Browsing by Subject "alkuopetus"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 21
  • Saari, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract In recent years, open-plan schools have been widely discussed in schools, homes and the media. There are both passionate supporters and unwavering opponents to these more open and adaptable environments. There is a limited amount of research evidence for new learning environments, but they are still common in many schools around Finland. This master`s thesis examines the opinions of classroom teachers about the advantages and disadvantages of new learning environments in primary education. Classroom teachers are also allowed to tell what kind of new learning environment would be best suited for primary education. The research material has been collected from two Facebook groups of teachers. A total of 22 classroom teachers responded to the survey. Respondents wrote their answers freely. The material was analyzed using the method of data-driven content analysis. The majority were positive about the new learning environments in primary education. Teachers said that the new learning environments benefit beginners in many ways: for example, students learn to work together and develop their thinking and learning skills. They facilitate functional and diverse teaching. Students can be divided and flexibly divided into different groups and differentiation is easy. On the other hand, teachers also carefully described the challenges of new learning environments in the primary school context. Often new learning environments have too much noise and stimuli. Respondents put forward many ideas how existing environments should be modified to allow for quality primary education.
  • Vahlroos, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The goal of this study was to examine the conceptions of teachers working as a part of the co-operation between preschool and school in Järvenpää during the school year 2016–2017. In addition, the study aimed to find out teachers' thoughts about the development of the co-operation along with the matters that affect their motivation to co-operate. The collaboration between preschool and school has been investigated also earlier in Järvenpää from the teachers' points of view at the beginning of the 21st century. The new local curriculums were put to use in Järvenpää on the 1st of August 2016. Examining the conceptions of the preschool teachers and classroom teachers is currently significant because the co-operation has been under inspection and developmental process in Järvenpää. The meaning of this study is to make visible the experiences and the conceptions of the teachers so that it is possible to keep on working for even more beneficial collaboration between preschool and school. In this study the co-operation between preschool and school is seen as working on a boundary which requires relational agency from the teachers. The school culture differs from the preschool culture so the change from a learning environment to another creates a transition in a child's life. The collaboration is important for the sake of a smooth transition and an educational path without any thresholds. The study was conducted as a web enquiry in the end of the spring semester 2017. 20 teachers (9 preschool teachers, 11 classroom teachers) took part in the study. Most of the questions were open-ended and they were analysed using data based content analysis. The matters that affect teachers' motivation to co-operate were investigated with close-ended questions. The teachers thought that the collaboration between preschool and school aims to a smooth transition and a continuum of learning but also taking care of a child's needs and sense of security, familiarization to school, sharing information, expertise and the know-how, and abridging the cultural differences between preschool and school. As a result of co-operation the child gets in contact with school as a physical, mental, social and cultural environment. The study discovered matters that may strengthen teachers' motivation and some that may weaken the motivation to co-operate. The developmental process of the collaboration between preschool and school has been succeeded in Järvenpää but there are still some challenges and improvement needed.
  • Juslén, Noora-Charlotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tavoitteet. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten perusopetuksen ensimmäisen ja toisen vuosiluokan evankelisluterilaisen uskonnon oppikirjat heijastavat voimassaolevaa opetussuunnitelmaa. Lisäksi tutkimuksen tehtävänä on vertailla vuoden 2004 ja 2014 perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteita. Vastauksia tutkimustehtävään etsitään seuraavien tutkimuskysymysten avulla: 1. Millaisia muutoksia on havaittavissa alkuopetuksen evankelisluterilaisen uskonnon oppiaineessa vertailtaessa vuoden 2004 ja 2014 perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteita? ja 2. Miten evankelisluterilaisen uskonnon alkuopetuksen oppikirjat vastaavat vuoden 2014 perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteita? Menetelmät. Tutkimuksen aineistona on vuosien 2004 ja 2014 perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet sekä evankelisluterilaisen uskonnon Aarre ja Sydän -sarjojen oppikirjat perusopetuksen vuosiluokille 1-2. Opetussuunnitelmia ja oppikirjoja analysoitiin laadullisen sisällönanalyysin avulla. Oppikirjojen kuvituksen analysoinnissa puolestaan käytettiin Evelyn Goldsmithin kehittämää analyyttista mallia soveltuvin osin. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Vuosien 2004 ja 2014 perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelmien analyysin perusteella opetussuunnitelmissa on paljon samoja teemoja ja yhteneväisiä opetustavoitteita. Eroja opetussuunnitelmien välillä ilmeni uskontojen globaalia tarkastelua sekä yksilön kehityksen tukemista koskevien tavoitteiden osalta. Nämä teemat korostuivat vahvemmin vuoden 2014 perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteissa. Oppikirjojen osalta tutkimuksessa kävi ilmi, että Sydän-kirjasarja vastaa Aarre-kirjasarjaa paremmin vuoden 2014 perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteiden sisältöjä ja tavoitteita. Sydän -kirjasarja täytti kaikki opetussuunnitelman sisällöt, mutta Aarre-sarjasta jäi puuttumaan opetussuunnitelmassa asetettuja sisältöjä.
