Browsing by Subject "anxiety"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 49
  • Rantala, Arja; Vuorinen, Anna-Leena; Koivisto, Jonna; Similä, Heidi; Helve, Otto; Lahdenne, Pekka; Pikkarainen, Minna; Haljas, Kadri; Pölkki, Tarja (2022)
    Aims: To describe a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial which will evaluate the effectiveness of a gamified mobile health intervention for children in whole day surgery care. Design: A study protocol for a two-arm randomized controlled trial. Methods: Participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention group (N = 62), in which patients receive routine care and play a mobile game designed for children or the control group (N = 62), in which patients receive routine care, including a mobile phone application that supports parents during the care path. The primary outcome is children's pre-operative anxiety, while the secondary outcome measures included fear and postoperative pain, along with parental satisfaction and anxiety. Data collection started in August 2020. Results: The results of the ongoing randomized controlled trial will determine whether the developed gamified mobile health intervention can be recommended for hospital use, and whether it could be used to educate children about their surgical treatment to decrease anxiety.
  • Pulkkinen, Maria; Jousela, Irma; Sintonen, Harri; Engblom, Janne; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina (2021)
    Aims: To explore the effectiveness of a new perioperative practice model on anxiety and health-related quality of life in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Methods: Control group participants (N = 222) received standard perioperative care, meaning they were cared for by various nurses during their perioperative process without postoperative visits. Intervention group participants (N = 231) were assigned one named anaesthesia nurse during their entire perioperative process who visited them postoperatively. Both groups responded to two self-reported questionnaires: the generic 15D health-related quality of life instrument and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) measuring anxiety two to three weeks pre-operatively and three months postoperatively. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at baseline or at follow-up in health-related quality of life or anxiety.
  • Ala-Lipasti, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Goals. Inflammation has been found to be associated with psychological symptoms. Especially in regard to depression, there is broad evidence that depressed people have higher levels of inflammation. Higher inflammation has also been linked to poorer response to SSRI-medication. Anxiety has been found to have stronger association to experienced pain than depression and in earlier studies references to an independent association between anxiety and inflammation has emerged. The purpose of this study was to explore if a connection between anxiety and inflammation can be found and what factors are possibly contributing to that connection. Goal was to find factors that can help maintain and improve individual's quality of life and ability to work. Methods. Data used in this study belonged to the biomarker project (project 4), which was part of the second stage of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. The mean age of participants was 57.32 (sd. 11.55) years. As a measure of inflammation serum levels of cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) were collected from the blood of participants. Anxiety was measured by Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The association between anxiety and inflammation was explored by a linear regression analysis. Sociodemographic factors and also a broad range of other factors related to inflammation and anxiety were controlled in the models. In addition the possible moderating role of inner self-control was studied by a hierarchical linear regression analysis. The sub factor cognition control of the self-control scale was used as a measure of inner self-control. Results and conclusions. When inflammation was predicted only by anxiety, anxiety was a statistically significant predictor and this association remained significant after sociodemographic factors were controlled. When broad range of other controlled variables was included in the model a connection between anxiety and inflammation could not be found. It seems that the association between anxiety and inflammation is mainly due to other factors. Especially the amount of chronic conditions attenuated the association. Inner self-control did not have a statistically significant effect to the connection between anxiety and inflammation. The best predictor for inflammation in this study was body mass index and also other health behavior related factors had a significant role. In regard to the wellbeing of an individual and individual's ability to work, weight control and healthy lifestyle choices are crucial.
