Browsing by Subject "analysis"

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  • Salmenperä, Hanna (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Cleaner Production 292 (2021), 125986
    The European Union has set strict recycling targets for municipal solid wastes, but the implementation of circularity is still hindered by a variety of present set-ups. This paper addresses the recycling transitions and their complex nature in Austria, Sweden and Finland and points out the differences that are connected to the level of success in recycling. Furthermore, this study identifies present lock-ins in the waste management regime to provide an understanding on the factors preventing further development towards a recycling society. This is done by analysing different waste policy documents and interviews of national waste experts. The study employs the multilevel perspective (MLP) framework that is a commonly used approach in sustainability transitions research. The results highlight the variety of social, political, technical and economic elements, but also the connections between them that result in a stable regime. The pathways to achieve the recycling society differ between Austria, Sweden and Finland. National waste policy, the division of responsibilities, the variety of infrastructure and collection systems in waste management, the level of general awareness, public-private co-operation and the quality of waste data act as key characteristics that reflect the success in the recycling transition. Identified lock-ins for recycling seem to be slightly stronger in Finland compared to Austria and Sweden, while some of the lock-ins are the same in all countries, such as incineration capacity, malfunction of markets of recyclables or lack of product design for recyclability.
  • Omoruyi, I.M.; Pohjanvirta, R. (2018)
    Mounting evidence of the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans has led to assaying a vast array of food items (processed or packaged) as possible sources of human exposure to estrogens. In this study, we investigated the current situation in this respect of different food supplements and beer brands. Eleven food supplements and 24 beer brands were obtained from Helsinki, Finland. Sample preparation was carried out by established methods while estrogenic activities were assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). All the food supplements as well as 81% of the beer samples tested were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol equivalent concentrations of food supplements and beer brands ranging from 7.5 to 11.5 µg/ml and from below detection limits to 43.6 ng/ml, respectively. The estrogenic activities detected in beer samples were not dependent on the beer's alcoholic content, the country of production, or the size of the production brewery. The results of our study imply that both food supplements and beers can be a significant source of human exposure to estrogens. Therefore, further studies and regular surveillance are warranted. © 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
  • Ritola, Ville (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background. Knowing what a psychological test measures and if it works the same way in different contexts, i.e. has measurement invariance (MI), is crucial for its valid and reliable use. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was published in Finland in 2012. However, recent research suggests that the factor model given in the WAIS-IV test manual and the information regarding MI between different age groups and levels of education are lacking. Methods. This study employed the normative sample of the Finnish WAIS-IV. First, the factor model in the manual was examined and improved using confirmatory factor analysis with a mixed data-theory approach. Second, the new model was tested for strict residual MI for different age groups and levels of education, in order to study if the test reaches an acceptable level of MI. Results and conclusions. The results indicated that the normative data is best modeled by an oblique non-g model. The study also replicated a Spatial Visualization factor with loadings from Block Design, Visual Puzzles and Picture Completion, and Quantitative Reasoning factor with Figure Weights and Arithmetic. A previously unmentioned link in factor analytic literature on WAIS-IV was found between Block Design and Processing Speed factors. The results questioned the link between Arithmetic and Verbal Comprehension factor and found the underlying source of shared variance to be links between Information and Arithmetic, which was interpreted as Educational Achievement. WAIS-IV reached strict residual MI for both different age groups and levels of education. The study offers a more accurate factor model of WAIS-IV and gives confidence that psychologists can reliably apply it over different ages and levels of education in the normal population of Finland.
  • Gregson, Barbara A.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Auer, Ludwig M.; Batjer, Hunt; Chen, Xian-Cheng; Juvela, Seppo; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Pantazis, George C.; Teernstra, Onno P. M.; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Zuccarello, Mario; Mendelow, A. David (2012)
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Sivonen, Marja H. (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy Research & Social Science 75 (2021), 102024
    Sustainable Development Goals aim for a better future, but gains are threatened by conflict and governance failures, exacerbated by climate change. While research on energy security is well-established, conceptual-analytical research on sustainability transitions has paid little attention to security threats as factors influencing transitions or security policy as part of policy mixes. This paper combines policy coherence and integration analysis of energy and security strategy documents with sustainability transitions’ research, considering how landscape pressures and energy niches are presented in documents pertaining to Estonia, Finland and Scotland during 2006–2020. The findings show that security and energy policies present a functional overlap. Yet, policy integration and coherence are insufficiently addressed, conflicts created by coexisting low-carbon and hydrocarbon-based security considerations. An increasingly multifaceted landscape creates a complicated policy environment where pursuing policy coherence becomes harder. Despite the accelerating energy transition, the security implications of energy niches have received too little attention.
