Browsing by Subject "altaistiikka"

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  • Rybatzki, Volker (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The present research is an investigation into the corpus of personal names and titles that are found in sources from the Middle Mongolian period, that is the time from the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century. The entry for every name or title has been divided into three parts: occurence(s) of a given name in Middle Mongolian sources (primary sources), etymology, and occurence(s) in sources other than Middle Mongolian (secondary sources). Culturally and lingistically the corpus can be divided into six sub-groups: Mongolian, Turkic (Old, Middle and Modern), Arabo-Persian (Islamic), Indo-Iranian and Tibetan (Buddhist), as well as Chinese. Among these, the largest group is formed by Mongolian and Turkic, followed by Chinese (mostly titles), Indo-Iranian, Arabo-Persian and Tibetan. With regard to the primary and secondary occurences the research is based mainly on primary sources including text-publications and dictionaries. Every name or title is documented as completely as possible within a Central Asian framework. However, due to the divergency of the sources available as well as diachronical importance, each sub-group has been dealt with slightly differently, but consistently. The corpus of investigated names and titles gives a fairly correct picture of the multi-ethnical composition of the Mongolian world-empire. It also shows the foreign influences on Mongolian names and titles, being in this respect a mirror of the influences that are visible in other parts of the Middle Mongolian culture too. Furthermore, the investigated corpus reflects the transitory stage of the 13th to 15th century in Central Asian history, and includes thus material from the past (Indo-Iranian, Old and Middle Turkic), and material that points to the future (Arabo-Persian, Tibetan, Modern Turkic).
  • Hayashi, Yoshihito (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The primary purpose of this thesis is to clarify the role and origin of the lapis lazuli used in the Kizil Grottos in China. Particularly, it will seek to clarify how lapis lazuli was used, where it came from and who used it. The paper begins by considering the techniques used for purifying lapis lazuli, as well as its different uses. Following this, I consider the both the layout of and the different shades of blue present in the Kizil Grottoes Murals, as well as how the different shades were used to emphasise the importance of motifs. The purification of lapis lazuli, used to produce different types of blue colour, has a long history, and it has changed along with the development of new chemicals. This paper tries to illuminate how the different variations of the concept of “blueness”, expressed by three different Japanese kanji (Chinese characters), 青(ao) 碧(ao) 蒼(ao), influenced the roles and use of these different types of blue in the murals found in the Kizil Grottoes. This paper also considers the origin of the lapis lazuli in the Kizil Grottoes. Lapis lazuli used in the Silk Road has until now been believed to have been exclusively produced in Afghanistan; however, this thesis presents findings that cast doubt on this commonly accepted theory since lapis lazuli was present in significant amounts only in the 224th cave in Kizil. Instead, I propose the hypothesis that the lapis lazuli used in the 224th cave was not from Afghanistan but a much nearer place, namely, the Tibet and Qinghai regions of China. The study of art techniques and painting materials provides the primary theoretical background for this paper; however, other studies are also consulted. Specifically, archaeological and historical studies of the Silk Road, studies of the Kizil Grottoes, as well as other studies from the fields of linguistics, Buddhist studies, and art history, are all also extensively consulted.
  • Orlando, Giulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the multi-ethnicity and the multilingualism on the formation of the national identity in Kazakhstan. The dissertation is founded on the fieldwork conducted in the summer of 2017 in Almaty, on the collected material, as well as on the consultation of the academic literature and the pertaining statistics. The study primarily focuses on a preliminary analysis of the historical background, which illustrates the founding reasons behind the plurality of ethnic groups and languages within the Kazakh territory. Subsequently, it is taken into account the current state of affairs, the developments and the policies implemented. Upon examination of the general framework, and in reference to a well-established theoretical system, the author demonstrates the intrinsic nature of the multiethnic and multi-linguistic scenario. On this ground, it is assessed the correlation between these factors and the process of nation-building. In consideration of that, the author states an unavoidable inclusiveness of the national identity developed from the independence. She infers, also looking at the official statistics, a gradual reduction of the relevance of the minority groups, though a substantial permanence of the distinctive plurality of the population. The results of this analysis can be used for further researches on the correlation between the ethnic/linguistic situation and the future development of the national identity.
  • Zhang, Dongning (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis aimed to research the history of the Xibe language and to discuss about its future. By 2017 this language had less than 20,000 speakers and the number was still decreasing. Five chapters comprised this thesis. Chapter 1 introduced the Xibe people and their residence in Qapqal, as well as the former linguistic researches. Chapter 2 analyzed the history of the Xibe people based on historical study methods, revealed how their languages changes from a Proto-Mongolic to Tungusic. Chapter 3 analyzed the relationships between the Xibe and Manchu ethnic groups and their attitudes towards the languages of the each other. Chapters 4-5 used the methods of case study, in which Chapter 4 provided a portrait of Qapqal and a culture center in this county; Chapter 5 measured the present states of the Qapqal-Xibe language, discussed the future of the Qapqal-Xibe. The written materials were collected from the Chinese official history books and the previous researches in this field, while my interviews made in Qapqal SAS Culture Center also contributed this thesis. This thesis concluded that predictably at the beginning of the 22nd century only few of native speaker would be alive, matching the status of Qapqal-Xibe as ‘nearly extinct’. Linguists could help with digitalizing this language, but he future of the Qapqal-Xibe language was on their own hands of the members of the Xibe ethnic group.
  • Mohamad Zulkipli, Ain Nuryaqin Binti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis addresses the problem of situating Dongmun Yuhae, a Chinese-Korean-Manchu dictionary published by Joseon’s Bureau of Interpreters in 1748, within the crisis of identity afflicting the Joseon Dynasty. To achieve this, it is proposed that an analysis concerning a dictionary focuses on its inherent nature as a lexicographic tool, through a lexicographic description and review of its functions. Understanding Dongmun Yuhae’s functions ensures that the dictionary is not analysed according to its individual parts in separation from each other, but rather according to its whole design to produce a more comprehensive representation. The analysis mainly compares the functions of Dongmun Yuhae that have been explicitly stated in the postface of Dongmun Yuhae (Manchu vocabulary consultation) and the presumed function described by other research (vernacular Chinese consultation). Based on the results of macrostructural, microstructural and mediostructural analysis, Dongmun Yuhae is proven to be designed to fully support the consultation of Manchu vocabulary for its target users, students and interpreters of the Bureau of Interpreters. Against the crisis of identity of Joseon, Dongmun Yuhae reveals the diplomatic function of Manchu and its importance in Joseon’s search for legitimacy as the last bastion of Confucian cultures and value. Historical sources support the description and review of Dongmun Yuhae’s main function and shows that despite the crisis of identity and need for Joseon’s court and intellectuals to prove to be the deserving heir of Ming’s legacy, Joseon court still needed to maintain diplomatic relationship with Qing Dynasty. DMYH was one of the many steps taken to augment its cultural identity. To sum up, the cultural and political crisis of identities and linguistic situations are reflected in DMYH’s design and functions.