Browsing by Subject "amphetamine"

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  • Montonen, Heidi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Literature review: The plasma membrane DA transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of Na+/ClÙÄÉ≠ dependent neurotransmitter transporters. DAT is the primary mechanism for clearance of dopamine from the extracellular space and transporting it back to the presynaptic nerve terminals. There's a great interest in the DAT and its regulation as its substrate, dopamine, mediates a wide array of physiological functions e.g. locomotor activity, cognition and the control of motivated behaviors. With selective transport DAT limits the intensity and the duration of dopaminergic signal. Its function is regulated by several kinases, phosphatase and protein-protein interactions. The altered expression of DAT may be related to several neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, addiction and ADHD. To study DAT's function, several genetically modified mouse lines including DAT knockout mice, DAT knockdown mice and DAT knock in mice with elevated DAT levels have been generated. Experimental part: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays important role in the survival and function of dopaminergic neurons, learning, memory and synaptic plasticity. More recently, several studies have shown that GDNF can also negatively regulate the actions of abused drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate GDNF's role and mechanism of action in plasticity and function of the dopaminergic neurons projecting to striatum. For that purpose, we used in vivo microdialysis in freely moving mice. We chose two different mouse lines: MEN2B mice with constitutive active Ret-signaling and elevated striatal dopamine concentrations, and GDND-cKO mice that lack GDND in the central nervous system. Microdialysis guide cannula was implanted in the dorsal striatum in the stereotaxic surgery and the mice were allowed to recover for 5-7 days. The concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA and also 5-HIAA were determined from the samples by highperformance liquid chromatography. Microdialysis was performed twice for every mouse on days 1 and 4. Between microdialysis days, the mice were given amphetamine 1 mg/kg i.p. on days 2 and 3. In the microdialysis experiment, the mice received amphetamine stimulation (100 µM/60 min) via microdialysis probe. The placements of microdialysis probes were verified from fixed brain sections after the experiments. Amphetamine increased the dopamine output in both mouse lines, but there were no statistically significant differences in striatal dopamine concentrations between genotypes neither after acute nor chronic administration. However, there was a difference between the dopamine outputs in days 1 and 4 in both MEN2B and GDNF-cKO mice: The striatal dopamine concentrations were significantly lower on the second microdialysis day. This may be a sing from tolerance to the drug. However, without more research, it is not possible, by this experiment, to draw direct conclusions of GDNF's role in addiction and in plasticity in striatum. It is possible that the differences between genotypes are too small to be seen with microdialysis. Development of compensatory mechanisms in mice cannot be ruled out either. Effects may also vary between different brain areas.
  • Kinnunen, Marja (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Histamine is a monoamine structured signal molecule, which takes part in many functions of living organisms. It was first found in brain approximately 70 years ago. Neuronal histamine regulates for example biological rhythms, energy metabolism and thermoregulation. In the 1980's, H3-receptor was recognized in the brain. Neuronal histamine regulates functions of other transmitters for example gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine. Currently, the interactions of histamine and dopamine are not well characterized. Though, it is known that histaminergic fibers innerviate almost every dopaminergic area of the brain. There are also several H3-receptors in the striatum and in the limbic system. These brain areas are important for the rewarding effect of dopamine. The aim of the experimental part of this Master's thesis was to examine the location of histaminergic and dopaminergic nervous systems in mouse brain by using immunohistochemistry. Primary antibodies that were produced in rabbit (anti-histamine (HA)) and in mouse (anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)), and secondary anti-rabbit and anti-mouse anti-bodies, that were produced in goat and conjugated with fluorophores, were used in the study. The samples were imaged with a confocal microscope. The primary aim was to find out, in which addiction related brain areas, histamine and dopamine cells and fibers are located and how they are situated in relation to each other. H3-receptor antagonists have been shown to decrease the consumption and rewarding effect of alcohol in animal models. Therefore, it was examined if non-imidazole structured H3-receptor antagonist also inhibits the rewarding effect of amphetamine, and if it decreases the locomotor activity induced by amphetamine. JNJ-39220675, a neutral antagonist of H3-receptor, and behavioral paradigm of conditioned place preference (CPP) were used in the experiment. CPP was also used to find out if D2-receptor agonist quinpirole cause reward or aversion. The effect of JNJ-39220675 on quinpirole's place preference and change in locomotor activity was also investigated. The interactions of these two pharmacological ligands were also examined in a separate locomotor activity experiment. C57BL/6J mice were used in all experiments. The results show that there are possible synaptic connections of histaminergic and dopaminergic system in substantia nigra, supramammillary nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic area and ventral periaqueductal grey area. Also, histaminergic nerve fibers innerviate to the dorsal striatum, which regulates motor functions, and to the ventral striatum, which is a part of the rewarding system of the brain. Hence, it is possible that histamine regulates the actions of dopa-mine in these brain areas. The behavioral experiments showed that JNJ-39220675 inhibits acutely increased locomotor activity caused by amphetamine, and decreases desensitation of decreased locomotor action caused by repeated dose of quinpirole. However, JNJ-39220675 did not have any effect on the rewarding effect of amphetamine, which causes strong sensitization. Also, JNJ-39220675 did not have an effect on quinpirole's aversive action. It remains to be seen, if H3-receptor is a potential target for new medicines in the treatment of different brain diseases and addiction in the future.
  • Harkki, Juliana Sade Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: Alcohol dependence is a chronic severe substance use disorder that has devastating personal and public health consequences. The efficacy of the current pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of alcohol dependence are modest at best, therefore better alternatives are greatly needed. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has shown promise in treatment of alcohol dependence in several clinical trials. A sigle high dose of LSD has been suggested to have a treatment effect that last for at least six months, indicating a remarkably better efficacy than the currently available methods. LSD itself has been reported to have a low addiction potential. In mouse models, acute LSD has been demonstrated to reduce ethanol consumption. Yet, the mechanism of action behind these effects has remained largely unknown. LSD is an agonist of serotonin’s 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors which have been shown to modulate the dopaminergic activity of the reward circuitry, a crucial brain area in the initiation of addiction. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a procedure for a quantitative assessment of reward behavior in animal models. In ICSS, laboratory rodents self-administer electric stimulation to the dopaminergic pathways of the reward circuitry inducing a reinforcing effect similar to drug reward. Aim: The aim of the current body of work was to use ICSS to assess the acute effects of LSD on reward behavior in C57BL/6JRj mice. This was done to improve the understanding of the mechanism of action of LSD and to evaluate whether the ethanol-consumption-reducing effect of LSD in mice is mediated through the reward mechanism. Methods: Bipolar electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle were implanted in the brains of C57BL/6JRj mice in a stereotaxic surgery. The animals were trained to acquire the self-stimulation in the discrete-trial current-intensity procedure. First, the possible dose-dependent acute effects were tested with three different doses of LSD. Next, the acute effect of LSD on amphetamine-induced changes in ISCC were tested. Lastly, a small preliminary test on the effects of LSD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced changes on ICSS were conducted. Results and conclusions: Acute LSD did not affect reward behavior in ICSS on any of the tested doses. Accordingly, LSD did not affect the facilitation of ICSS induced by acute amphetamine. The results of the LPS experiment were likely to be skewed by the development of tolerance to LPS, therefore the evaluation of the possible effect of LSD was not possible. These findings suggest that the previously reported LSD-induced reduction in ethanol consumption in mice, is not mediated through alteration of the reward mechanism. At the same time, these findings provide further evidence supporting the suggestion that LSD itself does not induce facilitation of the reward circuitry needed for the development of addiction.