  • Hella, Emilia (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    This review focuses on neurotrophic factors, especially CDNF, and Amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This review finds out which neurotrophic factors have been studied in clinical trials of ALS and what kind of results have been got. Neurotrophic factors are important for development and function of neurons because they prevent apoptosis of neurons. They also play role in differentiation, development and migration of neurons. It is also known that many of the neurotrophic factors have protective and restorative properties. ALS is a rare neurodegenerative disease which causes the destruction of motor neurons and leads to death in three years. The disease degenerate the upper and lower motor neurons. Symptoms are muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, cramps and problems with swallowing. At the moment there is no cure for ALS so it is important to study neurotrophic factors that could prevent the progression of the disease and perhaps to protect or repair destroyed motor neurons. This is why it is important to study potential of CDNF in ALS. The experimental part consists of three different parts. The purpose of the first part study was to determine the distribution of CDNF after intraventricular delivery at different time points. CDNF was labeled with 125I (125I-CDNF). The distribution was determined by gammacounter and autoradiography. To determine the stability of the injected 125-I CDNF we performed SDS-PAGE. The second part studied the diffusion volume of CDNF after intraventricular injection with seven wild type mice. After stereotaxic surgery CDNF-immunohistochemistry staining from coronal sections was done. The last experimental part studied the effect of single intracerebral injection of CDNF on motivation, locomotor activity, anxiety and depression with male and female mice. Light-dark box, open field, rotarod, forced swim test (FST), elevated plus maze and fear conditioning were carried out with male mice. After behavioural tests mice were sacrified for HPLC-analysis. Light-dark box and IntelliCage were carried out with female mice before c-fos staining. Gammacounter and autoradiography shows that 125I-CDNF distributes widely after intracerebroventricular injection. It spread throughout to the brain and also all the way to the spinal cord after one and three hours from injection. After 24 hours 125I-CDNF was cleared so the CDNF signal was very weak. SDS-PAGE showed the stability of radioactive CDNF. CDNF increased locomotor activity and decreased anxiety in male mice. But a statistically significant difference appeared in forced swim test and fear conditioning test. HPLC-analysis supported these results partly. CDNF also increased motivation of female mice in IntelliCage experiment. C-fos staining was observed in CDNF group and PBS group so quantitative analysis should be done from these sections so that reliable conclusions could be done. However, because CDNF distributed to spinal cord and it showed some effect on locomotor activity, motivation and depression it might be potential for ALS disease.
  • Chen, Zuyue; Wei, Hong; Pertovaara, Antti; Wang, Jianhong; Carlson, Synnöve (2018)
    Paracetamol has recently been suggested to affect emotion processing in addition to alleviating pain in humans. We investigated in adult male Hannover–Wistar rats whether acute intraperitoneally administrated paracetamol affects behavior in tests measuring anxiety, mood, motor activity, and memory. Unoperated rats received saline or a low (50 mg/kg) or high (300 mg/kg) dose of paracetamol, while rats with a spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathy and sham-operated rats received saline or the low dose of paracetamol. Rats were tested on open-field (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB), novel-object recognition (NOR), sucrose preference, rotarod, and monofilament tests. In unoperated rats, both the low and high dose of paracetamol reduced line crossings, and grooming time in the OFT, and novel preference in NOR. The high dose of paracetamol increased the time spent in the closed arm in EPM, reduced the number of rearings and leanings in OFT, the time spent in the light box in LDB, and sucrose preference. Paracetamol had no significant effect on the rotarod test measuring motor activity. The low dose of paracetamol suppressed mechanical pain hypersensitivity in SNI rats, without influencing pain behavior in sham-operated rats. Saline- but not paracetamol-treated SNI rats spent more time than sham-operated rats in the closed arm in the EPM test. Together the results suggest that a high dose of paracetamol increases anxiety-like and anhedonic behavior, and impairs recognition memory in unoperated controls, while in neuropathy, a low dose of paracetamol reduces nerve injury-associated anxiety probably by reducing neuropathic pain.
  • Modabbernia, Mohamad-Jafar; MansourGhanaei, Fariborz; Imani, Ali; MirsafaMoghaddam, SeyedAlireza; SedighRahimabadi, Massih; YousefiMashhour, Mahmoud; Joukar, Farahnaz; AtrkarRoushan, Zahra; Bidel, Siamak (2012)
    BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in IBS patients varies in different cultures. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 256 IBS patients were selected (using the criteria of Rome III) and evaluated for psychiatric disorders. In the first phase, subjects were screened using the General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ28). In the second phase, those who had scores ≥ 23 were assessed through semi-structured psychiatric interviews. RESULTS: Thirty out of 256 subjects had no significant psychiatric symptoms after performing GHQ28. In further psychiatric evaluation of the remaining subjects (226) who suffered from some degree of a psychiatric problem, 36 were diagnosed without Anxiety/Depressive disorder. Thus 66 subjects (25.8%) were known as a group without any significant psychiatric problem. A total of 190 subjects (74.2%) with anxiety-depressive problems were diagnosed; 89 were suffering from pure anxiety disorders, 41 were suffering from depressive disorders and 60 had co-morbid anxiety-depressive disorders. When comparing anxiety-depressive patients (n = 190) with normal subjects (n = 66), gender (P = 0.016), occupation (P = 0.002) and intensity of IBS (P < 0.001) showed statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of anxiety-depressive disorders in this study indicates the necessity of psychiatric assessment, early diagnosis and treatment of the patients with IBS. It may improve management of the patients suffering from IBS.
