimmäisen osion yhteydessä kerättiin tutkimusaineisto alakoulun kirjallisuuskasvatuksesta. Kilpailuun osallistuneille kouluille lähetettiin kirjallisuuskasvatuksen keinoja kartoittava kysely. Kysely koostuu 58 kysymyksestä, ja se sisältää niin monivalintoja kuin avokysymyksiä. Kyselyyn vastasi 885 opettajaa ala- ja yhtenäiskouluista ympäri Suomen. Vastaajista 722 opettajaa työskentelee Lukuklaani-hankkeen koulukirjastojen kehittämiskilpailuun osallistuneissa kouluissa eli hankekouluissa ja 163 opettajaa satunnaisotannalla valituissa kouluissa eli otoskouluissa. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään hyviä ideoita ja tapoja kirjallisuuden käytöstä opetuksessa. Tutkimuksen aineistona on Lukuklaani-hankkeen kyselyn kysymys 45: “Kerro hyvistä ideoista ja tavoista, joilla olet käyttänyt kirjallisuutta opetuksessa”. Kysymys on samalla tutkimuksen tutkimuskysymys. Kysymykseen 45 vastasi 157 suomenkielisen opetuksen opettajaa, ja vastaukset sisältävät 0–9 keinoa vastaajasta riippuen. Lopullisen aineiston muodostaa 251 yksittäistä ideaa ja tapaa, jotka on ryhmitelty sisällönanalyyttisin menetelmin. Sisällönanalyysin prosessi on tutkimuksessa ainestolähtöinen: analyysin ryhmät pohjautuvat aineistosta syntyviin havaintoihin, eivät valmiiseen teoriaan. Analyysin kytkökset teoriaan ovat kuitenkin havaittavissa. Kvantitatiivista sisällönanalyysiä käytetään osoittamaan eri tapojen yleisyyksiä tässä aineistossa, mutta niiden pohjalta ei voida tehdä yleistyksiä, koska aineisto on sen verta suppea. Sisällönanalyysin rinnalla kulkee metodina diskurssinanalyysi, jonka avulla selvitetään, kuinka hyvät tavat ja ideat määritellään sekä miten eri työtapoja arvioidaan tai arvotetaan. Vastauksista 55 % koskee lukemaan innostamisen keinoja (N=138) ja loput 45 % koskevat kirjallisuuden opetuksen keinoja (N=117). Kirjallisuuden opetuksen keinot jakautuvat kirjallisuuden käsittelyyn, kirjallisuuden käyttöön muussa opetuksessa. Osa kirjallisuuden opetukseen liittyvistä vastauksista koskee kirjallisuuden opetuksen tapojen arviointia. Kirjallisuuden käsittelyssä korostuvat elämykselliset käsittelytavat, joiden avulla oppilas pääsee työstämään lukukoke-mustaan yksin ja yhdessä toisten kanssa. Kirjallisuuden rooli muiden aineiden opetuksessa on usein inspiraation lähteenä toimiminen tai kirjallisuutta käytetään aineistona jonkin asian opettelussa. Lukemaan innostamisen keinot jakautuvat neljään ryhmään: koulun lukupuitteisiin, yhteisöllisen lukemisen keinoihin, ulkoiseen motivaatioon nojaaviin tapoihin ja kirjalliseen elämään osallistamisen keinoina. Suurin osa vastauksista liittyy koulun lukupuitteisiin: kirjallisuuden saatavuuteen, lukemiseen käytettävään aikaan, fyysisen oppimisympäristön lukumukavuuteen ja sosiaalisiin puitteisiin. Ulkoisen motivaation keinoihin kuuluvat erilaiset keräilyt ja lukemisesta palkitseminen. Yhteisölliseen lukemiseen liittyy toimintatapoja, joissa kirjan kanssa tehdään jotain yhdessä. Vastauksissa korostuu yhteisölliset lukutavat. Kirjalliseen elämään osallistamisen keinot laajentavat lukuelämyksiä usein koulun ulkopuolelle ja erilaisiin kirjalliseen kulttuuriin liittyviin tapahtumiin. Aineiston pohjalta ei voida tehdä yleistyksiä siitä, missä tai miten kirjallisuutta hyödynnetään erityisen paljon tai mikä kirjallisuuskasvatuksen tapa on käytetyin tai tehokkain. Sen sijaan tämä tutkimus antaa välähdyksiä ja ideoita siitä, kuinka kirjallisuutta voidaan hyödyntää opetuksessa ja millaisia kirjallisuuskasvatuksen keinot voivat olla. Suhteellisen runsas ja heterogeenin aineisto kielii siitä, että opettajilla on ideoita monenlaiseen tekemiseen. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella hyvät ideat ja tavat ovat sellaisia, jotka innostavat ja motivoivat joko kirjallisuuden käsittelyyn tai kirjan lukemiseen. Vastauksissa ei kuitenkaan näy kodin ja koulun välinen yhteistyö tai oppilaiden tekstimaailman hyödyntäminen osana kirjallisuuden opetusta. Oppilaslähtöisyys nousee esiin yksittäisinä mainintoina mahdollisuutena valita luettava kirja tai kirjallisuuden käsittelytapa. Tämä on linjassa aiempien tutkimusten kanssa, joissa esitetään kirjallisuuden opetuksen kehittämistä oppilaslähtöisemmäksi. Kirjallisuuden opetus vaatii edelleen kehittämistä, jotta se tukisi lasten ja nuorten lukuharrastusta.