  • Chumachenko, Kateryna; Männistö, Anssi; Iosifidis, Alexandros; Raitoharju, Jenni (IEEE, 2020)
    IEEE Access 8 (2020)
    In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of using state-of-the-art machine learning methods in the analysis of historical photo archives. Specifically, we analyze prominent Finnish World War II photographers, who have captured high numbers of photographs in the publicly available Finnish Wartime Photograph Archive, which contains 160,000 photographs from Finnish Winter, Continuation, and Lapland Wars captures in 1939-1945. We were able to find some special characteristics for different photographers in terms of their typical photo content and framing (e.g., close-ups vs. overall shots, number of people). Furthermore, we managed to train a neural network that can successfully recognize the photographer from some of the photos, which shows that such photos are indeed characteristic for certain photographers. We further analyzed the similarities and differences between the photographers using the features extracted from the photographer classifier network. We make our annotations and analysis pipeline publicly available, in an effort to introduce this new research problem to the machine learning and computer vision communities and facilitate future research in historical and societal studies over the photo archives.
  • Angelstam, Per; Manton, Michael; Yamelynets, Taras; Fedoriak, Mariia; Albulescu, Andra-Cosmina; Bravo, Felipe; Cruz, Fatima; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kavratishvili, Marika; Munos-Rojas, Jose; Sijtsma, Frans; Washbourne, Carla-Leanne; Agnoletti, Mauro; Dobrynin, Denis; Izakovicova, Zita; Jansson, Nicklas; Kanka, Robert; Kopperoinen, Leena; Lazdinis, Marius; Metzger, Marc; van der Moolen, Bert; Özut, Deniz; Gjorgieska, Dori Pavlovska; Strydmets, Natalie; Tolunay, Ahmet; Turkogly, Turkay; Zagidullina, Asiya (Springer Link, 2020)
    Landscape Ecology 36 (2020)
    Context Maintaining functional green infrastructures (GIs) require evidence-based knowledge about historic and current states and trends of representative land cover types. Objectives We address: (1) the long-term loss and transformation of potential natural forest vegetation; (2) the effects of site productivity on permanent forest loss and emergence of traditional cultural landscapes; (3) the current management intensity; and (4) the social-ecological contexts conducive to GI maintenance. Methods We selected 16 case study regions, each with a local hotspot landscape, ranging from intact forest landscapes, via contiguous and fragmented forest covers, to severe forest loss. Quantitative open access data were used to estimate (i) the historic change and (ii) transformation of land covers, and (iii) compare the forest canopy loss from 2000 to 2018. Qualitative narratives about each hotspot landscape were analysed for similarities (iv). Results While the potential natural forest vegetation cover in the 16 case study regions had a mean of 86%, historically it has been reduced to 34%. Higher site productivity coincided with transformation to non-forest land covers. The mean annual forest canopy loss for 2000–2018 ranged from 0.01 to 1.08%. The 16 case studies represented five distinct social-ecological contexts (1) radical transformation of landscapes, (2) abuse of protected area concepts, (3) ancient cultural landscapes (4) multi-functional forests, and (5) intensive even-aged forest management, of which 1 and 4 was most common. Conclusions GIs encompass both forest naturalness and traditional cultural landscapes. Our review of Pan-European regions and landscapes revealed similarities in seemingly different contexts, which can support knowledge production and learning about how to sustain GIs.
  • Humalisto, Niko; Valve, Helena; Åkerman, Maria (Taylor & Francis, 2021)
    Environmental Politics, 30:5, 833-853
    The circular economy (CE) is currently generating considerable expectations. The concept describes an aspired future but does not provide clear guidance for policy-making. As policy outcomes often rest on initiatives generated in a bottom-up fashion, our attention must be directed to the ways policies are made accessible and interesting to those who might take the initiative. We claim that on-line publicity plays a key role in this. Our findings from a hyperlink analysis focusing on a government funding call for nutrient recycling in Finland show how multiple versions of the policy topic unfold online, as emergent hyperlink clusters prioritize specific agents, material circuits, and policy visions over others. The topic becomes connected with activities and agendas to create path dependencies and to strengthen existing divisions rather than to advocate change. Thus, we argue that CE policy design must recognize the way policy is shaped through online publicity creation.
  • Kalliala, Mari (2005)
    During the 1990s there was a worldwide decline in the number of terrorist attacks, whereas political crime in general increased in most Western liberal democracies. The study analyses the emergence of radical alternative movements in Finland in the 1990s and their illegal underground activities as a phenomenon of the late modern risk society. Since reflexivity is an essential feature of late modernity, the study also discusses ways in which law enforcement can manage risks posed by political crime. Secrecy influences the character of radical alternative movements. In the context of late modern social flux they are better understood as communitarian movements than social ones. Belonging to the community is more important to their supporters than the activities of the community. Furthermore, radical alternative movements consist of beliefs non-typical to mainstream society. They are part of the so-called cultic milieu - the dynamics of which is influenced by its relationship to mainstream society and the ideology of 'seeking'. Finnish society in the 1990s provided a fertile breeding ground for the emergence of radical movements and illegal underground activities. However, international influences which were adopted played a significant role. Radical alternative movements did not have to subscribe to illegal underground activities since their political agenda was not illegitimate. Illegal underground activities were organised based on the strategy of leaderless resistance. Nevertheless, structures had to be created to provide for resources and to mobilise illegal underground activities. The refrain of violence against persons was the most important strategic choice. For instance, it prevented the use of effective law enforcement counter-measures. However, no short or long-term political goals were achieved by illegal means. The tactics seemed to have served mainly organisational maintenance. Illegal underground activities impinge directly upon the rights and liberties of others. However, balancing between liberty and order is a major challenge as democratic values are preserved by adopting the very means that tend to subvert them. Analysis is a new tool for law enforcement and can be used to assess threats and risks, set priorities and formulate counter-strategies.
