Browsing by Subject "antibacterial"

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  • Virjamo, Virpi; Fyhrquist, Pia; Koskinen, Akseli; Lavola, Anu; Nissinen, Katri; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta (2020)
    Knowledge about the defensive chemistry of coniferous trees has increased in recent years regarding a number of alkaloid compounds; in addition to phenolics and terpenes. Here, we show that Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), an important boreal zone tree species; accumulates 1,6-dehydropinidine (2-methyl-6-(2-propenyl)-1,6-piperideine) in its needles and bark. We reanalyzed previously published GC-MS data to obtain a full picture of 1,6-dehydropinidine in P. abies. 1,6-dehydropinidine appeared to especially accumulate in developing spring shoots. We used solid-phase partitioning to collect the alkaloid fraction of the sprouts and thin-layer chromatography to purify 1,6-dehydropinidine. The antibacterial properties of the 1,6-dehydropinidine fraction were tested using a broth microdilution method; with Streptococcus equi subsp. equi as a model organism. Based on our results 1,6-dehydropinidine is common in alkaloid extractions from P. abies (0.4 +/- 0.03 mg g(-1) dw in mature needles) and it is especially abundant in young spruce shoots (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg g(-1) dw). Moreover; 1,6-dehydropinidine extracted from P. abies sprouts showed mild antibacterial potential against Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (MIC 55 mu g mL(-1)). The antibacterial activity of a plant compound thought of as an intermediate rather than an end-product of biosynthesis calls for more detailed studies regarding the biological function of these coniferous alkaloids
  • Mgbeahuruike, Eunice Ego; Fyhrquist, Pia; Vuorela, Heikki; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holm, Yvonne (2018)
    Piper guineense is a food and medicinal plant commonly used to treat infectious diseases in West-African traditional medicine. In a bid to identify new antibacterial compounds due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, twelve extracts of P. guineense fruits and leaves, obtained by sequential extraction, as well as the piperine and piperlongumine commercial compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. HPLC-DAD and UHPLC/Q-TOF MS analysis were conducted to characterize and identify the compounds present in the extracts with promising antibacterial activity. The extracts, with the exception of the hot water decoctions and macerations, contained piperamide alkaloids as their main constituents. Piperine, dihydropiperine, piperylin, dihydropiperylin or piperlonguminine, dihydropiperlonguminine, wisanine, dihydrowisanine and derivatives of piperine and piperidine were identified in a hexane extract of the leaf. In addition, some new piperamide alkaloids were identified, such as a piperine and a piperidine alkaloid derivative and two unknown piperamide alkaloids. To the best of our knowledge, there are no piperamides reported in the literature with similar UV absorption maxima and masses. A piperamide alkaloid-rich hexane leaf extract recorded the lowest MIC of 19 mu g/mL against Sarcina sp. and gave promising growth inhibitory effects against S. aureus and E. aerogenes as well, inhibiting the growth of both bacteria with a MIC of 78 mu g/mL. Moreover, this is the first report of the antibacterial activity of P. guineense extracts against Sarcina sp. and E. aerogenes. Marked growth inhibition was also obtained for chloroform extracts of the leaves and fruits against P. aeruginosa with a MIC value of 78 mu g/mL. Piperine and piperlongumine were active against E. aerogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, S. enterica, P. mirabilis and B. cereus with MIC values ranging from 39-1250 mu g/mL. Notably, the water extracts, which were almost devoid of piperamide alkaloids, were not active against the bacterial strains. Our results demonstrate that P. guineense contains antibacterial alkaloids that could be relevant for the discovery of new natural antibiotics.