  • Erfving, Emilia; Hintsa, Antti; Sintonen, Sara; Sairanen, Heidi; Kumpulainen, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, Playful Learning Center, 2017)
    Myyttejä ja monilukutaitoa Myytit ovat yhteisesti jaettuja tarinoita ja uskomuksia, joita kukaan ei oikeastaan ole välttämättä koskaan oikeasti nähnyt tai kokenut, mutta joita pidetään totena. Menneessä ajassa, todella kauan sitten, suomalaiset myytit saivat monesti alkunsa luontoon liittyvistä havainnoista. Luonto innosti ihmisiä ja luonnon kanssa pyrittiin vuoropuheluun: ihmisillä oli nykyaikaan verrattuna erilainen suhde luontoon. Pohjoisen ihmisille luonnolla on ollut oma erityinen merkityksensä, sillä luonto on vuodenaikojen vaihtelujen myötä täällä hyvin moninainen ja rikas. Ei ihmekään, että se on herättänyt mielikuvituksen ja synnyttänyt monia uskomuksia. Esimerkiksi tähdenlennon on ajateltu olevan repeämä taivaalla, josta jumalat voivat kurkkia alas maan päälle. Samoin metsät haltijoineen liittyvät olennaisella tavalla pohjoiseen kulttuuriin ja elämäntapoihin, olihan se myös tärkeä ravinnon lähde. Haltijan kuiskaus -aktiviteettikorteilla haluamme osaltamme juhlistaa 100-vuotiasta Suomea. Kokonaisuus julkaistaan digitaalisessa muodossa, ja sitä on mahdollisuus käyttää ja levittää ei-kaupallisissa tarkoituksissa. Ajatuksemme on, että tulostamisen sijaan materiaalia käytetään erilaisilla digitaalisilla näyttöpäätteillä. Aktiviteettikorttien pedagogisena tavoitteena on herättää kiinnostusta suomalaista luontoa ja vanhoja uskomuksia kohtaan monesta eri näkökulmasta. Tehtävät houkuttavat myös monella eri tavalla tarkkailemaan, pohtimaan, keksimään ja kokeilemaan itse. Haltijan kuiskaus -aktiviteettikorttien tuottamiseen on saatu tukea Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön rahoittamalta ‘MOI - Monilukutaitoa opitaan ilolla’ -hankkeelta, jonka toteuttaa Helsingin yliopisto. Materiaali on vapaasti ladattavissa MOI-hankkeen sivuilta osoitteessa: www.monilukutaito.com
  • Häkkilä, Hanna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämä Pro Gradu -tutkielma käsittelee, millaista kiertokouluopetus Kuusamon seurakunnassa oli vuosina 1874–1938. Aikarajaus alkaa, kun vuonna 1874 Kuusamoon päätettiin perustaa ensimmäinen kansakoulu, mikä asetti tavoitteita lukutaitoa opettavalle kiertokoululle uudella tavalla. Viimeinen kokonainen tarkasteltu lukukausi on 1938–1939, minkä jälkeen Kuusamo evakuoitiin talvisodan takia. Tutkimuksessa kartoitetaan, ketkä opettivat ja opiskelivat kiertokoulussa sekä ketkä eivät kiertokouluun päässeet opiskelemaan ja jäivätkö he silloin kokonaan opetuksen ulkopuolelle. Lisäksi tutkin, mitä kiertokoulussa opetettiin, miten koulutyö oli järjestetty ja minkälaisia pää-töksiä tehtiin seurakunnassa liittyen kiertokouluopetukseen. Erittelen myös, millä tavoin Kuu-samossa noudatettiin hiippakunnallista ohjesääntöä pientenlastenkouluille. Tutkielmassa pää-lähteitä ovat ennen kaikkea Kuusamon seurakunnan arkistot kirkonkokousten päätösten sekä kiertokoulujen oppilasluetteloiden ja päiväkirjojen osalta. Kiertokoulu on ollut lähes koko Suomen laajuinen alkukouluverkosto, jossa seurakunnat ovat järjestäneet lapsille ennen kaikkea lukutaidon opetusta. Lapissa toimivat katekeetat, joiden palkan maksoi valtio ja jotka toimivat seurakuntien alaisuudessa opettaen lapsia lukemaan. Muualla Suomessa puolestaan seurakunnat vastasivat palkanmaksusta kiertokoulujen opetta-jille. Kuusamo on juuri katekeetta-alueen etelärajalla niin, että vaikka seurakuntaa ei luettu osaksi Lappia, siellä silti toimi katekeetta, jonka palkan maksoi valtio. Tutkimusajankohtana Kuusamossa opettajien määrä kasvoi yhdestä kolmeen ja samalla kier-tokouluopetus laajeni ja tuli huomattavasti kattavammaksi laajan seurakunnan alueella. Samal-la kunnan perustamien kansakoulujen määrä alkoi kasvaa, minkä takia kiertokouluopetus siir-tyi yhä syrjäisemmille alueille. Kolme kiertokoulua jatkoivat toimintaansa kuitenkin aina talvi-sotaan asti, johon tämä tutkimus myös päättyy. Kiertokoulua järjestettiin hyvin vaihtelevissa olosuhteissa, minkä takia usein oppimistulokset jäivät heikoiksi. Tästä huomautti Kuusamossa myös Kuopion piispa jokaisessa piispantarkas-tuksessa. Oppilaat saapuivat kouluun jopa kaksi viikkoa myöhässä ja olivat runsaasti poissa, sillä koulua ei pidetty suuressa arvossa kansan parissa, vaan kotona tehtävät työt tulivat ensin. Samaan aikaan kiertokoulu oli kuusamolaisille lapsille yksi harvoista tavoista oppia lukemaan.