  • Taivainen, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Suspension is nowadays the most commonly used dosage form in preclinical animal studies. However, suspension can be physically unstable and changes in particle size or crystal form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can occur during storage. Conventionally suspensions are also prepared in a mortar, and hence the quality of suspensions is operator-dependent. One of the aims in this study was to prepare suspensions using a mortar and pestle and an Ultra-turrax homogenizer to find out how the preparation method affects the particle size of suspension. A solution containing methylcellulose and Tween 80 was used as a vehicle, and five active APIs with different physico-chemical properties as model drugs. Moreover, an aim of the study was to evaluate the stability of the suspensions stored at room temperature and in the refrigerator and freezer by physical (laser diffraction, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction) and chemical (high-performance liquid chromatography) methods of analysis. The aim of the study was also to assess and compare the suitability of laser diffraction and optical microscopy for the determination of partice size during preclinical studies. The suspensions prepared using a mortar and pestle and Ultra-turrax had a similar particle size in almost all cases. The particle size of API that was difficult to grind decreased significantly, also when using Ultra-turrax although the capacity used was minimum. Both prepation methods had the best repeatability of particle size when the API was easy to grind. However, Ultra-turrax could provide better homogeneity of quality than a mortar and pestle if the settings were optimized. The effect of different operators was not studied in this study. The stability of suspensions in different storage conditions was dependent on the properties of API. The particle size of all frozen suspensions decreased after two days based on laser diffraction results. Although the reason was not found from literature or supplementary tests (particle size analysis of the vehicle and pH-measurements), freezing of suspensions should be treated with caution based on this study. The crystal structures of APIs remained stabile with the exception of typical disproportionation of the API salt. Suspensions were mainly chemically stabile in all conditions, but water-solubility of API seemed to decrease stability. The micellar solubilization of drugs was also observed. The best way to determine the particle size of preclinical suspensions proved to be the combination of laser diffraction and optical microscopy images. The microscopy images confirmed the validity of the size distributions measured by laser diffraction and provided information about e.g. particle aggregation. On the other hand, optical microscopy image analysis was not suitable method for particle sizing.
  • Thorén, Henrik; Soininen, Niko; Kotamäki, Niina (Elsevier, 2021)
    Environmental Science & Policy 124 (2021), 478-484
    Legal decision-making often relies on scientific knowledge and information of other kinds, not least in environmental law where legal institutions use environmental modeling to, for example, project expected effects of projects when approving or denying permits. In this paper, using use the problem-feeding model of interdisciplinarity, we analyze this relationship as an exchange of problems and solutions between different communities of expertise. Drawing on recent examples from Finland, we use the problem-feeding model to explore the conditions under which problem-solution coordination breaks down. We argue that tensions between the notions of uncertainty used by the different communities of expertise can lead to differing understandings of the way the relationship between legal institutions and scientific experts works, and that this may disrupt the orderly exchange of problems and solutions. We illustrate our views in a fictional discussion between a lawyer and a modeler.
  • Kokkala, Katja (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The characteristics of macrolides are discussed in general level in the theoretical part of this Master's thesis. The discussion is focused on the properties of two macrolides in molecular level and their tendency to form tautomeric forms highlighting the structural similarities and differences of these macrolides, which will affect both the mechanisms of action and the metabolism. Attention is also paid to biosynthesis and manufacturing process keeping focus on downstream process, especially the impurities, which arise from the macrolide biosynthesis. Also the principles of argentation chromatography are discussed. In the experimental part of Master's thesis a purification method for one macrolide was developed using argentation chromatography. Conventional chromatographic purifications cannot separate the macrolide from its impurities. The purity of the macrolide after argentation chromatography was 98.6%. Also a new crystallization method was developed, which produces anhydrous form of the macrolide instead of traditional monohydrate form. A method for analysing the macrolide using HPLC was developed. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The tautomeric forms and the impurities of the macrolide were analysed using LC/MS. One of these impurities was isolated and analysed with NMR thus confirming its identity. An analysed NMR spectrum of this impurity has not been published according to our best knowledge. A previously unknown impurity was identified based on MS analysis and retention time.