  • Mgbeahuruike, Eunice Ego; Stålnacke, Milla; Vuorela, Heikki; Holm, Yvonne (2019)
    Microbial resistance to currently available antibiotics is a public health problem in the fight against infectious diseases. Most antibiotics are characterized by numerous side effects that may be harmful to normal body cells. To improve the efficacy of these antibiotics and to find an alternative way to minimize the adverse effects associated with most conventional antibiotics, piperine and piperlongumine were screened in combination with conventional rifampicin, tetracycline, and itraconazole to evaluate their synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was used to estimate the synergistic effects of various combination ratios of the piperamides and antibiotics against the bacterial and fungal strains. Both piperine and piperlongumine showed synergistic effects against S. aureus when combined at various ratios with rifampicin. Synergistic interaction was also observed with piperine in combination with tetracycline against S. aureus, while antagonistic interaction was recorded for piperlongumine and tetracycline against S. aureus. All the piperamide/antibacterial combinations tested against P. aeruginosa showed antagonistic effects, with the exception of piperine and rifampicin, which recorded synergistic interaction at a ratio of 9:1 rifampicin/piperine. No synergistic interaction was observed when the commercial compounds were combined with itraconazole and tested against C. albicans. The results showed that piperine and piperlongumine are capable of improving the effectiveness of rifampicin and tetracycline. Dosage combinations of these bioactive compounds with the antibiotics used may be a better option for the treatment of bacterial infections that aims to minimize the adverse effects associated with the use of these conventional antibacterial drugs.
  • Sakari Lintinen, Kalle; Luiro, Sanna; Figueiredo, Patricia; Sakarinen, Ekaterina; Mousavi, Zekra; Seitsonen, Jani; N. S. Rivière, Guillaume; Mattinen, Ulriika; Niemelä, Matti; Tammela, Päivi; Österberg, Monika; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Bobacka, Johan; Santos, Hélder A.; A. Kostiainen, Mauri (2019)
    Acid-precipitated lignin nanoparticles with a cationic polymer coating exhibit antibacterial activity when infused with silver. While the use of such particles would be beneficial due to their high antibacterial activity with a low silver content, their production holds steps that are difficult to scale up to inexpensive industrial manufacture. For example, the production of acid-precipitated lignin nanoparticles requires the use of ethylene glycol, which is not easily recycled. Furthermore, the binding of silver to these particles is weak, and thus the particles need to be used rapidly after preparation. Here, we show that with a deprotonation reaction of an organic solution of anhydrous lignin and subsequent ion exchange with silver nitrate and colloid formation by solvent exchange, highly spherical silver carboxylate colloidal lignin particles (AgCLPs) can be prepared. Silver is not released from the particles in deionized water but can be released in physiological conditions, shown by their high antibacterial efficacy with low silver loading. In comparison to lignin nanoparticles with weakly bound silver, AgCLPs have high antibacterial activity even without cationic polyelectrolyte coating, and they retain their antibacterial activity for days. While the rapid depletion of silver from silver-infused lignin nanoparticles can be considered beneficial for some applications, the sustained antibacterial activity of the AgCLPs with ionically bound silver will enable their use in applications where silver nanoparticles have been previously used. Our results demonstrate that CLPs, which can be produced with a closed cycle process on a large scale, can be rapidly and quantitatively functionalized into active materials.
  • Tienaho, Jenni; Karonen, Maarit; Muilu-Mäkelä, Riina; Kaseva, Janne; de Pedro, Nuria; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Aapola, Ulla; Uusitalo, Hannu; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Franzen, Robert; Wähälä, Kristiina; Karp, Matti; Santala, Ville; Sarjala, Tytti (2020)
    Despite the continuing interest in various plant and natural products, only a small portion of the biologically active compounds from nature has been discovered and exploited. In this study, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of aqueous fractions of three endophytic fungi isolated from the roots of 8-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) growing on a drained peatland were investigated. The endophytic fungi species were Acephala applanata, Phialocephala fortinii, and Humicolopsis cephalosporioides/Coniochaeta mutabilis. The bioactivities were examined using hydrogen peroxide scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity tests as well as sensitive Escherichia coli-based biosensors, which produce a luminescent signal in the presence of substances with oxidative or genotoxic properties. In addition, cell models for Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, and osteoarthritis were used to evaluate the potential for pharmaceutical applications. The aqueous extracts of fungi and 19 out of 42 fractions were found to be active in one or more of the tests used. However, no activity was found in the age-related macular degeneration and osteoarthritis cell model tests. Additionally, bioactivity data was connected with metabolites putatively annotated, and out of 330 metabolites, 177 were interesting in view of the bioactivities investigated. A majority of these were peptides and all three fungal species shared a highly similar metabolome. We propose that Scots pine endophytic fungi are a rich source of interesting metabolites, and synergistic effects may cause the bioactivities, as they were found to vary after the fractionation process.