  • Knuth, Mila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Käsittelen tutkimuksessani Kuopion hiippakunnan pappein- ja synodaalikokousten kirkollista alkuopetusta ja kiertokouluja koskevia keskusteluja vuosilta 1889-1902. Tutkimukseni aikarajaus perustuu vuoden 1866 kansakouluasetuksen jälkeiseen aikaan sekä vuoden 1905 suomalaista yhteiskuntaa radikaalisti muuttaneeseen suurlakkoa edeltävään aikaan. Kansakouluasetus muutti kirkon roolia kansanopetustehtävässä, ja kirkon oli luovuttava itsenäisestä asemastaan alkuopetustehtävässä. Kansakouluasetuksen mukaan lasten tuli saavuttaa alkuopetuksessa tietyt valmiudet ennen kansakoulua. Tarkastelen tutkimuksessani kiertokoulujen ja kirkollisen alkuopetuksen ilmenemistä Kuopion pappein- sekä sitä seuraavien synodaalikokousten keskusteluissa, mitä keskustelut pitivät sisällään, ja kuinka Kuopion hiippakunnan tapahtumat, yhteiskunnallinen tilanne sekä aikakauden aatteet ja ihanteet vaikuttivat kokousten osanottajien näkemyksiin kirkollisesta alkuopetuksesta ja kiertokouluista. Vuoden 1889 Kuopion pappeinkokouksessa pastori Albert Ferdinand Tikkanen puhui alustuksessaan tarpeesta parantaa kiertokoulujen toimintaa. Kuopion hiippakunnan synodaalikokouksissa kirkollinen alkuopetus sekä kiertokoulut nousivat esille vuosina 1892, 1896, sekä 1902, tosin suppeammin. Suomen yhteiskunnallinen tilanne sekä luterilainen kirkko kohtasivat suuria muutoksia 1800- ja 1900-luvun taitteessa. Tapahtumat nostivat esille Kuopion ja Savonlinnan piispana sekä arkkipiispana toimineen Gustaf Johanssonin. Hän oli myös aktiivinen toimija helmikuun manifestin vastaisissa toimenpiteissä. Tarkastelen kiertokouluja koskevien keskusteluiden sisältöä myös kansakoulun valossa. Kaupunkialueilla järjestettiin myös kunnallista alkuopetusta. Se yleistyi maaseuduilla hitaammin, jolloin kansakoulut tarvitsivat kirkollista alkuopetusta. Puutteellinen alkuopetus vaikeutti myös kansakoulunopettajien työtä heidän joutuessaan opettamaan uusille oppilaille kansakoulussa vaadittuja perustaitoja. Seurakuntien saama palaute huolestutti papistoa, sillä kiertokoulujen pysyvyys ei ollut taattua. Kiertokoulujen opetusta vaikeuttivat erityisesti siirtyminen tilasta tilaan, pätevien opettajien puute sekä taloudelliset resurssit. Vuoden 1889 pappeinkokousta seuraavien synodaalikokousten keskusteluissa ja raporteissa kirkollisesta alkuopetuksesta ja kiertokouluista oli havaittavissa muutokset, joita kirkollisen alkuopetuksen ja kiertokoulujen toiminnassa tapahtui vuoden 1889 jälkeen. Vuoden 1892 kiertokoulujen ohjesäännöt selkeyttivät opetusta ja määrittelivät kotiopetuksen ensisijaiseksi alkuopetuksen antajaksi, jota kiertokoulut tarvittaessa tukivat. Kuopion pappeinkokouksen sekä synodaalikokousten keskusteluista ilmeni osanottajien näkemys kirkosta kansan kasvattajana. Kirkko suojeli kansaa ”haitallisilta” aatteilta, ja näkemyksiltä. Alkuopetuksellaan kirkko kasvatti uusia sukupolvia oikeaan suuntaan. Vaikka monet vuonna 1889 havaituista puutteista ja ongelmista eivät poistuneet, tulevissa synodaalikokouksissa osanottajat pitivät yhä tärkeänä parantaa kiertokoulujen toimintaa.
