Browsing by Subject "argumentation"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Mäntylä, Iija (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This thesis analyses argumentation in support of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the United Kingdom (UK) House of Commons 1998 – 2001. During that time, the UK Parliament passed the ICC Bill, with which the ICC’s Rome Statute was ratified and integrated to UK national law. The issue was heatedly debated in the House of Commons. Attention has often been directed toward the United States, which opposes the Court. Instead, chosen here was a state supports the ICC. In addition, the UK was chosen because of its role as a powerful state in international relations and as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The analysis identifies how the UK Government representatives and other Members of Parliament argue their support for the ICC. International law, the human rights and atrocities regimes and legalism form the general framework for the analysis. The main theoretical framework of this thesis is constructivism and the so-called logics of action. In addition, the main two international relations theories, realism and liberalism are discussed to provide context for the analysis. Rhetorical analysis is used as a research method. The argumentation in support of the ICC is analysed by using the argumentation techniques of Chaim Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca to identify the different types of arguments used during the debates. Five main themes of argumentation to support the ICC were identified, such as that the ICC can help in breaking the culture of impunity; that the UK should lead by example by supporting the Court; and that the ICC needs to be seen as a part of the existing body on law. These themes were used to support the ICC and convince the Opposition, the Conservative Party, to back up the ICC Bill. The themes echo the constructivist theoretical points. However, the UK was dissociated from the ICC’s jurisdiction and the possibility of a UK national having to face charges in the ICC was dismissed as unconceivable. This draws a more realist picture of the UK’s stance towards the ICC and reinforces the principle of sovereignty in international relations.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Siven, Mia; Salminen, Outi; Katajavuori, Nina (2021)
    Students in higher education have been shown to have difficulties in developing their critical thinking skills, such as analysis and problem solving, reasoning and argumentation. Open-ended tasks offer opportunities for students to develop their own interpretations of various sources, to critically analyse domain-specific knowledge and utilize that knowledge in their argumentation. This study focuses on the ability of new Master's students (n=37) to utilize pharmaceutical knowledge from different sources in producing written arguments and counter-arguments in the context of open-ended assignment task. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results showed that there was substantial variation in how students analysed and processed pharmaceutical knowledge as well as how they utilized that knowledge in their argumentation. While some students were able to provide comprehensive analysis of the different sources, others superficially analysed and processed the sources and struggled to generate convincing arguments. Students' written responses were typically one-sided: only a few students provided counter-arguments associated with the pharmaceutical problem-solving situation presented in the task. Understanding the nature of the challenges in argumentation and knowledge processing encountered by pharmacy students can help pharmacy educators to modify their pedagogical practices to better support students' learning. Practitioner Notes 1. University students even in Master program level may have challenges related to argumentation and processing knowledge 2. The challenges in argumentation and processing knowledge should be taken into account and should be enhanced and practiced from the beginning of the studies. 3. Critical thinking and argumentation should be integrated into the intended learning outcomes, learning and teaching activities, the contents of the courses, and assessment.
  • Hämäläinen, Lasse; Lahti, Emmi (2021)
    Aims: In October 2019, a citizens' initiative to decriminalise cannabis use started a large debate about drug policy in Finland. This study examines online discussions about the initiative to supplement the current knowledge about citizens' drug opinions. The focus is especially on argumentation techniques that are used to support or object to the decriminalisation. Design: Methodologically, the study is based on discourse studies, new rhetoric, and argumentation analysis. The data of 1,092 messages were collected from a popular Finnish anonymous discussion forum Ylilauta. Results: Online discussions about the legal status of cannabis are highly polarised. Decriminalisation is often both supported and resisted in a strong and affective manner, and even hate speech is not rare in the data. Statements made by both discussion parties often lack any argumentation or are based on fallacies, especially ad hominem arguments. Some discussants refer to scientific studies and expert statements, even though such references are usually inaccurate. Cannabis is compared to alcohol more often than to other illegal drugs. Conclusions: The emotional responses and inadequate argumentation might be partially explained by the general nature of online discussions and the culture of the investigated website, but also by the powerful stigma related to illegal drugs and insufficient knowledge on the subject. A future objective is to create a societal atmosphere where the complex question of the legal status of cannabis could be discussed more neutrally and rationally.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Löfström, Erika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (2017)
    The present study aimed to identify difficulties in writing at the beginning of educational science programmes in the Finnish Open University by analysing the students’ written argumentation and use of sources at the textual level. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that many students began their educational studies with weak writing competencies. While many of the problems were directly related to students’ failure to explain the ideas in their sources in their own words, some problems pertained to other aspects, such as the inability to construct convincing arguments. Understanding the nature of the problems in writing encountered by beginning students in educational sciences can help teachers foster students’ participation in academic discourse.
  • Soirila, Pauno (2022)
    The debate over the restitution of cultural property is usually framed as the dispute between what John Henry Merryman defined as 'cultural nationalism' and 'cultural internationalism': the opposite viewpoints that argue whether cultural heritage objects should be returned to their countries of origin or spread around the world as determined by other principles. I argue, however, that the concepts are problematic both in their definition and their perception as two dialectically opposed sides of a dispute. This article analyses the restitution debate by examining some of the most important arguments and counterarguments used in the debate and by comparing them to the international law 'New Stream' theory. It is revealed that a similar indeterminacy which defines international law in the theory also defines the restitution debate, and that cultural nationalism and internationalism do not in fact provide answers to the debate but only function as two entry points that echo each other without a way to end the debate. Therefore, it is necessary to see beyond the two concepts in order to find solutions to the disputes.