  • Amrati, Fatima Ez-Zahra; Bourhia, Mohammed; Saghrouchni, Hamza; Slighoua, Meryem; Grafov, Andriy; Ullah, Riaz; Ezzeldin, Essam; Mostafa, Gamal A.; Bari, Ahmed; Ibenmoussa, Samir; Bousta, Dalila (2021)
    Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br.: (C. europaea) is a wild medicinal plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae. It is commonly used in traditional medicines for treating several diseases. The present work aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal potentials of C. europaea fractions including hydro ethanol (ET CE), n-butanol (But CE), and polyphenol (Poly CE). The chemical composition of hydroethanol, n-butanol, and polyphenol-rich fractions from C. europaea were determined using GC-MS after silylation. The anti-inflammatory effect of hydroethanol, n-butanol, and polyphenol-rich fractions was studied by carrageenan-induced paw edema. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of hydroethanol, n-butanol, and polyphenol-rich fractions against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts were assessed using the disc diffusion and micro-dilution assays. The findings of the chemical characterization affirmed the presence of interesting bioactive compounds in C. europaea fractions. The polyphenol-rich fraction was the best inhibitor of edema by75.68% after 6 h of treatment. The hydroethanol fraction was the most active against both bacteria and yeasts. This study contributes to society as it provides potential bioactive compounds in C. europaea extract, which may help in fighting nosocomial antibiotic-resistant microbes.
  • Shishido, Tania Keiko; Popin, Rafael Vicentini; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Fiore, Marli Fatima; Fewer, David P.; Herfindal, Lars; Sivonen, Kaarina (2020)
    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms that produce a large diversity of natural products with interesting bioactivities for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. Cyanobacterial extracts exhibit toxicity towards other microorganisms and cancer cells and, therefore, represent a source of potentially novel natural products for drug discovery. We tested 62 cyanobacterial strains isolated from various Brazilian biomes for antileukemic and antimicrobial activities. Extracts from 39 strains induced selective apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cancer cell lines. Five of these extracts also exhibited antifungal and antibacterial activities. Chemical and dereplication analyses revealed the production of nine known natural products. Natural products possibly responsible for the observed bioactivities and five unknown, chemically related chlorinated compounds present only in Brazilian cyanobacteria were illustrated in a molecular network. Our results provide new information on the vast biosynthetic potential of cyanobacteria isolated from Brazilian environments.
  • Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Quintyn, Romanie; De Man, Ingrid; Alatossava, Tapani; Gauchi, Jean-Pierrre (2016)
    To prevent excessive bacterial growth in raw milk, the FAO recommends two options: either cold storage or activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPs/HT) in milk with the addition of two chemical preservatives, hydrogen peroxide (H) and thiocyanate (T). N-2 gas flushing of raw milk has shown great potential to control bacterial growth in a temperature range of 6-12 degrees C without promoting undesired side effects. Here, the effect of N-2 gas (N) was tested as a single treatment and in combination with the lactoperoxidase system (NHT) on seven raw milk samples stored at 15 or 25 degrees C. For the ratio defined as bacterial counts from a certain treatment/counts on the corresponding control, a classical Analyse of Variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ). Altogether, the growth inhibition was slightly but significantly higher at 25 degrees C than at 15 degrees C. Except for one sample, all ratios were lower for HT than for N alone; however, these differences were not judged to be significant for five samples by the REGWQ test; in the remaining two samples, N was more effective than HT in one case and less effective in the other case. This study shows that N-2 gas flushing, which inhibited bacterial growth in raw milk at 15 and 25 degrees C for 24 and 12 h, respectively, could constitute an alternative to LPs where no cold storage facilities exist, especially as a replacement for adulterating substances.