  • Byman, Jenny; Renlund, Jenny; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Keso, Mari; Sintonen, Sara; Vartiainen, Jenni; Sairanen, Heidi; Nordström, Alexandra (Helsingin yliopisto, opettajankoulutuslaitos, 2020)
    Kupla-kuvakirja on suunnattu erityisesti pienille (0-6 vuotiaille) lapsille. Osallistavassa ja toiminnallisessa kuvakirjassa seikkailee pieni saippuakupla nimeltään Kupla. Kirja on suunniteltu edistämään pienten lasten monilukutaidon kehittymistä tarinan, kuvitusten ja toiminnallisten aktiviteettien kautta. Sen tavoitteena on innostaa lapsia tutkimaan ja tulkitsemaan tarinan ja kuvitusten maailmaa yhdessä Kuplan kanssa multimodaalisesti ja moniaistillisesti. Se rohkaisee lapsia myös omaan tarinankerrontaan ja ympäristön tutkimiseen. Kirjan tarinassa pieni ‘Kupla’ on päätynyt metsään. Tarina kutsuu lapsia yhteiseen seikkailuun Kuplan kanssa. Se kannustaa lapsia mielikuvitukselliseen leikkiin ja toimintaan yhdessä Kuplan kanssa. Tarinan lopuksi lapsia kannustetaan luomaan omia kuplia, sekä keksimään kuplille uusia seikkailuja. Kirjan hyödyntämä AR-teknologia rikastuttaa ja elävöittää lapsen lukukokemusta. Kirja soveltuu varhaiskasvatukseen, esi- ja alkuopetukseen, lasten iltapäivä- tai kerhotoimintaan, sekä kotikäyttöön.
  • Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Sintonen, Sara; Vartiainen, Jenni; Sairanen, Heidi; Nordström, Alexandra; Byman, Jenny; Renlund, Jenny (University of Helsinki, The Joy of Learning Multiliteracies (MOI), 2018)
    Tämä kirja on laadittu kaikille niille aikuisille, jotka ovat kiinnostuneita edistämään pienten lasten monilukutaitoa. Olemme antaneet kirjalle nimeksi Kurittomat Palaset: Monilukutaitoa Opitaan Ilolla. ”Kurittomat palaset” on kielikuva ja kehittämämme pedagoginen työkalu, jolla haluamme peräänkuuluttaa lasten ja aikuisten mielikuvituksen ja luovuuden käyttöä monilukutaidon opetuksessa ja oppimisessa. Kurittomiin palasiin perustuvat materiaalit ovat pedagogisesti avoimia ja monipuolisesti sovellettavia. Toivomme, että kehittämämme Kurittomat palaset heräävät eloon monin eri tavoin aikuisten ja lasten yhteisessä toiminnassa tuottaen uusia muotoja monilukutaidon opettamisen ja oppimisen iloksi.
  • Hirvonen, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. Previous studies show that there is need for more cooperation between the preschool education and primary education to ensure the child's smooth start to school. The purpose of this qualitative study was to find out what kinds of views do kindergarten teachers and class teachers have on the cooperation between the preschool education and primary education. Today, there has been a lot of talk about the importance of the cooperation between the preschool education and primary education for the child's smooth transition from preschool to primary education. The research questions helped to identify how useful do kindergarten teachers and class teachers find the cooperation, how frequently cooperation is carried out, which types of cooperation there is, how can the cooperation be developed and whether kindergarten teachers and class teachers have ideas how to develop the current cooperation. Methods. The study material consisted of three kindergarten teachers and four class teachers working in the metropolitan area. The research strategy used in this study was qualitative research in which theme interviews were used. The collected data were analyzed by means of data-driven content analysis. Results and Conclusions. This study showed that kindergarten teachers and class teachers felt the cooperation between the preschool education and primary education important. In addition, responses emphasized the cooperation to encompass the same basic formula but the organization of additional forms of cooperation depends on the year and on the activity of the preschool teachers and primary teachers. The implementation of cooperation between preschool education and primary education was performed weekly, monthly, once every two months or 2-6 times a year. In the autumn preschool teachers and primary school teachers will invest in joint planning of activities in the presence of preschool children in the classroom. In the spring a joint evaluation meeting, the introduction of preschool children to school and primary school teachers and the meeting of a pupil care team for children moving to school. All teachers felt that the current cooperation between the preschool education and primary education is positive and they do not want to make a lot of changes or develop the existing cooperation. Kindergarten teachers and class teachers would like to see closer cooperation between preschool and primary school teacher for example by adding joint debates and common planning time. They also wished that kindergarten and school would be in the same building. Kindergarten teachers and class teachers had different content development suggestions for cooperation between preschool education and primary education. Improvement alternatives included for example adding various events, ensuring data transfer from kindergarten to school, effortless school visits and joint training.