  • Laiho, Minea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkielma käsittelee musliminaisten huiviin liittyviä asenteita Ranskassa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on löytää syitä sekä kielteisille että myönteisille asenteille. Tavoitteena on myös nostaa esiin musliminaisten omia ajatuksia vaatetuksestaan, sillä näitä harvemmin kuulee julkisessa diskurssissa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan ensinnäkin, minkälaisista aiheista väitellään, kun kyse on musliminaisten käyttämästä huivista. Toiseksi selvitetään, millä tavalla ihmiset asennoituvat huiviin. Tutkielmassa annetaan myös erityishuomio musliminaisten kommenteille. Lopuksi analysoidaan, miten näitä esitettyjä mielipiteitä perustellaan. Tutkimuskysymyksiin vastataan diskurssianalyysin avulla. Tutkielmassa huomioidaan aineiston konteksti (minkälaisella alustalla kommentit on tuotettu sekä yhteiskunnallinen tilanne Ranskassa) ja teoreettisena lähtökohtana hyödynnetään kielitieteen teoriaa asennoitumisesta subjektiivisuuden ilmausten avulla sekä argumentaatioteorioita. Tutkimusaineistona on 236 kommenttia, jotka on kirjoitettu ranskalaisen urheiluvälinevalmistajan Décathlonin Facebook-sivulle. Helmikuussa 2019 Décathlon ilmoitti alkavansa myydä musliminaisille suunnattua urheiluhuivia, mutta ilmoitti päivää myöhemmin Facebook-sivullaan peruuttavansa aikeensa. Tämän ilmoituksen alle kirjoitetut huiviin liittyvät kommentit ovat tämän tutkimuksen aineistona. Aineisto luokiteltiin ensin sisällönanalyysin menetelmin kategorioihin sen mukaan, minkälaisista aiheista kommenteissa puhuttiin. Tämän jälkeen aineistosta tutkittiin kielitieteellisen diskurssianalyysin avulla, millä tavalla aineistossa kommentoineet Facebook-käyttäjät asennoituivat huiviin kommenteissaan. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että käyttäjät väittelivät monista aiheista. Suurimmaksi osaksi kommentit kuitenkin liittyivät Ranskan tasavallan arvoihin ja periaatteisiin sekä siihen, mitä huivi edustaa ja miksi huivia käytetään. Käyttäjät asennoituivat kommenteissaan eri tavoin, joko kielteisesti, myönteisesti tai neutraalisti. Musliminaiset asennoituivat huivin käyttöön ja sen kaupallistamiseen myönteisesti ja he pyrkivät kommenteissaan luomaan vastadiskursseja heitä vastustaville diskursseille. Näkemyksiä perusteltiin eri tavoin, mutta yleisimpinä argumentteina käytettiin Ranskan arvoja ja periaatteita, etenkin vapautta ja laïcité-periaatetta (valtion tunnustuksettomuus). Tärkeä tutkimustulos oli, että eri tavoin huiviin asennoituvat käyttivät samoja perusteluja argumenteilleen. Tutkimus osoittaa, että syitä huiviin liittyville negatiivisille asenteille Ranskassa on monia: huivi nähdään ulkomaalaisena, Ranskan arvoja ja periaatteita vastustavana käytäntönä, joka rajoittaa naisten vapautta ja on uhka Ranskalle tai ranskalaisille naisille. Tutkimus osoittaa kuitenkin myös, että monet eivät näe huivin käyttöä ongelmallisena. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että musliminaiset nähdään usein alistettuina uhreina, jotka tulisi pelastaa huivin kaltaisilta käytänteiltä. Tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan kuitenkin päätellä, että monet ranskalaiset musliminaiset käyttävät huivia vapaasta tahdostaan eivätkä koe sen olevan vastoin Ranskan arvoja. Eräs tärkeä johtopäätös onkin, että tietyt ranskalaiset arvot ja periaatteet ymmärretään eri tavoin. Esimerkiksi laïcité-periaatteen katsotaan yhtäältä takaavan oikeuden käyttää huivia ja toisaalta rajoittavan oikeutta käyttää uskonnollisia symboleja julkisissa paikoissa.
  • Hakala, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Master´s thesis examines the conceived value patterns the city officials use in the context of land-use regulation of small forest fragments. As a theoretical framework, the study utilises Boltanski and Thévenot´s theory on the common worlds with complementary literature, such as Thévenot’s cognitive formats and engagements. In light of extensive scientific research, urban greenspaces have multiple positive impacts to both urban structure and wellbeing of the residents. Small greenspaces, so-called forest fragments with no appointed recreational activities are, nevertheless, often presented as potential sites for infill construction. This appears especially in cities where strong population growth causes pressure for urban development. This Master´s thesis complements existing research in this regard by revealing the diversity of valuation that form the basis to differing interests, perspectives and decisions that direct urban land-use policy in these forest fragments. The empirical phase has been conducted among city officials in the City of Espoo (FI), who represent different operative units and positions. The analysis was conducted through an exploratory and semiquantitative Q methodology. In the study, the respondents (N=27) validated statements (Q=35) related to planning decisions on small forest fragments. The factor extraction was conducted by principal component analysis. The seven analysed factors form consistent value patterns, which may be used when describing and interpreting the justification of urban planning regulation in forest fragments. In each individual value pattern, either valuation of the local landscape, public good or personal advantage is emphasised. From the common worlds, argumentation based on the industrial or the market worlds highlight personal affinity, whereas, for instance, the civic or the domestic world form a basis for argumentation on social values and the common good. Human-centred biophilia is the most explanatory of the value patterns. Based on the valuation, forest fragments are seen as an integral part of the urban structure especially due to their cultural ecosystem services, such as recreational possibilities, effect on residents´ environmental consciousness and stability of the local landscape.