Browsing by Subject "aluminium"

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  • Kareinen, Timo; Nissinen, Ari; Ilvesniemi, Hannu (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1998)
    In this study we analyze how the ion concentrations in forest soil solution are determined by hydrological and biogeochemical processes. A dynamic model ACIDIC was developed, including processes common to dynamic soil acidification models. The model treats up to eight interacting layers and simulates soil hydrology, transpiration, root water and nutrient uptake, cation exchange, dissolution and reactions of Al hydroxides in solution, and the formation of carbonic acid and its dissociation products. It includes also a possibility to a simultaneous use of preferential and matrix flow paths, enabling the throughfall water to enter the deeper soil layers in macropores without first reacting with the upper layers. Three different combinations of routing the throughfall water via macro- and micropores through the soil profile is presented. The large vertical gradient in the observed total charge was simulated succesfully. According to the simulations, gradient is mostly caused by differences in the intensity of water uptake, sulfate adsorption and organic anion retention at the various depths. The temporal variations in Ca and Mg concentrations were simulated fairly well in all soil layers. For H+, Al and K there were much more variation in the observed than in the simulated concentrations. Flow in macropores is a possible explanation for the apparent disequilibrium of the cation exchange for H+ and K, as the solution H+ and K concentrations have great vertical gradients in soil. The amount of exchangeable H+ increased in the O and E horizons and decreased in the Bs1 and Bs2 horizons, the net change in whole soil profile being a decrease. A large part of the decrease of the exchangeable H+ in the illuvial B horizon was caused by sulfate adsorption. The model produces soil water amounts and solution ion concentrations which are comparable to the measured values, and it can be used in both hydrological and chemical studies of soils.
  • Haapala, H.; Goltsova, N.; Pitulko, V.; Lodenius, M. (Elsevier Science Ltd., 1997)
    The effects of air pollutants on soil were studied in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests near the boundary of Russia and Estonia. The study area is characterized by large amounts of acidic and basic pollutants, mainly sulphur dioxide (SO*) and calcium (Ca) . Several variables were measured in different horizons of the podzolic soil polluted by emissions from local sources in areas of several thousands of square kilometres. Alkalinization dominates the processes in the soil, since sulphur is absorbed only in small quantities and Ca is much better absorbed. Ca content in humus horizon may rise even to 100 000 mg kg-’ and the pH of originally very acidic soil may rise to 8.3. Total aluminum (Al) content was high in the heavily polluted plots, since emissions contain much Al. On the other hand, the exchangeable Al was very low in these alkaline sites. A larger quantity of exchangeable Al occurred farther from the pollutant sources, even though total Al in these plots was low. These plots had acidic soils in which Al is in exchangeable form. Due to the neutralizing effect of acidic and basic pollutants, forest damage in the study area was not as serious as might be supposed, Complicated pollutant situations must be taken into consideration when pollution-caused environmental protection measures are planned. It is not reasonable to reduce only SO2 emissions, but necessary to lower the basic emissions at the same time.