  • Reima, Henriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The main purpose of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret what children in first grade play in school context. This study was interested what kind plays children were playing and who they were playing with. Aim was to find out what factors in school are affecting play, for example how schools physical surroundings affect what children play. It was also examined what motivate children to play: how children come to play certain types of plays and why children want to play in general. Methods. This study was conducted as qualitative research. Material was collected from one class in metropolitan area school. There were 22 children in that specific class. All the pupils took part of drawing assignment were the purpose was to draw a picture about play that they play in school. Half of the pupils were then interviewed based on pictures using theme interviews. Both the children's drawings about play and the interviews were used as materials of this study. The drawings were analyzed based on semiotic theory and the aim was to find different representations that were further examined. The interview material was analyzed in five phases that were reading, examination, thematize, expansion and summarizing. Results and conclusions. Children that took part of this study played in school surroundings agon, mimicry and ilinx plays. Usually all the children were approved in plays and play was more fun in a big group. Children wanted to play with other children that were not rude to them. A good playmate in a context of this study is someone who is nice and kind for everyone. Children chose to play with children that were the same sex as themselves and children that who were in the same class. It seems that if children can choose their playmate, they prefer close friends that are the same sex. Play was influenced by the school yard, weather and season, different rules and structure of the day. These things affect the play and give children different possibilities to express play. Children also liked to play in school and play was motivated by their interests, the fun in it and the fact the got spend time with other children. In a context of this study play is meaningful for children and it gives them possibilities to spend time together.
  • Sintonen, Sara (University of Helsinki, Playful Learning Center, 2018)
    Barn är i regel kreativa, produktiva och nyfikna. De är intresserade av olika ljud och av att experimentera med ljud om de får tillfälle till det. Även om ljudet är lätt att uppfatta är det samtidigt utmanande eftersom det är opåtagligt. Barn kan ha många slags frågor och funderingar som gäller ljud. Det är fantastiskt att få väcka barnens intresse och uppmuntra dem att ställa frågor. Det finns sällan entydigt rätta eller felaktiga svar på barnens funderingar och när man samtalar med barn lär man sig också själv nya saker. Många barn upplever ljud som ett ganska svårt fenomen, eftersom ”man inte kan hålla i ljudet och ta det i handen”. Ljudet är också ofta kortvarigt. Det går inte att stänga öronen på samma sätt som man kan blunda och därför tvingas man höra även irriterande ljud. Det kan också vara svårt att veta varifrån ljuden kommer: de är någonstans ”i luften, runtomkring, på insidan, inne i huvudet, i öronen, i benen och magen”, som en sexåring uttryckte det. En del barn tycker också det är svårt att rita ljud, vilket är förståeligt – hur avbildar man tvådimensionellt någonting som är tredimensionellt? Ljudkonst ger konstfostran för barn och barnens konstnärliga aktörskap nytt innehåll. Om man i musikfostran till exempel koncentrerar sig mest på olika slags musikstycken och -verk kan det hända att ljudet som modalitet och ljudfenomenen i all sin tjusning kommer i skymundan. Då kan uppfattningen om olika ljud och hur de produceras bli snäv. Detta innebär också att en konstform, ljudkonsten, utesluts helt ur konstfostran. När barnen börjar bli bekanta med ljudkonst är det bra att först tillsammans förnimma, observera, lyssna och försöka producera olika ljud på olika sätt. För att inspirera barnen kan man också låta dem lyssna på olika slags ljudprov och undersöka olika material, till exempel snäckor, hörlurar och förstoringsglas, som en start på resan in i ljudens fascinerande värld.
  • Vähtäri, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study was to research class teacher students’ conceptions of emotional skills and the education of emotional skills and its significance in the context of primary education. Another ambition was to investigate how the contents of emotional education were considered in the university studies, based on the experiences of class teacher students. Based on earlier studies, emotional education has a holistic effect on the development of children, but regardless of it, the teachers receive only little education to help developing pupils’ emotional skills. The training of teachers is one of the most significant factors in emotional education of the pupils, according to other studies, hence the aim of this paper is also to research how the teacher education could be improved to prepare the class teacher students to feel more secure about emotional education in primary education. The material of the research consisted of the interviews of eight master’s degree class teacher students, who were in their fourth or fifth year of studies in the University of Helsinki. The material was collected and analysed with a qualitative method. The interviews were semi-structured, and the material was analysed with a phenomenographic approach. The results of the study are based on categories of description formed by phenomenographic analysis. According to the results, class teacher students had a structured understanding of the holis-tic significance of primary education’s emotional education for children’s development. Emo-tional skills were considered as skills that improve children’s ability to identify and control feelings, empathy, social skills, and interaction with others. Emotional education was consid-ered an important part of primary education, whose aim is to create a base for the develop-ment of emotional skills and to improve the most significant emotional skills, as viewed by the primary school teacher students. The class teacher students felt as though they had not re-ceived enough education related to primary education’s emotional education and its imple-mentation. The class teacher students think the university should provide the basis and more information about practical methods that work in implementation of emotional education. The class teacher students would improve the teacher training’s methods of teaching and contents, in order to make processing emotional education more relevant and consistent.
