Browsing by Subject "antibiootit"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Väänänen, Minna; Airaksinen, Marja (Suomen farmasialiitto, 2005)
    Viime aikoina on käyty runsaasti keskustelua Suomen apteekkijärjestelmää koskevista uudistusehdotuksista, kuten itsehoitolaakkeiden siirtämisestä paivittaistavarakauppoihin ja apteekkimaksun poistosta. Toteutuessaan uudistukset johtaisivat suuriin periaatteellisiin muutoksiin apteekkien toiminnan lähtökohdissa ja vaarantaisivat ammatillisuuden apteekkipalveluissa. Euroopan Unionin sisällä ei ole yhtenevaa käytäntöä apteekkien toiminnan saantelyssä. Osaksi tästä johtuen apteekkitoiminta on erilaista eri jäsenmaissa. Espanjassa, kuten suurimmassa osassa muitakin Euroopan maita, lääkkeitä saa myydä ainoastaan apteekeista. Espanjalaiset apteekit eivät kuitenkaan ole samassa määrin sitoutuneet terveyspoliittisiin tavoitteisiin kuin suomalaiset apteekit. Tämä johtunee osin siitä, että apteekkeja on Espanjassa tiheämmässä kuin Suomessa, ja niiden perustaminen poikkeaa Suomen apteekkilupamenettelysta. Tämän katsauksen tavoitteena on kuvata espanjalaista apteekkitoimintaa ja verrata sitä Suomen apteekkien tämänhetkisiin toimintaperiaatteisiin. Espanjassa asuu talvikaudet vakituisesti kymmeniä tuhansia suomalaisia, joilla on kokemuksia seka Suomen että Espanjan apteekkipalveluista. Aineistona tässä katsauksessa on käytetty Espanjassa asuville suomalaisille vuonna 2002 tehtyä kyselytutkimusta (n=533), jossa selvitettiin vastaajien lääkkeiden käyttöä, terveydentilaa sekä kokemuksia paikallisista apteekeista. Lisäksi on hyödynnetty omakohtaisia kokemuksia espanjalaisessa apteekissa työskentelystä. Espanjalaisissa apteekeissa reseptilaakkeiden ja itsehoitolaakkeiden valinen raja on häilyvä, sillä suuressa osassa apteekeista reseptilaakkeiden myyminen itsehoitolääkkeiden tapaan on yleinen käytäntö. Osasyynä tähän on apteekkien välinen kova kilpailu. Kilpailusta johtuen osa apteekeista on menettämässä statuksensa ammattitaitoisina, luotettavina ja puolueettomina lääkejakelijoina. Vaikka apteekkien toimintaperiaatteet eroavat Suomessa ja Espanjassa, koskettavat Euroopan Unionin yhteiset lääkepoliittiset tavoitteet molempia maita. Tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi tulisi kunkin jäsenmaan selvittää lääkehuollon tämänhetkinen tilanne ja ongelmakohdat niin, että kaikille Euroopan Unionin jasenvaltioiden asukkaille voitaisiin tarjota turvallinen, tehokas ja korkeatasoinen Iaakejakelu siihen liittyvine ammatillisine palveluineen.
  • Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Kivilahti-Mäntylä, Katariina; Eskola, Katarina; Olkkola, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Biström, Mia; Grönthal, Thomas; Kaartinen, Liisa; Kalenius, Saija; Helin-Soilevaara, Henriette; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Pekkanen, Katariina; Muhonen, Tita-Maria (Finnish Food Authority, 2021)
    Finnish Food Authority publications 6/2021
    Sales of antibiotics for use in animals in Finland in 2020 were lower than ever reported. The decreased sales from 2019 to 2020 was largely attributed to decreased manufacturing of medicated feed to fur animals. The majority, almost three quarters, of all antimicrobial products were given to individual animals, and products intended for group treatment accounted for just over one quarter. The most-sold antimicrobial continues to be injectable penicillin followed by orally administered sulfonamide-trimethoprim combinations and orally administered tetracyclines. Sales of reserve antimicrobials (HPCIA, WHO list ) for the treatment of animals remained very low also in 2020. The antibiotic resistance situation in bacteria from animals and food has remained relatively good in Finland. However, in certain bacterial species resistance was detected in moderate or high levels. Therefore, the need remains to further emphasise the preventive measures and prudent use of antibiotics. It is important to follow the Finnish recommendations for the use of antimicrobials in animals. Among salmonella and campylobacter from Finnish food-producing animals, resistance levels were low. Since 2014, the proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline resistant broiler campylobacter isolates have varied. In bovine campylobacters, especially fluoroquinolone resistance has increased in the 2010’s. Resistance situation among indicator E. coli from broilers and cattle has remained good. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in slaughtered broilers and in broiler meat at retail has decreased significantly and was very low in 2020. ESBL/AmpC bacteria were detected at low level from slaughtered cattle. The development of resistance situation among pathogenic bacteria isolated from food-producing animals varied between bacterial species but changes were overall small. Resistant isolates were still detected most commonly among enterotoxigenic E. coli from pigs. Among bacteria isolated from companion animals, the development of resistance situation varied during the follow-up period, and the slow decrease in resistance did not continue as clearly. Among canine E. coli strains that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, the relative proportion of AmpC producers increased, and ESBL strains were less common.
  • Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Olkkola, Satu; Verkola, Marie; Biström, Mia; Grönthal, Thomas; Autio, Tiina; Kaartinen, Liisa; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Kivilahti-Mäntylä, Katariina (Fimea); Muhonen, Tita-Maria (Fimea); Eskola, Katarina (UH) (Finnish Food Authority, 2022)
    Finnish Food Authority publications 6/2022
    Sales of veterinary antibiotics turned to a 5% increase in 2021. The result, however, was the second lowest since the monitoring began. The majority of overall sales consisted of products for individual treatment and the proportion of products for group treatment was roughly over a quarter. The biggest increase in sales was noted for orally administered sulfa-trimethoprim-combination and is partly explained by the increased manufacture of medicated feed for fur animals. Increased sales were also noted for antibiotic tablets for companion animals. Injectable penicillin continued to be the most sold veterinary antibiotic. Sales of critically important antibiotics (HPCIA, WHO) for treatment of animals decreased further and remained very low. The antibiotic resistance situation in bacteria from animals and food has remained relatively good in Finland. However, in certain bacterial species resistance was detected in moderate or high levels. Therefore, the need remains to further emphasise the preventive measures and prudent use of antibiotics. It is important to follow the Finnish recommendations for the use of antimicrobials in animals. Among salmonella from food-producing animals and campylobacter from broilers, resistance levels were low. Since 2014, the proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline resistant broiler campylobacter isolates have varied. Among porcine campylobacter, fluoroquinolone resistance has increased. Resistance situation among indicator E. coli from pigs has remained good. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in slaughtered pigs increased in 2021 while no ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria were detected in pork and beef at retail. MRSA bacteria were detected more than previously in fresh pork at retail. The resistance situation among pathogenic bacteria isolated from food-producing animals remained similar to 2020. Resistance was overall low in bovine and porcine respiratory pathogens as well as in pathogens isolated from broilers. Resistance was still detected most in enterotoxigenic E. coli from pigs. Among bacteria isolated from companion animals, the changes in resistance situation were mostly small. The proportion of canine E. coli strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was the lowest since the start of the monitoring.