  • Punkkinen, Jari; Nyyssönen, Meri; Walamies, Markku; Roine, Risto; Sintonen, Harri; Koskenpato, Jari; Haakana, Riikka; Arkkila, Perttu (2022)
    Background Behavioral therapy (BT) has been proven effective in the treatment of supragastric belching (SGB) in open studies. The aim was to compare BT to follow-up without intervention in patients with SGB in a randomized study. Methods Forty-two patients were randomized to receive 5 sessions of BT, comprising diaphragmatic breathing exercises, or to follow-up without intervention. Patients were evaluated at 6 months, at which point the control group was also offered BT and evaluated after another 6 months. The frequency and intensity of belching and mental well-being were evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Depression, anxiety, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were evaluated with four questionnaires: BDI, BAI, 15D, and RAND-36. Key results The frequency and intensity of SGB were significantly lower in the therapy group (n = 19) than in the control group (n = 18) at the 6-month control (p < 0.001). When all patients (n = 36) were evaluated 6 months after BT, in addition to relief in the frequency and intensity of belching (p < 0.001), mental well-being had also improved (p < 0.05). Of all 36 patients, 27(75%) responded to BT. Depression scores were lower after therapy (p < 0.05). Only minor changes occurred in anxiety and HRQoL. Conclusions and Inferences Behavioral therapy is superior to follow-up without intervention in patients with SGB in reducing belching and depression; it also improves mental well-being but has only a modest effect on anxiety and HRQoL.
  • Liiwand, Maj Britt (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Chronic stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of various disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress-induced hyperexcitability of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has implications in anxiety-like behavior. Promising evidence points to the direction of GluK1 subunit containing kainate receptors (KARs) having a role in the modulation of GABAergic transmission in the lateral amygdala (LA). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dysfunction of KARs contribute to stress-induced amygdala hyperexcitability and anxiogenesis in mice. Chronic restraint stress (CRS) is an animal model simulating chronic psychological stress. An in situ hybridization experiment was performed to investigate how CRS affects expression levels of GluK1 in the different neuronal populations in the LA. These data show that CRS leads to downregulation of GluK1 expression in the parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons specifically. Patch clamp recordings of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents showed that CRS did not affect synaptic GABAergic transmission to the principal neurons in the LA. Lastly, conditional knock-out (cKO) mice that have the Grik1 gene knocked out selectively in the PV-expressing interneurons showed no change in anxiety-like behavior after CRS while their wild-type counterparts demonstrated an increase in anxiety-like behavior observable in the elevated plus maze test. Thus, ablation of GluK1 in PV+ interneurons affects the stress-induced anxiogenesis. Due to low number of animals, it cannot be confirmed yet whether the deletion leads to stress resilience or a phenotype where even regular handling is an aversive experience comparable to physical restraint. GluK1 KAR modulation of PV+ interneuron excitability and its susceptibility to stress-related alterations is only a recently discovered phenomenon, and even though this study provides some insight into the underlying mechanism, further research is needed. Systematic characterization of the mechanism could provide a novel tool for understanding and treating stress-related pathological anxiety, possibly helping patients suffering from anxiety disorders resistant to current treatments available.