  • Mäntyaho, Meri-Tuuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Physical activity has a major impact on children's growth and development. Positive movement experience in school can have an influence on lifelong continuation in physical activity. School-aged children spend a lot of time in schools and therefore teachers who teach physical education have a great responsibility on what kind of movement and physical activity experiences children gather during school day. Teachers' conceptions of what good physical education and good physical education teacher are influence their goal adjustment and content of instruction on their physical education. The aim of the present study is to describe what primary school teachers' conceptions of good physical education and good physical education teacher in elementary instruction consist of. In addition, this study tries to investigate how teachers' pedagogical thinking is expressed on their physical education. The methodology of this study is a qualitative research and the objective was to use a theme interview approach to formulate the results. The data of this research consists of five interviews of primary school teachers who teach or have taught physical education in elementary instruction. Four of the interviewees have accomplished a short secondary subject study in physical education (25 c) and one of them has taken an adapted physical activity instructor course (60 c). In addition, one of the five interviewees has taken subject-related studies in physical education (60c). The data was analysed by content analysis with phenomenographic approach. In addition, the researcher's own reflective approach is used. Teachers' conceptions of good physical education and physical education teacher in elementary instruction were varied. Fifteen different categories of the most highlighted conceptions were formed to describe good teaching and good teacher in the physical education of elementary instruction. These categories split into subject related descriptions: physical performance, versatility and methodicalness as well as into descriptions related to instruction climate and teacher's action: positivity, motivational, experiences of success, mental growth, coordination, differentiation, clear communication, performance and effectiveness, athletic lifestyle, patience and understanding, interest and assertiveness. Teachers' conceptions of good teaching in the physical education of elementary instruction could be seen either as thinking on action level or as thinking on 1st thinking level (object theories) depending on one's viewpoint of interpretation. The majority of the teachers' pedagogical thinking could be seen as thinking on 1st thinking level (object theories) though. Instead, no direct thinking on 2nd thinking level (metatheory) appeared.
  • Tuovila, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The purpose of the thesis was to examine the moral negotiations that 1st grade elementary school children conduct in a small group strorycrafting situation. The aim was to find out how these negotiations are constructed; what kind of communicational goals are committed by them and which communicational resources children use to solve disputes. Conversation analysis was used to make these processes visual and draw meaning of them. The study represents an ethnomethodological view of morality as a phenomenon that takes place in, and is made visual by, communicational actions in every day interaction. Child is viewed as an active moral agent who uses a wide repertoire of social competences when confronting moral situations. The main emphasis was on children’s moral agency but also the present adults’ actions were analysed. Storycrafting creates the interactional frame to the examined communication. The communicational practises of classroom interaction and its institutional character are considered in the analyse, as the studied interaction takes place in the context of the Finnish elementary school. The data consists of video recorded small group storycrafting of 1st grade school children. The collection of the data took place in the spring 2016. The data shows the course of 10 moral negotiations and the interactional resources used in them. Also, teasing and entertaining practises are made visual by the data. The teasing was mainly motivated by children’s' aim to entertain each other but children’s excluding practises also occurred in the data. The main purpose of the storytelling and teasing practises, however, seemed to be making laughter possible for the participators. The findings of the thesis show, in support of earlier results in the field, that teasing is a relevant part of children's everyday moral life. Especially the response work of teasing is important in defining the framework of teasing. It is important for the educators to familiarize themselves with the communicational practises of children. Especially children’s reactions should be carefully observed if the adult wants to practise a responsible moral agency as a co-working moral actor.
  • Naski, Janica (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The goal of this thesis is to find out how the readymade exercises in the teachers mathematical guide supports the different phases of concept formation in the learning of multiplication. In mathematics, the concept formation consists of three phases; concrete strategies, mental strategies and the automated concept mastery. The teacher's guide that was analyzed in this thesis is Tuhattaituri 2a by Otava publishing. In addition to the analysis of the teacher's guide, the research was conducted through interviews of teachers that had the Tuhattaituri teacher's guide in use. The interviews were conducted in order to find out how the teachers make use of the teacher's guide in the teaching of multiplication and if they are possibly using other materials in addition to the teacher's guide. Five female class teachers from the Helsinki metropolitan area were interviewed for the research. They all had over 10 years of experience as class teachers. The interviews were conducted as themed interviews. The themes were: the uses of the teacher's guide in the teachers own teaching, the student's exercises in the book and the use of other material in teaching. The teacher's guide and the interviews were analyzed through theory based content analysis. The exercises in the teacher's guide were classified based on what part of the concept formation they support. The analysis frame of the interviews was formed based on the themes of the theme interviews. The research found out that Tuhattaituri teacher's guide has many exercises that support the formation of concrete strategies. Also exercises supporting the automated concept mastery could be found in small extent. There were no exercises supporting mental strategies in the teacher's guide. The ways the teachers made use of the teacher's guide varied. Some of the teachers used more digital materials that they had used to replace the exercises in the teacher's guide. All teachers used other materials in their teachings in addition to Tuhattaituri. Two of the teachers did not use Tuhattaituri in their own teaching almost at all because they felt that Tuhattaituri doesn't teach multiplication in a logical order.