  • Holm, Alma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims. Touch is a part normal human interaction, in school too. By touching, people show for example friendship and empathy to one another. Touch has also a lot of significant positive effects on child's development and human well-being. On the other hand, touching is associated with norms and negative feelings that emerge especially when discussing touching in school. The purpose of this master's thesis was to find out, describe and analyse what kind of touching behaviour there is in the 6th grade interaction and who are the touch initiators. Other purpose of this thesis was also to bring more positive perspective to the discussion about touching in school. Methods. The data for this master's thesis was collected by observing 6th grade's Finnish and mathematics lessons. There were 6 lessons in total and they were recorded on video. The study was a qualitative case study. The analysis was made by applying a combination of quantification and content analysis. The touches that were observed from the videos were calculated and tabulated. After that the touches were categorized and the touch situations were described in detail. Results and conclusions. The physical interaction between pupils was mainly friendly and teasing. There was not any touching behaviour that would refer to bullying or violence. Touching between girls was a little more common than touching between boys, but otherwise there was not much difference in the two genders' touching behaviour. Physical interaction between teacher and pupils was very little. When a teacher touched a pupil, the touch was either encouraging or guiding. Because of the nature of case study, the results cannot be generalized. The results, however, give a good picture of the touching behaviour in the five 6th grade lessons observed.
  • Myllyviita, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 provides an opportunity to teach Home Economics as a part of optional studies in primary schools. The National Curriculum emphasizes transversal competence, integrated curriculum and phenomenon-based learning. Integrative instruction, and approaching other subjects in the context of everyday life is the core of Home Economics. Until the 2016 Home Economics was mainly only taught in secondary and high schools and the goals for the competence and subject matter for teaching Home Economics in primary school is still not set in the National Curriculum. Consequently, there are no comprehensive educational material for Home Economics at the primary school level. Seven Master’s theses are completed with the focus on Home Economics in primary schools in 1990’s and 2010’s. There has been a demand for bringing back and re-branding Home Economics in international research field and discussions. Bringing Home Economics to primary schools can be seen as a step towards developing it into a subject that supports students’ growth as a human being throughout their studies by teaching important life skills. The aim of this study is to make groundwork to facilitate the planning of local curriculums, in-service education and teaching materials. The research data were collected by conducting nine expert interviews. The interviewees were selected to give the widest possible frame for Home Economics with different backgrounds like experience in teaching, writing teaching materials, working in third sector related to the field and being part of making the National Core Curriculum. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results of this study show that Home Economics is perceived as relevant and meaningful subject due to comprehensive life skills it teaches. It is important to teach Home Economics also in primary schools because learning those skills is worthwhile for all ages. Teaching Home Economics should be based on a complex and rich interpretation of the subject and the aims set in the curriculum. That is the only way the significance and effectiveness of the subject can come to fruition. Attention should be paid to the versatility of teaching materials and to provision of adequate in-service education to those who teach Home Economics in primary schools in order to ensure that the objectives of the subject are met.