  • Lindberg, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2023)
    As the most common mental disorder, anxiety disorders present a major burden to healthcare worldwide and a challenging problem to overcome for the ones suffering from it. Recently, researchers have started to recognize that the relationship between sleep and anxiety disorders is bidirectional; disturbed sleep is a potential risk factor for the progression of anxiety and anxiety can lead to sleep disturbances. However, the neural mechanisms underlying anxiety and sleep problems are still poorly recognized. In this study, we used a chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) paradigm to investigate how disturbed sleep alters anxiety-like behavior in mice and what are the potential underlying neuronal mechanisms. This model was chosen because we wanted to focus on a common form of disturbed sleep in humans rather than total sleep deprivation. We measured anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box and open field tests right after the 2-week SF period and again after a week of recovery. Additionally, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to study prolonged cell activity (transcription factor ∆FosB), parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and perineuronal net (PNN) structures in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the mice. Changes in mPFC activity and related brain areas are associated to anxiety in humans and anxiety-like behavior in rodents alike. Similarly, changes in PV interneurons and PNNs, that regulates PV cell function, are associated to anxiety-like behavior. However, PV interneurons and PNNs have not been previously studied in a setting that combines sleep fragmentation and anxiety-like behavior. We found that chronic SF increases anxiety-like behavior in female mice and that this effect persists at least for a week. Conversely, we did not observe significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in male mice. Both female and male mice showed decrease in ∆FosB in the mPFC suggesting that SF treated mice had lower overall levels of cell activity. Similarly, we found that SF treated mice had decreased PV interneuron intensity in both sexes which could indicate changes in the cell activity. However, the pattern of changes in the IHC results was not identical in males and females. Based on the IHC results, we suggest that SF affects neuronal processes in both sexes but the disparity in them could explain the difference in the behavioral effect. This thesis shows that disturbed sleep can lead to increased anxiety-like behavior in rodent models and recognizes potential targets to study the mechanisms behind the phenomena.
  • Peters, Dana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Concern about global warming can lead to climate change anxiety, a form of anxiety characterized by excessive worry about the climate crisis and associated consequences on the natural world and human society. It has been suggested by previous research that humor can be used to manage feelings of anxiety. This study seeks to determine if this phenomenon can be applied specifically to climate change anxiety. The research combines a comprehensive literature review with an online survey that leveraged climate change themed internet memes as a proxy for humor to gather opinions about the intersections between these two topics. The survey data supplemented claims made by existing literature, indicating that climate change themed internet memes and humor in general can be useful coping mechanisms to mitigate feelings of climate anxiety. The survey was completed by 93 respondents; most of these participants were women, located in the US, and/or between the ages of 20 and 29. Results from the survey showed that people tend to feel best about their environmental anxiety when they are taking active steps to solve the problem. Conscious decisions such as reducing waste or participating in activist movements are easier to recognize and self-report than more passive coping skills. Reliance on humor was reported as a supplementary coping skill, but many respondents indicated that looking at humorous climate change themed memes did influence their feelings about climate change overall. The scope of this study was relatively small in scale, therefore the results presented in this thesis may not be indicative of broader social trends and likely require further research.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Mataix-Cols, David; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Larsson, Henrik; Ruck, Christian; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lichtenstein, Paul; Latvala, Antti (2020)
    Background Causes of the comorbidity of substance misuse with anxiety-related and depressive disorders (anxiety/depression) remain poorly known. We estimated associations of substance misuse and anxiety/depression in the general population and tested them while accounting for genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We studied individuals born in Sweden 1968–1997 (n = 2 996 398) with follow-up in nationwide register data for 1997–2013. To account for familial effects, stratified analyses were conducted within siblings and twin pairs. Substance misuse was defined as ICD-10 alcohol or drug use disorder or an alcohol/drug-related criminal conviction. Three dimensions of ICD-10 anxiety and depressive disorders and a substance misuse dimension were identified through exploratory factor analysis. Results Substance misuse was associated with a 4.5-fold (95% CI 4.50–4.58) elevated risk of lifetime generalized anxiety/depression, 4.7-fold (95% CI 4.63–4.82) elevated risk of panic disorder and agora/social phobia, and 2.9-fold elevated risk of phobias/OCD (95% CI 2.82–3.02) as compared to those without substance misuse. The associations were attenuated in within-family analyses but we found elevated risks in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for substance misuse as well as significant non-shared environmental correlations. The association between anxiety/depression and substance misuse was mainly driven by generalized anxiety/depression, whereas other anxiety/depression dimensions had minor or no independent associations with substance misuse. Conclusions Substance misuse and anxiety/depression are associated at the population level, and these associations are partially explained by familial liabilities. Our findings indicate a common genetic etiology but are also compatible with a potential partially causal relationship between substance misuse and anxiety/depression.