  • Keskinen, Ann-Chelie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to find out what experiences and ideas primary school teachers have about handcrafts as a subject in the 2020s and in the future. The research is a continuation of my bachelor's thesis done in 2018, the topic of which was handcrafts as a subject in primary school education in the 1980s and 2010s. The latest curriculum, which entered into force in August 2014, has been implemented at least since August 2016, i.e. for less than five years. Curricula are updated about every ten years, so it is important to consider what handcrafts teaching in primary school could look like in the future. The position of handcrafts as a subject has been strong in Finland since the 19th century, but with the 2020s, its position has begun to weaken. Handcrafts as a subject has changed its form from practical proximity to a diverse subject. The information obtained from this research can be used to map ways to have a better future in terms of teaching and to gain appreciation for handcrafts as an important elementary school subject. The study was conducted by interviewing eight elementary school teachers. Five of the teachers were interviewed in the fall of 2018. Interviews with four teachers were conducted at their teaching school at the time and an interview with one teacher was conducted at my home. Two of the teachers were interviewed at the end of 2020 and one at the beginning of 2021. Interviews with these latter three teachers were conducted remotely face-to-face at video meetings. The 2018 interviews were recorded as audio recordings and the 2020 and 2021 interviews were recorded as video recordings. All interviews were transcribed after the interviews. The research method used was material-based content analysis. The method for analysis was thematic. Handcrafts as a subject in basic education is not just about making handcrafts and practicing handcrafting skills, but at the same time you can learn, among other things, emotional and interaction skills, problem-solving skills, creativity, planning, environmental awareness, and the contents of various subjects. Handcrafts will still have a place in the future as a primary school subject, as they will teach basic skills and create general well-being. In addition, the skills that are important for society and that will be needed in working life in the future are learned in the teaching of handcrafts. In the future, the teaching of handcrafts should be applied and deepened more with different subjects, and the training of teachers in the teaching of handcrafts should be increased. It would also be important to consider changing the operating culture of the whole school by increasing the implementation of phenomenon-based and multidisciplinary projects in teaching.
  • Sintonen, Sara (University of Helsinki, Playful Learning Center, 2018)
    Creativity, productivity and curiosity come naturally to children. Children are interested in different sounds and experimenting with sounds, if they are given the opportunity to do this. Although it is easy to sense sound, it can also be challenging in its intangibility. Children can have all manner of questions and sources of wonder related to sound. It is great when children can be inspired to show interest and ask questions. Often, there are no unambiguously right or wrong answers to the things children think about, and new things can be learned in conversation with them. Many children find sound a fairly difficult phenomenon to deal with because they “cannot take grab on to sound or pick it up”. In addition, sound is often gone in an instant. The ears cannot be closed like the eyes, so we are forced to listen to annoying sounds as well as pleasant ones. Sounds are also difficult to locate: they are some- where “in the air, all around, inside, in the head, in the ears, in the legs and in the tummy”, as one six-year-old said. Some children also find sound difficult to draw. This is understandable: how can such a three-dimensional thing be depicted in two dimensions? Sound art is a new source of content for children’s arts education and children’s artistic activity. For example, if music education focuses mainly on various pieces and works of music, it could be that children miss out on all of the fascinating aspects of sound as a modality and sound-related phenomena. In such cases, children may only develop a limited understanding of the diversity of sounds and the means of creating them. This would also exclude an entire area of art – sound art – from arts education. It is a good idea to begin familiarising yourself and children with sound art by sensing, perceiving and listening to sounds together and by experimenting with different ways of creating various sounds. Moments of inspiration could include listening to various sound samples and experimenting with materials, such as shells, ear trumpets and magnifying glasses, to take the first steps on the journey towards the fascinating world of sound.
  • Heinonen, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Class teachers collaborate substantially with classroom assistants. However, teacher education does not include information about this kind of collaboration, and whether the students gain this type of collaboration experience is up to their own work life experiences. Yet collaboration with class assistants can be extremely helpful, both at the beginning of a teacher’s career and later on. There is little research on collaboration between class teachers and classroom assistants. In Finland Marjatta Takala has done the most research on this collaboration form. There is no research on collaboration between class teachers and classroom assistants in the context of primary education. The objective of this master’s thesis is to discover what kinds of views class teachers and classroom assistants have on collaboration in primary education. Additionally, this thesis’ objective is to discover how class teachers and classroom assistants would develop this collaboration in primary education. The objective of this thesis is to produce new information and thus support the researcher’s own teacherhood and the collaboration that will take place in work life. This thesis was conducted between March and August in 2021 by using qualitative methods. Five class teachers and five classroom assistants were interviewed as part of the thesis by using semi-structured interview method. The interviews were carried out remotely through Zoom. The data from the interviews was analysed with data based content analysis method. Class teachers and classroom assistants interpret collaboration in primary education as an extensive entity that consists of the class assistants’ role in primary education, factors that enable the collaboration and the specific qualities of collaboration in primary education. The issues needing further development in primary education’s collaboration are the time required for collaboration, education, working culture and the class assistants’ competence. According to this thesis’ results collaboration in primary education is multiprofessional collaboration with indications of shared expertise. It is possible to elaborate the study of collaboration with ethnographic methods by studying the significance of different grades or how shared expertise manifests itself in collaboration.