  • Nurmi, Reetta (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aim of the study. Educating students to become active citizens has become more and more common in Finnish comprehensive schools. Civic knowledge and skills training is not a separate subject in Finnish primary schools (grades 1-6). In the 2004 national core curriculum for basic education civic knowledge and skills training is integrated within the other subjects. To what extent the civic education is included in everyday teaching depends a lot on the teacher. For this reason the amount of civil education can differ a lot depending on a particular class and school. Teacher's own knowledge, skills and attitude towards civic education has a strong influence on how civic education can be seen in the classroom. The aim of the study is to find out how a class of sixth graders and their teacher from the Helsinki metropolitan area see civic education in their classroom. Methods. 25 sixth graders and their teacher from a school in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area participated in the study. This study is a qualitative case study that includes different types of research data. The research data from the teacher was collected by interview. Students had written earlier essays about democracy that used in the study. The students also answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions that included questions about their possibilities to influence in matters of the classroom. research data was analysed by using qualitative content analysis. Both theory and content based analyses were used in this study. Results and conclusions. The results shows that the teacher and the students both feel that democracy is a relevant and important issue to be considered in the classroom. The students had a very positive view of democracy and how it worked in the classroom. Although the students participation in decision making was usually limited to matters outside teaching, most students felt that they had enough influence in the classroom. Based on the results, it can be said that the teacher has with teaching successfully supported her students to become active citizens.
  • Hallikas, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tämä pro gradu-tutkielma etsii vastauksia kahteen tutkimuskysymykseen. Niistä ensimmäinen tutkimuskysymys on koko tutkimuksen tärkein ja siihen sisältyy koko etnografisen tapaustutkimuksen ydin ja tarkoitus: ”Millaista kulttuurien välinen vuorovaikutus on monikulttuurisessa oppimisympäristössä?”. Toinen tutkimuskysymys ”Miten oppilaat integroituvat helsinkiläisen alakoulun monikulttuuriseen oppimisympäristöön ja minkälaisia kulttuurisia erityispiirteitä oppilaissa on mahdollisesti havaittavissa?” havainnoi erityisesti oppilaita ST3, TP4 ja VP. Heidän havainnoimisensa antaa koko tutkielmalle lisää syvyyttä. Tämän tutkielman etnografinen tapaustutkimus koostuu kahdesta erilaisesta tutkimusmenetelmästä, jotka ovat etnografinen havainnointi helsinkiläisessä alakoulussa sekä tutkimusaineiston analysointi aineistolähtöisen ja osittain teoriaohjaavan sisällönanalyysin avulla. Ennen varsinaista etnografista havainnointia tutkielmaa alustettiin määrittelemällä sille ne olennaisimmat, mutta myös hyvin laajat käsitteet: ’kulttuuri’, ’vuorovaikutus’, ’monikulttuurisuus’ ja ’oppimisympäristö’. Käsitteiden määrittelyllä selkeytettiin niiden merkitystä juuri tässä tutkimuksessa. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu koulun rehtorin ja kahden valmistavan opetuksen opettajan kirjallisista vastauksista tutkielman ensimmäiseen tutkimuskysymykseen sekä kahdesta havainnointijaksosta valmistavan opetuksen oppilaiden parissa, jotka koottiin kirjalliseksi tutkimuspäiväkirjaksi. Tutkimuspäiväkirjan aineisto kerättiin oppilaiden parissa kevätlukukauden 2016 aikana helsinkiläisen alakoulun valmistavan opetuksen ryhmää seuraten, havainnoiden ja samalla avustaen. Havainnointijaksojen pohjana toimi pro gradu-tutkielman ensimmäinen tutkimuskysymys. Keskeisimpinä tutkimustuloksina voidaan todeta, että monikulttuurinen oppimisympäristö on jokaiselle valmistavan opetuksen oppilaalle turvallinen paikka olla ja oppia. Oppilaat luottavat aikuisiin ja luovat uusia ystävyyssuhteita koulun muiden oppilaiden kanssa eli integraatio ja vuorovaikutus mahdollistuvat. Monikulttuurinen koulu on kuin pienyhteiskunta eri kielineen, tapoineen, oppilaineen ja opettajineen. Kieli vaikuttaa jokaisen oppilaan oppimiseen ja identiteettiin jollain tapaa, mutta yksilöllisesti. Kieli merkitsee äidinkielen ja muiden kielien rinnalla myös kehonkieltä eri erilaisia eleitä ja ilmeitä. Oppilaiden välinen vuorovaikutus monikulttuurisessa oppimisympäristössä monipuolistuu ja kehittyy, kun yhteinen kieli oppilaiden väliseen vuorovaikutukseen löytyy tai syntyy. Tähän pohjautuva tutkimustulos on myös se, että somalinkieliset oppilaat integroituvat tämän tutkielman pohjalta muita oppilaita nopeammin uuteen kulttuuriin ja oppimisympäristöön. Valmistavan opetuksen oppilaiden vuorovaikutustaidot monipuolistuvat, kun he oppivat puhumaan paremmin suomen kieltä.
  • Langenskiöld, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. According to a study commissioned by UNISEF Finland (2012) Finnish students find their teachers distant. The results of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (2013) indicate that Finnish elementary school teachers do not receive enough feedback about their performance. This main objective of this study was to examine elementary school teachers' attitudes towards students' feedback. The research questions were: How do teachers relate to feedback given by students? Which factors have an impact on teacher attitudes? The aim of the study was to introduce a new viewpoint to scrutinizing the current role of teacher and student in the teacher-student relationship. Furthermore, the aim was to provoke discussion about values behind and practices related to interpersonal communication and feedback culture in Finnish schools. The theoretical framework of this study consists of theories in educational psychology and speech communications. As a research topic student feedback on teacher-student relationship is quite new, there is little prior research available. Students' teacher views, expectations and experiences, on the other hand, have started to interest scientists increasingly. Methodology. The study was implemented as a qualitative attitude research. Research data was collected in the spring of 2017 during three group interviews. Nine teachers from three different elementary schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area were interviewed – three teachers from each school. The teachers shared their views on 32 claims presented by the interviewer. The research data was analyzed according to the principles outlined in literature about qualitative attitude research. For instance, an approach of discourse analysis was used. Results and conclusions. All in all, the teacher attitudes towards student feedback were favorable. However, as the teacher attitudes did include some variation, four different attitude profiles were identified. Two of the teachers approached students' feedback daringly, three tolerantly, two neutrally and two with reservation. The results suggest that a student's teacher-related experiences and their effects on the child and teacher-child relationship remain at least partially unidentified. That is why the role of both the teacher and the student as well as the existing communication culture in the Finnish schools should be examined critically and candidly. Student feedback in the student-teacher relationship might help build stronger and healthier pedagogical relationships which, in return, create better conditions for teaching and learning.