  • Ding, Yaping; Li, Wei; Correia, Alexandra; Yang, Yuyun; Zheng, Kai; Liu, Dongfei; Schubert, Dirk W.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Santos, Helder A.; Roether, Judith A. (2018)
    Electrospun hybrid scaffolds are an effective platform to deliver drugs site specifically for the prevention and treatment of diseases in addition to promote tissue regeneration because of the flexibility to load drugs therein. In the present study, electrospun hybrid scaffolds containing antibiotics were developed to support cellular activities and eliminate potential postoperative inflammation and infection. As a model drug, levofloxacin (LFX) was successfully incorporated into pure polyhydroxybutyrate/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PHB/PCL) scaffolds and PHB/PCL/sol-gel-derived silica (SGS) scaffolds. The influence of LFX on the morphology, mechanical performance, chemical structure, drug release profile, and antibacterial effect of the scaffolds was thoroughly and comparatively investigated. MG-63 osteoblast-like cell cultivation on both scaffolds certified that LFX inclusion did not impair the biocompatibility. In addition to the favorable cellular proliferation and differentiation, scaffolds containing both LFX and SGS displayed highly increased mineralization content. Therefore, the present multifunctional hybrid scaffolds are promising in tissue engineering applications.
  • Skok, Žiga; Barančoková, Michaela; Benek, Ondřej; Cruz, Cristina Durante; Tammela, Päivi; Tomašič, Tihomir; Zidar, Nace; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin; Zega, Anamarija; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Mundy, Julia E. A.; Lawson, David M.; Maxwell, Anthony; Kikelj, Danijel; Ilaš, Janez (2020)
    We designed and synthesized a series of inhibitors of the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, based on our recently published benzothiazole-based inhibitor bearing an oxalyl moiety. To improve the antibacterial activity and retain potent enzymatic activity, we systematically explored the chemical space. Several strategies of modification were followed: varying substituents on the pyrrole carboxamide moiety, alteration of the central scaffold, including variation of substitution position and, most importantly, modification of the oxalyl moiety. Compounds with acidic, basic, and neutral properties were synthesized. To understand the mechanism of action and binding mode, we have obtained a crystal structure of compound 16a, bearing a primary amino group, in complex with the N-terminal domain of E. coli gyrase B (24 kDa) (PDB: 6YD9). Compound 15a, with a low molecular weight of 383 Da, potent inhibitory activity on E. coli gyrase (IC50 = 9.5 nM), potent antibacterial activity on E. faecalis (MIC = 3.13 mu M), and efflux impaired E. coli strain (MIC = 0.78 mu M), is an important contribution for the development of novel gyrase and topoisomerase IV inhibitors in Gram-negative bacteria.
  • Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Savijoki, Kirsi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Fallarero, Adyary (2020)
    In an effort to find new repurposed antibacterial compounds, we performed the screening of an FDA-approved compounds library against Staphylococcus aureus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25923. Compounds were evaluated for their capacity to prevent both planktonic growth and biofilm formation as well as to disrupt pre-formed biofilms. One of the identified initial hits was fingolimod (FTY720), an immunomodulator approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, which was then selected for follow-up studies. Fingolimod displayed a potent activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range of 12-15 mu M at which concentration killing of all the bacteria was confirmed. A time-kill kinetic study revealed that fingolimod started to drastically reduce the viable bacterial count within two hours and we showed that no resistance developed against this compound for up to 20 days. Fingolimod also displayed a high activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC 25 mu M) as well as a modest activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, fingolimod inhibited quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and might therefore target this signaling pathway in certain Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, we present the identification of fingolimod from a compound library and its evaluation as a potential repurposed antibacterial compound.
  • Lamut, Andraž; Skok, Žiga; Barančoková, Michaela; Gutierrez, Lucas J.; Cruz, Cristina; Tammela, Päivi; Draskovits, Gábor; Szili, Petra Éva; Nyerges, Ákos; Pál, Csaba; Molek, Peter; Bratkovič, Tomaž; Ilaš, Janez; Zidar, Nace; Zega, Anamarija; Enriz, Ricardo D.; Kikelj, Danijel; Tomašič, Tihomir (2020)
    Aim: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are essential bacterial enzymes, and in the fight against bacterial resistance, they are important targets for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Results: Building from our first generation of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-based DNA gyrase inhibitors, we designed and prepared an optimized series of analogs that show improved inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Importantly, these inhibitors also show improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains. Conclusion: The most promising inhibitor, 29, is active against Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and S. aureus wild-type and resistant strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations between 4 and 8 mu g/ml, which represents good starting point for development of novel antibacterials. Graphical abstract
  • Manner, Suvi; Skogman, Malena; Goeres, Darla; Vuorela, Pia; Fallarero, Adyary (2013)