Browsing by Subject "antivirals"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Ianevski, Aleksandr; Yao, Rouan; Biza, Svetlana; Zusinaite, Eva; Mannik, Andres; Kivi, Gaily; Planken, Anu; Kurg, Kristiina; Tombak, Eva-Maria; Ustav, Mart; Shtaida, Nastassia; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Jo, Eunji; Yang, Jaewon; Lysvand, Hilde; Loseth, Kirsti; Oksenych, Valentyn; Aas, Per Arne; Tenson, Tanel; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Windisch, Marc P.; Fenstad, Mona Hoysaeter; Nordbo, Svein Arne; Ustav, Mart; Bjoras, Magnar; Kainov, Denis E. (2020)
    Combination therapies have become a standard for the treatment for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. They are advantageous over monotherapies due to better efficacy, reduced toxicity, as well as the ability to prevent the development of resistant viral strains and to treat viral co-infections. Here, we identify new synergistic combinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), echovirus 1 (EV1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. We observed synergistic activity of nelfinavir with convalescent serum and with purified neutralizing antibody 23G7 against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. We also demonstrated synergistic activity of nelfinavir with EIDD-2801 or remdesivir in Calu-3 cells. In addition, we showed synergistic activity of vemurafenib with emetine, homoharringtonine, anisomycin, or cycloheximide against EV1 infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells. We also found that combinations of sofosbuvir with brequinar or niclosamide are synergistic against HCV infection in hepatocyte-derived Huh-7.5 cells, and that combinations of monensin with lamivudine or tenofovir are synergistic against HIV-1 infection in human cervical TZM-bl cells. These results indicate that synergy is achieved when a virus-directed antiviral is combined with another virus- or host-directed agent. Finally, we present an online resource that summarizes novel and known antiviral drug combinations and their developmental status.
  • PRIDE Consortium Investigators; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R.; Bolton, Kirsty J.; Linko, Rita; Mikic, Dragan (2020)
    Background. The effect of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) treatment on length of stay (LoS) in patients hospitalized with influenza is unclear. Methods. We conducted a one-stage individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis exploring the association between NAI treatment and LoS in patients hospitalized with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) infection. Using mixed-effects negative binomial regression and adjusting for the propensity to receive NAI, antibiotic, and corticosteroid treatment, we calculated incidence rate ratios (I RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Patients with a LoS of Results. We analyzed data on 18 309 patients from 70 clinical centers. After adjustment, NAI treatment initiated at hospitalization was associated with a 19% reduction in the LoS among patients with clinically suspected or laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection (IRR, 0.81; 95% CI, .78-.85), compared with later or no initiation of NAI treatment. Similar statistically significant associations were seen in all clinical subgroups. NAI treatment (at any time), compared with no NAI treatment, and NAI treatment initiated Conclusions. When patients hospitalized with influenza are treated with NAIs, treatment initiated on admission, regardless of time since symptom onset, is associated with a reduced LoS, compared with later or no initiation of treatment.