  • Laurila, Reeta (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Goals. The function of this Thesis was to find out class teachers' experiences and opinions about children's vocal education in elementary school: how do class teachers teach singing to children in elementary school, what kind of effects in children have they noticed teaching singing causes, what do they think about themselves as children's vocal educators and how do they define an ideal children's vocal educator in elementary school. My Bachelor's Thesis, Children's vocal education and its effects on children's wellbeing, in which I interviewed a professor of singing, is also a part of the results of this Thesis. There are Finnish and international researches which have shown that music has positive effects on individual's brain activity. It was important to research this subject because music education in schools and departments of teacher education has decreased, despite of the researches mentioned above. It is not unusual that a class teacher either wants to teach music or doesn't want to teach music at all. Methods. The data for this Thesis was collected by interviewing four class teachers who all teach music in the same elementary school. The interviews were analyzed, thematised and reflected with prior researches. Results. This Thesis shows that class teachers teach singing to children in elementary school in a very holistic way: both in different vocal exercises and songs they choose. According to class teachers the effects vocal education causes in children in elementary school are mainly positive. Class teachers see themselves as professionals when it comes to teaching singing to children in elementary school but they have learned their musical abilities in somewhere else than in department of teacher education. According to class teachers the ideal children's vocal educator in elementary school inspires and encourages children to sing. She or he also teaches in a holistic way, encourages the children to use their voice in a healthy way and teaches learning to learn. It would be important in teacher education to guarantee better skills for the future class teachers as music educators so that even few of these ideals would come true.
  • Kurki, Minttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this qualitative study is to produce descriptive information about children's connections to nature and the possibilities of primary school teaching to support that relation. The subject is viewed through the perceptions of the professionals in environmental education (EE). Relationship with nature is a multiplex phenomenon that builds up by factors of physical and sociocultural environment. According to researchers the most determinative causes are authentic connections to natural environments and the role model given by adults. It is also stated that the relationship with nature also deals with wellbeing of human and environment, which serves as a basis for this study. The first part of the study discusses children's relation to nature on a general level and the second part is examined from the viewpoint of environmental education in primary school. The data was collected through the interviews of four experts of environmental education in December 2014. A semi-structured interview was used as the method of collecting data, which consists of 4,5 hours of recorded material. The analysis was accomplished by adapted qualitative content analysis: the analysis was connected to the collected material and also to the theoretical framework. The interviewees' perceptions were considered to indicate a wider professional view on the phenomenon over the ideas of an individual. The professionals of EE thought that for supporting children's relation to nature it is crucial to secure their authentic experiences of nature. An important factor associated with it was the importance of benefiting the nature nearby. Parents were considered an important role model when building up a connection to nature. However, there seems to be a great variance in the nature education that families give to children: some get a lot of experiences and guidance while others lack the support to engage with nature. Primary school was also considered as an important agent in supporting children's relation to nature, although its possibilities were seen as limited. According to the interviewees the pedagogical approach to help children engage with nature is based on authentic experiences in natural environments and the active role of a student in the learning process. Outdoor learning was considered as the most efficient way to set EE in practice in primary schools.
  • Sinimetsä, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pupils’ thoughts, experiences and knowledge about their local environment together with teacher’s pedagogical know-how bring new aspects to teaching. Development of geographical thinking, as well as environmental sensitivity and caring about nature is important. Also noticing that one’s own local environment is important brings new places and views to the class. Local environment has many possibilities.Research questions in this thesis are: 1. what kind of places pupils see as learning environments in their local environment, 2. how the use of diverse learning environments and enpowering pupils are shown in the Curriculum 2014 (Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014), and 3. how can the pupils’ places and the curriculum be combined. I used participatory research in this thesis. Primary school students were co-researchers and experts on their own life and places in this thesis. This thesis researches places in local environment as learning environments.As a method I used Photo-talks (Pyyry 2015). Pupils took photographs of the places they had chosen and these photographs inspired the discussion in small group Photo-talks. The data in this thesis is both the Curriculum 2014 (Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014) and the discussion data collected at the primary school.Supporting the pupils being active and influencing is strongly written in the curriculum. The curriculum 2014 sees pupils as capable individuals who have thoughts. Learning cooperation and interaction is important part of the curriculum. Cooperation between pupils and cooperation between pupils and the teacher increases motivation and makes finding inner motivation possible. In this thesis I think and discuss the possibilities of diverse places with the pupils. The pupils had many thoughts of the places in their local environment as learning environments.Teacher’s pedagogical planning and cooperation with the pupils is important when bringing the know-how thepupils have gathered in their free-time to school environment. Combining free-time and school considering pupils’ places may change the way the places are seen. Considering this it is important to take care that the idea and magic of the places don’t change too much. Pupils’ places can be used as learning environments at school in many ways both in the class room and at the place itself.The pupils’s thoughts and ideas cross the lines between school subjects. Phenomenon-based learning in different learning environments that by the time become more familiar to pupils, makes multidisciplinary and diverse thinking as well as relating and becoming attached to local environment and its places possible. Local environment becomes the web of places.