  • Konttinen, Hanna (2006)
    Sosiologist Aaron Antonovsky was among the first who was interested in factors that maintain and enhance health instead of risk factors for different diseases. He developed the sense of coherence (SOC) construct, which is the core concept of his salutogenic theory, to explain how some individuals stay healthy despite the numerous stressful situations they encounter during their life. Sense of coherence is a global orientation towards life that characterizes the extent to which an individual appraises his or her internal and external environments as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. In previous studies, there has been a strong inverse association between the SOC scale and the measures of depressive symptoms and anxiety. This is in accordance with Antonovsky's theory but the size of the correlations raises the question whether the SOC scale measures similar construct to depression and anxiety measures. The aim of this thesis was to investigate what is the relationship of the SOC scale (short form) with the measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxiety (Spielberger's State Anxiety Scale), and if they are similarly related to health and health behaviours. The participants of the present study were 25 – 74 years old Finnish men (n=2351) and women (n=2291) from the national cardiovascular risk factor survey (FINRISK) conducted in 1997. The SOC scale had strong and inverse correlations with the measures of depression (r=-0.62 among men and women) and anxiety (r=-0.57 among men and r=-0.54 among women). In addition, sense of coherence was similarly associated with health and health behaviours as depressive symptoms (cognitive and affective) and anxiety. These results suggest that the SOC scale overlaps with depression and anxiety measures. Nevertheless, there were also small differences between these measures: education was related only to sense of coherence, and in factor analysis, items of the each scale defined their own factors. The SOC scale was more normally distributed than the measure of depressive symptoms as depression measure did not create variation among those respondents who did not have depressive symptoms. However, the low end of the SOC distribution was more important in the prediction of different health variables than the high end of the SOC distribution. This finding questions the status of sense of coherence (as measured by the SOC scale) as a protective factor for health that is qualitatively different from risk factors. It is concluded that the items of the 13-item SOC scale should be reconstructed to reflect better the SOC construct and be less confounded with negative emotional states. Most important references: Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Relevant articles from scientific peer reviewed journals.
  • de Miguel, Elena; Vekovischeva, Olga; Elsilä, Lauri V.; Panhelainen, Anne; Kankuri, Esko; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R. (2019)
    tTHIP (gaboxadol), a superagonist of the delta subunit-containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors, produces persistent neuroplasticity in dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), similarly to rewarding drugs of abuse. However, unlike them THIP lacks abuse potential and induces conditioned place aversion in mice. The mechanism underlying the aversive effects of THIP remains elusive. Here, we show that mild aversive effects of THIP were detected 2 h after administration likely reflecting an anxiety-like state with increased corticosterone release and with central recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) receptors. A detailed immunohistochemical c-Fos expression mapping for THIP-activated brain areas revealed a correlation between the activation of CRF-expressing neurons in the oval nucleus of the bed nuclei of stria terminalis and THIP-induced aversive effects. In addition, the neuroplasticity of mesolimbic DA system (24 h after administration) and conditioned place aversion by THIP after four daily acute sessions were dependent on extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (abolished in delta-GABA(A) receptor knockout mice) and activation of the CRF1 receptors (abolished in wildtype mice by a CRF1 receptor antagonist). A selective THIP-induced activation of CRF-expressing neurons in the oval part of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis may constitute a novel mechanism for inducing plasticity in a population of VTA DA neurons and aversive behavioral states.
  • Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kylmä, Jari; Bondas, Terese Elisabet (2021)
    Perinatal psychological distress (PPD) may cause delays in help-seeking in the perinatal period, which is crucial for families with small children. Help-seeking theories focus on rational processes of behavior wherein 'help-seeking' is viewed as a decision-making process, in which action is preceded by recognizing a problem. We identified the phase prior to actual help-seeking actions as a life situation and a phenomenon through which to gain a deeper understanding from women's own perspectives. The aim of this study was to integrate and synthesize knowledge of women's experiences of contemplating seeking help for PPD. We chose interpretative meta-ethnography by Noblit and Hare (1988) and implemented eMERGe guidelines in reporting. The search was performed systematically, and the 14 included studies were evaluated with Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist (CASP). We identified seven themes and a metaphor in a lines-of-argument synthesis, showing that contemplating help-seeking is a multidimensional phenomenon. We did not observe a straightforward and linear process (as previous research suggests) but instead a complex process of contemplating help-seeking. A clinical implication is that service providers should work with outreach and develop their tools to connect with mothers with PPD. Another suggestion is to improve training in mental health literacy prior to or during pregnancy.
  • Kerkelä, Martta; Gyllenberg, David; Gissler, Mika; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Keski-Säntti, Markus; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Filatova, Svetlana; Hurtig, Tuula; Miettunen, Jouko; Sourander, Andre; Veijola, Juha (2021)
    Objective The aim of this study was to explore changes in the incidences of childhood and early adulthood hospital-treated psychiatric disorders in five large Finnish birth cohorts of individuals born between 1966 and 1997. Methods The five birth cohorts were as follows: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966) and 1986 (NFBC 1986), 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort (FBC 1987) and 1997 (FBC 1997), and Finnish 1981 Birth Cohort Study (FBCS 1981). Incidences of hospital-treated psychiatric disorders in each cohort were calculated separately for males (N = 71,209) and females (N = 65,190). Poisson regression was used to test difference in proportions of psychiatric disorders in wide range of diagnosis classes separately in childhood and adolescence, and early adulthood. Results The total incidences of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence among males has increased in the birth cohorts over decades (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 1.04 (1.04-1.05); p <0.001). Similar result was seen among females (IRR = 1.04 (1.03-1.04); p <0.001). In early adulthood, there was significant increase among females (IRR = 1.04 (1.03-1.05); p <0.001), but among males, the change was not significant (IRR = 0.99 (0.99-1.00), p = 0.051). Conclusions The main finding was that the cumulative incidence of hospital-treated psychiatric disorders increased over the decades in Finland. The increasing trend in hospital-treated psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was detected in females but not in males. In the youngest cohorts, the cumulative incidence of hospital-treated psychiatric disorders was at the same level in males and females, whereas in oldest cohort, males had higher incidence than females.
  • Kluger, Nicolas; Pankakoski, Anna; Panelius, Jaana (2020)
    Bullous pemphigoid is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. It is also associated with high mortality and poor prognosis due to advanced age of the patients and coexisting comorbidities. There is a dearth of data in the literature regarding depression and anxiety among those patients. The objective of this brief review is to discuss the intertwining relationship between depression and anxiety with bullous pemphigoid.
  • Kurth, Charlie; Pihkala, Panu (2022)
    Researchers are increasingly trying to understand both the emotions that we experience in response to ecological crises like climate change and the ways in which these emotions might be valuable for our (psychical, psychological, and moral) wellbeing. However, much of the existing work on these issues has been hampered by conceptual and methodological difficulties. As a first step toward addressing these challenges, this review focuses on eco-anxiety. Analyzing a broad range of studies through the use of methods from philosophy, emotion theory, and interdisciplinary environmental studies, the authors show how looking to work on anxiety in general can help researchers build better models of eco-anxiety in particular. The results of this work suggest that the label "eco-anxiety" may be best understood as referring to a family of distinct, but related, ecological emotions. The authors also find that a specific form of eco-anxiety, "practical eco-anxiety," can be a deeply valuable emotional response to threats like climate change: when experienced at the right time and to the right extent, practical eco-anxiety not only reflects well on one's moral character but can also help advance individual and planetary wellbeing.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2020)
    Anxiety and distress about the ecological crisis seems to be a rapidly growing phenomenon. This article analyzes the challenges and possibilities posed by such "eco-anxiety" for environmental education. Variations of eco-anxiety are analyzed, and it is argued that educators should be aware of the multiple forms that the phenomenon has. Eco-anxiety is found to be closely connected with many difficult emotions, such as grief, guilt, anger, and despair. However, anxiety also has an adaptive dimension, which can be called "practical anxiety". Anxiety is connected with expectation, motivation, and hopes. Previous research about eco-anxiety and ecological emotions in various disciplines is discussed, and related studies from various fields of education are brought together. Based on this extensive literature review, theoretical analyses are made, using a philosophical method. It is argued that environmental educators need organizational and peer support both in relation to their own difficult emotions and in order to develop emotional skills in their work. Educators should first practice self-reflection about eco-anxiety, after which they have many possibilities to help their audiences to develop emotional resilience. Potential practical activities related to eco-anxiety are discussed, drawing from various fields of education. These include validation of eco-anxiety and ecological emotions, providing safe spaces to discuss them, and, if possible, providing embodied and creative activities to more fully deliberate on them.
