Browsing by Subject "alkuraskauden raskausdiabetes"

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  • Korpimäki, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Diabetes first time detected during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes (GDM). Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes differ from those of diabetes outside of pregnancy. In the year 2014 16 % of Finnish pregnant women had abnormal OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) result. OGTT is the standard method for diagnosing GDM. GDM prevalence is increasing and it is mainly accounted for increasing body mass index among pregnant women. GDM predisposes both mother and child for perinatanal complications as well as health problems in their later life. In Finland GDM is diagnosed during early pregnancy or in general at the turn of the second and third trimester. There is no worldwide consensus of the justification of the early GDM diagnosis. Little is known about the patients with early GDM. The main goal of my master´s thesis was to describe lifestyle (nutrition and physical activity) and health of the early (pregnancy week 8−12) GDM study subjects and to compare these to other study subjects´ lifestyle and health. In addition the study examined which factors were accounted for the early GDM. The data of the master´s thesis came from the NELLI intervention study (Neuvonta, elintavat ja liikunta neuvolassa) which covered years 2007–10. The inclusion criteria of the study were factors known to increase the risk of GDM. The exclusion criteria included for example abnormal OGTT result during early pregnancy. Study subjects´ nutrition and leisure time physical activity (valid surveys) and health (anthropometric measures, blood pressure, blood tests) were followed during pregnancy. One year after delivery follow-up study was carried out. Master´s thesis data consisted of the records of the study subjects participating in the NELLI intervention study and subjects excluded from the study due to the abnormal early pregnancy OGTT. Data relative to early GDM subjects existed only for before bregnancy (lifestyle) or early pregnancy (health) and one year after delivery (lifestyle, health). In these time points variables representing early GDM and NELLI study subjects´ lifestyle and health were compared. Statistical methods used were Pearson´s chi-square test, Fisher´s exact test, independent samples T-test and Mann-Whitney U test, linear regression analysis, ordinal logistic regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. The factors accounting for risk of early GDM were increasing body mass index before pregnancy, age of at least 35 years before pregnancy and GDM or macrosomic newborn during previous pregnancies. High-density lipoprotein concentration of early GDM subjects during early pregnancy was lower than that of other study subjects. In addition total fat contributed more of the daily energy intake (E%) and low-fat dairy products and cheeses smaller portion of the diet before pregnancy of early GDM subjects than of other study subjects. Furthermore the nutritional goals (≥ 4/5) were fulfilled less frequently before pregnancy in the diet of early GDM subjects than in the diet of other study subjects. The group of early GDM subjects participating in the follow-up study was assorted hence the results of follow-up study have to consider cautiously. Mainly the same factors which are known to increase GDM risk at the turn of the second and third trimester accounted also for the risk of early GDM. Weight management before pregnancy seems to be the most important way to reduce the risk of early GDM. Some signals were also be noticed according to which early GDM subjects´ lifestyle and health markers differed unfavourably from those of other study subjects. In conclusion strong attention should be paid to counseling on lifestyle factors and follow-up of the health of early GDM patients both during pregnancy and thereafter.