  • Kesäniemi, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Goals. The aim of this study was to identify teacher's perceptions about Songdrawing in school. The Songdrawing method is developed by songwriter Minna Lappalainen. The research questions were consisted of teachers views about using the method, interaction, learning through the songdrawing and developing the method itself. There was only a little amount of research concerning Songdrawing and I adjusted the questions according to the need for getting more information on the use of the method as a part of the teachers work. I also reviewed views on what it is possible to learn in the context of school. Ideas on how to take advantage of the method are found throughout this research and the information on how to further develop Songdrawing are also given to the developer of this method. Methodology. The study has been conducted with qualitative research approach and the data was collected based on theme interviews. Ten elementary school teachers participated in the study. Of the ten teachers seven had already used Songdrawing in their teaching and were interviewed with individual interviews. Three teachers in turn took part in a group interview and they hadn't used the method in their teaching but had just took part in a training in which the Songdrawing method was introduced to them. The data was analysed by using qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. All of the interviews revealed that the Songdrawing method can be used in elementary schools and especially in primary education. The method can be used in teaching as single exercises, projects, in co-operation with different grade levels and in social functions of the school. All of the interviews also revealed that the Songdrawing method can be used in interdisciplinary schoolwork. The results of the study also revealed participants views about co-operation on Song-drawing from both the teacher's and student's point of view. According to teachers perceptions it was possible to learn different skills by using the method: school skills, motor skills, school subject knowledge and skills, co-operational skills, emotional skills, self-knowledge skills and creative skills. The results mainly confirmed the information already known about the method and revealed views that primary school teachers had about the subject. Participants who had used Songdrawing gave development ideas that mainly consisted suggestions on how to improve the material for using the method. The conclusion on the result of the study is that the Songdrawing method can be versatilely used in schools as a part of teaching in different occasions and when learning different matters.
  • Virtanen, Tessa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In the spring of 2020, all Finnish schools moved to distance learning to restrict the spread of covid-19 virus. During this time, all subjects were taught using distance teaching methods. Distance teaching has been used in schools before the pandemic, for example in online courses but distance teaching for an entire class and for a long period of time is rare. Additionally, distantly teaching elementary school subjects such as physical education (PE) is uncommon. Researchers have demonstrated that the age and the subjects offer certain challenges to distance teaching. Previous research indicates that subjects such as PE where a group setting is required, are challenging to teach distantly without the presence of a group and students learning the subject individually in their own homes. The aim of this study is to investigate the methods elementary school teachers used in distance teaching of PE. The goal is to understand the challenges and opportunities distance teaching sets for PE. Additionally, the goal is to determine how the teaching goals set in the curriculum can be achieved in distance teaching. The study was executed using qualitative methods. The data consisted of semi-structured thematic interviews of six elementary school teachers. The interviews were conducted in the spring of 2021 using distance communication methods. Data-analysis was conducted using data-driven content analysis. In distance teaching of PE teachers utilized asynchronous methods emphasizing mainly different forms of outdoor exercises which require minimum resources from the children’s families. Teachers experienced that goals and contents set in the curriculum from a physical and mental perspective were met partially, but from a social perspective very little. According to the teachers there were massive differences in the involvement of students in physical education learning during the distance teaching period. The main challenges in distance teaching of PE according to the teachers were taking into consideration the students’ equality and young age when planning and executing the lessons. The range of alternative teaching methods, flexibility and the use of new methods and technology were seen as positive factors in distance teaching of PE. Although the distance teaching period as a whole was a positive and eye-opening experience for the teachers, all of them concluded that PE is more appropriate in contact teaching. The distance teaching period offered new methods and technology to be used in PE teaching in the future, however in conclusion it is not practical to replace contact teaching with distance teaching in PE.