  • Närvänen, Eija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objective. The FRIENDS programme is a group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme, developed for the prevention and treatment of child and adolescent anxiety and depression. In the context of prevention, FRIENDS has been extensively researched; however, little research has been conducted on FRIENDS in a treatment setting and with different populations. To help fill this gap, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Finnish version of FRIENDS in reducing internalising symptoms in children diagnosed with psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods. The present study was conducted at Helsinki University Hospital (HUS) Child Psychiatry outpatient clinics in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. The participating children (n = 99, mean age = 9.45 years, range 6–13 years, 68.7 % boys) were randomly assigned to either FRIENDS (n = 52) or a waitlist control group (n = 47), which received treatment as usual for a period of 3 months before the intervention. The children’s internalising symptoms were assessed using parent- and teacher-report questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher’s Report Form) at referral to treatment, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and six-month follow-up. Results and conclusions. In both groups, there was a medium-sized statistically significant decrease in parent-reported internalising symptoms immediately after the intervention; however, these improvements were not retained at six-month follow-up. Teacher-reported internalising symptoms followed a similar pattern of decrease during the intervention and increase during follow-up; however, these changes were smaller in magnitude and did not reach statistical significance, possibly due to loss of statistical power caused by missing data. Neither parent- or teacher-reports showed an intervention effect, with children’s internalising symptoms exhibiting similar changes regardless of whether they belonged to the intervention group or the waitlist control group, which received treatment as usual during the wait period. These results raise questions on the durability of treatment effects and the superiority of FRIENDS over active waitlist control conditions or treatment as usual when treating children diagnosed with diverse psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders in a community setting where treatment adherence and integrity may not be ideal.
  • Alakiikonen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of the study. Subjective time perception is prone to distortions, and one of the factors affecting it is a person's emotional state. Anticipation of unpleasant and threatening situations is of particular importance for coping. Previous research on the relationship between anticipation of unpleasant situations and perceived duration has shown conflicting results. Moreover, the experimental designs have been inadequate. The present study examines the effect of anticipating an unpleasant image and individual anxiety tendency on duration perception. The results are discussed in relation to the attentional gate model, which suggests that the influence of emotionality on perceived duration may be mediated through arousal or attentional allocation. Methods. Subjects (n=39) completed a temporal discrimination task in which the duration of a neutral visual cue stimulus was compared to previously learned short and long comparison durations. The colour of the stimulus indicated whether or not it was followed by an unpleasant image. The experiment consisted of three experimental conditions: (1) an unpleasant image was not anticipated nor presented, (2) an unpleasant image was anticipated but not presented, and (3) an unpleasant image was anticipated and presented. Psychometric functions were generated from the responses to obtain the points of subjective equality. The point refers to a duration that the person cannot distinguish as short or long. The effect of anticipating an unpleasant image and individual self-reported anxiety tendency on the points of subjective equality was analysed using multilevel linear modelling. Results. Anticipation of an unpleasant image led to longer perceived duration. Those reporting more anxiety perceived the duration of the cue stimulus to be longer than those reporting less anxiety. However, anxiety tendency did not moderate the effect of unpleasant image anticipation on perceived duration. Conclusions. Interpreted according to the attentional gate model, the perception of time passing slower is explained by arousal induced by the anticipation of an unpleasant situation, which speeds up the internal clock. In addition, anxious individuals are more aroused during anticipation, which is why they perceive time to pass more slowly than others. The role of attention in the relationship between anticipation of an unpleasant situation and duration perception seems to be more pronounced in situations where the threat is more biologically significant.