Browsing by Subject "antidepressant"

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  • Amaghnouje, Amal; Mechchate, Hamza; Es-safi, Imane; Alotaibi, Amal A.; Noman, Omar M.; Nasr, Fahd A.; Al-zharani, Mohammed; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Calarco, Anna; El Fatemi, Hinde; Grafov, Andriy; Bousta, Dalila (2020)
    Marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) infusion has been used as folk medicine against depression and anxiety. However, no studies have been carried out yet to prove those activities scientifically. In this study, the anxiolytic, antidepressant-like effects, and memory impact of the hydro-ethanolic extracts of marjoram were evaluated in mice. The hydro-ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were evaluated for their central nervous effect using six different behavioral tests such as light-dark box (LDB) and open field (OF) for anxiety, forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) for depression, and object recognition test (ORT), Morris water maze (MWM) for the impact on memory. The experiments were realized on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of treatments and compared with bromazepam for anxiety (1 mg/kg) and paroxetine for depression (11.5 mg/kg). The phytochemical screening was performed by HPLC, and the acute and sub-acute toxicities were performed following OCED guidelines (N degrees 423 and 407) with biochemical parameters evaluation and histopathological analysis. Oral administration of marjoram hydro-ethanolic extract induced significant anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects without memory impairment, increasing the exploration and time spent in the light area in the LDB test in a similar way to that of bromazepam. In the FST and TST, the extract was as effective as paroxetine (11.5 mg/kg, p.o.) in reducing immobility. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of ferulic acid, naringin, hydroxytyrosol, geraniol, and quercetin. This study approves the traditional use of this plant and encourages further investigation on its bioactive compounds.
  • Moliner, Rafael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs have been shown to reinstate juvenile-like plasticity in the adult brain, allowing mature neuronal networks to rewire in an environmentally-driven/activity-dependent process. Indeed, antidepressant drugs gradually increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and can rapidly activate signaling of its high-affinity receptor TRKB. However, the exact mechanism of action underlying drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like plasticity remains poorly understood. In this study we first characterized acute effects of classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs on the interaction between TRKB and postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins PSD-93 and PSD-95 in vitro. PSD proteins constitute the core of synaptic complexes by anchoring receptors, ion channels, adhesion proteins and various signaling molecules, and are also involved in protein transport and cell surface localization. PSD proteins have in common their role as key regulators of synaptic structure and function, although PSD-93 and PSD-95 are associated with different functions during development and have opposing effects on the state of plasticity in individual synapses and neurons. Secondly, we investigated changes in mobility of TRKB in dendritic structures in response to treatment with antidepressant drugs in vitro. We found that antidepressant drugs decrease anchoring of TRKB with PSD-93 and PSD-95, and can rapidly increase TRKB turnover in dendritic spines. Our results contribute to the mechanistic model explaining drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like neuronal plasticity, and may provide a common basis for the effects of antidepressant drugs.
  • Tokariev, Anton; Oberlander, Victoria C.; Videman, Mari; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2022)
    Up to five percent of human infants are exposed to maternal antidepressant medication by serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) during pregnancy, yet the SRI effects on infants' early neurodevelopment are not fully understood. Here, we studied how maternal SRI medication affects cortical frequency-specific and cross-frequency interactions estimated, respectively, by phase-phase correlations (PPC) and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. We examined the cortical activity in infants after fetal exposure to SRIs relative to a control group of infants without medical history of any kind. Our findings show that the sleep-related dynamics of PPC networks are selectively affected by in utero SRI exposure, however, those alterations do not correlate to later neurocognitive development as tested by neuropsychological evaluation at two years of age. In turn, phase-amplitude coupling was found to be suppressed in SRI infants across multiple distributed cortical regions and these effects were linked to their neurocognitive outcomes. Our results are compatible with the overall notion that in utero drug exposures may cause subtle, yet measurable changes in the brain structure and function. Our present findings are based on the measures of local and inter-areal neuronal interactions in the cortex which can be readily used across species, as well as between different scales of inspection: from the whole animals to in vitro preparations. Therefore, this work opens a framework to explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental SRI effects at all translational levels.
  • Ala-Kulju, Kimmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Osalla masennuspotilaista masennusjaksot osuvat pääosin aina samalle vuodenajalle. Tätä masennuksen alatyyppiä kutsutaan vuodenaikamasennukseksi. Myös syömishäiriöihin, kuten laihuus-, ahmimis- ja ahmintahäiriöön, liittyy toisinaan mielialan laskua ja oireiden voimistumista vuodenaikojen mukaan. Vuodenaikamasennukseen puolestaan liittyy oireena lisääntynyt ruokahalu ja lihominen useammin kuin tavalliseen masennukseen. Näiden yhtäläisyyksien vuoksi syömishäiriöiden ja vuodenaikamasennuksen yhteyttä toisiinsa on tutkittu paljon. Tässä tutkielmassa selvitettiin masennusjaksojen vuodenaikaisvaihtelua HUS:n syömishäiriöpoliklinikan potilaista (N=1588) ja kaltaistetuista verrokeista (N=6290) koostuvassa tutkimuspopulaatiossa analysoimalla tutkimushenkilöiden masennuslääkereseptien lunastamismääriä eri vuodenaikoina. Kansaneläkelaitoksen lääkekorvausrekisteristä saatiin tutkimushenkilöiden reseptitiedot tutkimusajalta vuosina 2000-2010. Masennuslääkkeiden lisäksi selvitettiin myös tulehduskipu- ja allergialääkkeiden käyttömääriä. Tuloksista selvisi, että syömishäiriöpotilaat käyttävät masennuslääkkeitä moninkertaisesti verrokkeja enemmän, eikä heillä masennuslääkitysten aloitusmäärissä näkynyt merkitseviä eroja eri vuodenaikojen suhteen. Sen sijaan verrokit aloittivat lääkityksiä talvella ja syksyllä merkitsevästi enemmän kuin kesällä ja keväällä. Verrokkipopulaatiossa masennuslääkitysten aloitusmäärissä tapahtui vuosien 2003 ja 2010 välillä kasvua noin 50%, kun taas syömishäiriöpotilailla aloitusmäärät laskivat.