  • Sipilä, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Purposes. This is an ethnographic case study about elementary school teacher as a listener of a child's voice and about children as ethnographers in the classroom. The current study aims to make visible factors that limit listening child's voice at school and especially in the interaction between the teacher and the student. It also describes children's views and thoughts about school. This study is a part of consortium research "Children tell of their well-being - who listens?" (TelLis, a project number 1134911). Methods. The study was conducted at the school during four weeks at spring 2013. The data was gathered using children as ethnographers -method and consists of 57 classroom diaries written by fifth and sixth grade students and reflected by their four elementary school teachers. In addition, data includes children's drawings, teacher's interviews before the study, two teacher's group interviews and observation notes. In this study I describe teachers as listeners of students' voice during children as ethnographers -period. I ask, what kind of knowledge teachers find in children's classroom diaries. I also ask, how teachers make use of classroom diaries at their work. Analysis is based on qualitative content analysis. Findings and conclusion. Teachers found knowledge of students' culture and knowledge of their action, thoughts and opinions in classroom diaries. In addition, teachers looked for knowledge to evaluate competencies and developmental needs of students' and the class. Teachers used classroom diaries primarily as a tool of evaluating and educating children, but also as a tool for listening children and educating themselves as professionals. According to content analysis, listening to child represented mostly listening based on evaluating and educating children and themselves. There was less listening based on developing the school and the least listening based on encountering a child. Because of teachers' strong aims of evaluating and educating, listening to child was limited. The current study shows, that despite of several factors limiting listening to child's voice in society, school community and class community, teacher with his/her aims, views and actions has an emergent role as a listener of a child's voice. Teachers should create especially those kinds of listening moments that are based on encountering a child naturally and humanely.
  • Liimatta, Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims. The number of immigrant students has risen considerably during the last years in Finnish schools and will further rise in the future. In some schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area, immigrant students are already the majority, and it has been forecast that by the year 2030 every fourth student in Helsinki is an immigrant or has immigrant background. The growth of multilingualism has been recognized in the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (2014) through language awareness in school culture and translanguaging, which is a relatively new concept in Finnish research. When there are more and more multilingual students in Finnish schools, it is important to study how class teachers experience multilingualism in schools. The aim of this study is to investigate 5th and 6th class teachers' experiences of students' mother tongue in school life and teaching. Methods. This study uses a qualititative approach. The research material was gathered through semi-structured interviews. Six teachers who have multilingual students in their classes were interviewed individually. The material was analyzed with phenomenographical analysis methods. Results and conclusions. According to the teachers, the variety of languages is taken into account in school life and in teaching to an extent. However, the teachers don't use translanguaging systematically as a teaching method. They believe that they have to know the students' languages in order to use them in teaching. The teachers think that it is important that students know their own mother tongue, and they encourage students to participate in classes teaching their own mother tongue. Even so, the teachers think that parents have the main responsibility of maintaining the students' skills in their own mother tongue. The teachers believe that students mostly learn Finnish quite quickly in their peer group at school. The teachers think that it is important that the students learn and know Finnish in order to e.g. prevent marginalization.