Browsing by Subject "articulation"

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  • Tiainen, Mikko; Lukavsky, Jiri; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vainio, Martti; Šimko, Juraj; Felisberti, Fatima; Vainio, Lari (2017)
    We have recently shown in Finnish speakers that articulation of certain vowels and consonants has a systematic influence on simultaneous grasp actions as well as on forward and backward hand movements. Here we studied whether these effects generalize to another language, namely Czech. We reasoned that if the results generalized to another language environment, it would suggest that the effects arise through other processes than language-dependent semantic associations. Rather, the effects would be likely to arise through language-independent interactions between processes that plan articulatory gestures and hand movements. Participants were presented with visual stimuli specifying articulations to be uttered (e.g., A or I), and they were required to produce a manual response concurrently with the articulation. In Experiment 1 they responded with a precision or a power grip, whereas in Experiment 2 they responded with a forward or a backward hand movement. The grip congruency effect was fully replicated: the consonant [k] and the vowel [alpha] were associated with power grip responses, while the consonant [t] and the vowel [i] were associated with precision grip responses. The forward/backward congruency effect was replicated with vowels [alpha], [o], which were associated with backward movement and with [ i], which was associated with forward movement, but not with consonants [k] and [ t]. These findings suggest that the congruency effects mostly reflect interaction between processes that plan articulatory gestures and hand movements with an exception that the forward/backward congruency effect might only work with vowel articulation.
  • Türk, Helen; Lippus, Pärtel; Simko, Juraj (2017)
    The three-way quantity system is a well-known phonological feature of Estonian. In a number of studies it has been shown that quantity is realized in a disyllabic foot by the stressed-to-unstressed syllable rhyme duration ratio and also by pitch movement as the secondary cue. The stressed syllable rhyme duration is achieved by combining the length of the vowel and the coda consonant, which enables minimal septets of CVCV-sequences based on segmental duration. In this study we analyze articulatory (EMA) recordings from four native Estonian speakers producing all possible quantity combinations of intervocalic bilabial stops in two vocalic contexts (/alpha-i/ vs. /i-alpha/). The analysis shows that kinematic characteristics (gesture duration, spatial extent, and peak velocity) are primarily affected by quantity on the segmental level: Phonologically longer segments are produced by longer and larger lip closing gestures and, in reverse, shorter and smaller lip opening movements. Tongue transition gesture is consistently lengthened and slowed down by increasing consonant quantity. In general, both kinematic characteristics and intergestural coordination are influenced by non-linear interactions between segmental quantity levels as well as vocalic context.
  • Varava, Margarita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis critically engages with various approaches to political inclusion. I show that certain difficulties in their perspectives on language as a candidate for conveying representation and recognition of new agents in public space can be observed. I focus on the moral limitations of these approaches, particularly the issue of articulating identities as a form of suppression; confining the political performance of individuals to frames of political identities; the problematic engagement of excluded agents in existing discourses that are embedded in particular power structures; and normative justification of moral permissibility concerning political agendas of new political agents. In the first chapter, I analyze the normative foundations of inclusion in the theories of Luce Irigaray (‘I-you’-identities), Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau (‘we-them’-identities), as well as the cosmopolitan political project (‘we’-identities) in detail. In the second chapter, I critically investigate and analyze strategies of inclusion by means of articulation in these approaches. Finally, the third chapter outlines problematic moral implications of these approaches in order to close a gap within the current scientific debate on this topic and provide foundations of possible future research. Questions addressed there include: Why favor inclusion at all? Which mechanisms of inclusion would be better than the existing ones? Should inclusion aspire to allow for differences and inclusion on terms that are insensitive to differences?
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.
  • Alaluusua, Suvi; Harjunpää, Roni; Turunen, Leena; Geneid, Ahmed; Leikola, Junnu; Heliövaara, Arja (2020)
    Introduction Maxillary advancement may affect speech in cleft patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maxillary advancement on Finnish alveolar consonants/s/,/l/, and/r/in cleft patients. Materials and methods Fifty-nine Finnish-speaking nonsyndromic cleft patients, who had undergone Le Fort I or bimaxillary osteotomies, were evaluated retrospectively Production of the Finnish alveolar consonants/s/,/l/, and/r/was assessed from pre- and postoperative standardized video recordings by two experienced speech pathologists. McNemar’s test was used in the statistical analyses. Kappa statistics were calculated to assess reliability. Results The patients included 35 females and 24 males with CP (n = 12), UCLP (n = 31), and BCLP (n = 16). There was a significant improvement in/s/and/l/sounds after maxillary advancement (p = 0.039 and p = 0.002, respectively). The preoperative mean percentage of/s/errors was 34%; postoperatively it was 20%./L/was misarticulated preoperatively by 34% of the patients and postoperatively by 19%./R/was misarticulated preoperatively by 47% of the patients and postoperatively by 42%. The level of mild articulation errors rose from 25% to 31%, while severe articulation errors decreased from 37% to 25%. The reliabilities were good. Conclusion When planning orthognathic surgery in cleft patients with maxillary retrusion and articulation errors, advancement of the maxilla might be a means for improving articulation of/s/and/l/.
  • Ripatti, Minttu (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Speech is a sum of a complicated, multifunctional neurological and motor action. By changing the articulatory setting, the resonance properties of the vocal tract change and a new sound is created. Speech can be described as a continuum of articulatory manoeuvre; each manoeuvre has its own function and they're added together to gain the target articulation. Ventriloquism is speech without visible speech manoeuvres. Previously only few studies about ventriloquism have been published. Studies have focused on articulation, expiratory air pressure, fundamental frequency, laryngeal action, perceptual voice quality and simulation of compensating sounds of a ventriloquist. This study wanted to find out about the articulatory strategies of ventriloquists. Nasality, fundamental frequency, duration and the actual ventriloquism as a speech technique were examined – the writer learned the art of ventriloquism during research. Results show higher fundamental frequency, more nasality and longer duration compared to normal speech. However, differences between the participants were found. We can also rename ventriloquism as velar speech technique by the results obtained from the study. The results show, that velar speech technique may have a potential rule in helping those with structurally disturbed articulators. e.g. oral and throat cancer patients during post-operative speech therapy.
  • Hoegaerts, Josephine (2021)
    How do we thoroughly historicize the voice, or integrate it into our historical research, and how do we account for the mundane daily practices of voice ... the constant talking, humming, murmuring, whispering, and mumbling that went on offstage, in living rooms, debating clubs, business meetings, and on the streets? Work across the humanities has provided us with approaches to deal with aspects of voices, vocality, and their sounds. This article considers how we can mobilize and adapt such interdisciplinary methods for the study of history. It charts out a practical approach to attend to the history of voices-including unmusical ones-before recording, drawing on insights from the fields of sound studies, musicology, and performativity. It suggests ways to"listen anew"to familiar sources as well as less conventional source material. And it insists on a combination of analytical approaches focusing on vocabulary, bodily practice, and the questionable particularity of sound.