  • Sintonen, Sara (University of Helsinki, Playful Learning Center, 2018)
    Lapset ovat lähtökohtaisesti luovia, tuotteliaita sekä uteliaita. Erilaiset äänet ja äänten kokeileminen kiinnostaa lapsia, jos heille annetaan tähän mahdollisuus. Vaikka ääni on helposti aistittava, on se samalla aineettomuudessaan haastava. Lasten mielissä voi olla monenlaisia ääniin liittyviä kysymyksiä ja ihmetyksen aiheita. On mahtavaa, kun voi innostaa lapsia kiinnostumaan ja kyselemään. Lasten pohdintoihin ei usein ole olemassa yksiselitteisiä oikeita tai vääriä vastauksia, ja heidän kanssaan keskustellessaan oppii itsekin uutta. Ääni on melko vaikea ilmiö monen lapsen mielestä, koska “ääntä ei saa mitenkään kiinni ja ääniä ei voi ottaa käteen”. Ääni menee myös usein äkkiä ohi. Korvia ei voi sulkea kuten silmäluomia, joten ärsyttävätkin äänet on pakko kuulla. Ääniä on myös vaikea paikallistaa: ne ovat jossakin “ilmassa, ympärillä, sisällä, päässä, korvissa, jaloissa ja masussa”, kuten eräs kuusivuotias asian ilmaisi. Ääntä on myös joidenkin lasten mielestä vaikea piirtää: ihan ymmärrettävää, sillä miten kuvata jokin kolmiulotteinen asia kaksiulotteisesti? Äänitaide tuo uutta sisältöä lasten taidekasvatukseen ja lasten taiteelliseen toimijuuteen. Esimerkiksi jos musiikkikasvatuksessa keskitytään pääosin erilaisiin musiikkikappaleisiin ja -teoksiin, voi olla, että ääni modaliteettina ja ääni-ilmiöt kaikessa kiehtovuudessaan jäävät paitsioon. Tällöin käsitys moninaisista äänistä sekä niiden tuottamistavoista voi jäädä suppeaksi. Samoin se sulkisi yhden taiteen alueen, ääni- taiteen, kokonaan taidekasvatuksesta pois. Lasten kanssa äänitaiteeseen perehtyminen kannattaa aloittaa ääniä yhdessä aistimalla, havaitsemalla, kuuntelemalla ja kokeilemalla erilaisten äänten tuottamista eri tavoin. Innostamishetkiin voi ottaa mukaan erilaisia ääninäytteitä kuunneltaviksi, materiaaleja kokeiltaviksi; vaikkapa simpukoita, kuulotorvia ja suurennuslaseja, jotta matka äänten mielenkiintoisiin maailmoihin voi alkaa.
  • Haranko, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Pre-primary and early education can be seen as a very significant time period in child’s life. It has been addressed that there is a need for improving the curriculum for the continuation of pre-primary and early education. One of the most central forms of this development trend is the so called flexible pre-primary and early education. New development projects have started to emerge in Finland, with the goal of discovering new solutions for children’s early education. This research examines one of these projects. The task of this research is to describe what kind of experiences class teachers have about the “Alkuluokka” -development project that has been initiated in Southern Finland. The objective of this research was to survey the class teachers’ experiences and examine ways to improve the “Alkuluokka” -model based on that information. My research was a qualitative case study that examined the “Alkuluokka” -development project that was started in Southern Finnish municipality. The research was conducted by interviewing three class teachers in a semi-structured format. I analyzed the material using thematic analysis and visualized the results with thematic networks. “Alkuluokka” is a class form where pupils of pre-primary and early education are assigned to the same learning group. “Alkuluokka” can consist of both preschoolers and first- and second-graders. “Alkuluokka” is taught jointly by class teacher and kindergarten teacher. The main themes for describing the class teachers’ experiences were the following: teaching in the “Alkuluokka”, learning in the “Alkuluokka”, and improving the “Alkuluokka” model. The class teachers’ experiences were very favourable and they felt positively about collaborative teaching. They also deemed the opportunity for individual advancements in studies as one of the major advantages of “Alkuluokka”. It was noted that communality and peer learning are well emphasized in the model. Class teachers raised some questions about the administrative sector.