Browsing by Subject "assessment"

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  • Yoon, Sangwon; Speyer, Renee; Cordier, Reinie; Aunio, Pirjo; Hakkarainen, Airi (2021)
    Aims: Child maltreatment (CM) is a serious public health issue, affecting over half of all children globally. Although most CM is perpetrated by parents or caregivers and their reports of CM is more accurate than professionals or children, parent or caregiver report instruments measuring CM have never been systematically evaluated for their content validity, the most important psychometric property. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the content validity of all current parent or caregiver report CM instruments. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts; gray literature was retrieved through reference checking. Eligible studies needed to report on content validity of instruments measuring CM perpetrated and reported by parents or caregivers. The quality of studies and content validity of the instruments were evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments guidelines. Results: Fifteen studies reported on the content validity of 15 identified instruments. The study quality was generally poor. The content validity of the instruments was overall sufficient, but most instruments did not provide high-quality evidence for content validity. Conclusions: Most instruments included in this review showed promising content validity. The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool for use in Trial appears to be the most promising, followed by the Family Maltreatment-Child Abuse criteria. However, firm conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low quality of evidence for content validity. Further studies are required to evaluate the remaining psychometric properties for recommending parent or caregiver report CM instruments.
  • Yoon, Sangwon; Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Aunio, Pirjo; Hakkarainen, Airi (2021)
    Aims: Child maltreatment (CM) is global public health issue with devastating lifelong consequences. Global organizations have endeavored to eliminate CM; however, there is lack of consensus on what instruments are most suitable for the investigation and prevention of CM. This systematic review aimed to appraise the psychometric properties (other than content validity) of all current parent- or caregiver-reported CM instruments and recommend the most suitable for use. Method: A systematic search of the CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts databases was performed. The evaluation of psychometric properties was conducted according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines for systematic reviews of patient-report outcome measures. Responsiveness was beyond the scope of this systematic review, and content validity has been reported on in a companion paper (Part 1). Only instruments developed and published in English were included. Results: Twenty-five studies reported on selected psychometric properties of 15 identified instruments. The methodological quality of the studies was overall adequate. The psychometric properties of the instruments were generally indeterminate or not reported due to incomplete or missing psychometric data; high-quality evidence on the psychometric properties was limited. Conclusions: No instruments could be recommended as most suitable for use in clinic and research. Nine instruments were identified as promising based on current psychometric data but would need further psychometric evidence for them to be recommended.
  • Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Ilomäki, Liisa; Karlgren, Klas; Toom, Auli (2020)
    The necessity to learn competence for collaborative knowledge work during higher education (HE) is accepted widely, but continued work is required to explicate how to define and assess such competence. In this article, the development and validation of a questionnaire for assessing the development of collaborative knowledge work competence is based on object-bound collaborative knowledge creation practices. In total, 546 students responded to a questionnaire on Collaborative Knowledge Practices (CKP). The data were analysed for measurement invariance for two groups of HE students in media engineering and life sciences. Seven scales of the CKP were found to measure course-related learning of collaboration, integration of personal and collective efforts, development through feedback, persistent development of knowledge objects, understanding of different disciplines and related expertise, interdisciplinary collaboration, and using digital technology. The CKP questionnaire scales can be used as a generic self-evaluation tool for students on course-based learning outcomes.
  • Pernia-Espinoza, Alpha; Sodupe-Ortega, Enrique; Martinez-de-Pison-Ascacibar, Fco. Javier; Urraca, Valle, Ruben; Antonanzas-Torres, Javier; Sanz Garcia, Andres (UNIVERSITAT POLITECNICA DE VALENCIA, 2017)
    An assessment program to evaluate microproject-based teaching/ learning (MicroPBL) methodology on the technical subject Manufacturing Technology was implemented for four consecutive academic years. Students from three engineering degrees were involved providing feedback through various surveys that allowed us to perform a proper evaluation. More specifically, students' surveys were anonymous after each academic year, except the last one, which included both non-anonymous pre and postsurveys. The polls were mainly meant to evaluate the acquisition of specific competences (using technical questions about the subject) as well as generic ones (using questions concerning soft-skills). Students' satisfaction with the methodology and with the signature, in general, were also checked. Nonanonymous surveys enabled us to study the correlation between polls results and students' final scores. Note that students' self-assessment concerning their knowledge about technical aspects drastically changed after the course. The average final score of this subject from student's perception was slightly higher than the real value. Moreover, student's self-perception on soft-skills increased at the end of the course. In general, the proposed MicroPBL methodology demonstrated a beneficial impact on students of Manufacturing Technology keeping high-motivation levels in students as well as high success rates and scores.
  • Stjernvall, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tämän laadullisen tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää oppilaiden epäröinnin vaikutusta opettajien yläkoulun englannin suullisen kokeen arviointiin. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa kartoitetaan kommunikatiivisen kompetenssin osatekijöitä sekä kielen testausta ja arviointia. Lisäksi käydään läpi suullisen kielitaidon arviointia Suomessa eurooppalaisen viitekehyksen (2001) ja peruskoulun opetussuunnitelman perusteiden (2014) kautta sekä käydään läpi suullisen kielikokeen tehtävätyyppejä. Epäröinnin luokittelutavoista tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksiin valikoitui Hieken (1981) laatima luokitus. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin käyttäen ääneenajattelumenetelmää. Seitsemälle englanninopettajalle näytettiin videonauhoitus (HY-Talk projektin aineistosta) kahdesta englannin suullista koetta suorittavasta yläkoulun oppilaasta. Opettajia pyydettiin samanaikaisesti ajattelemaan ääneen, kun he suorittivat kokeen arviointia ja myös antamaan oppilaille kouluarvosana videonauhoituksen päätyttyä. Oppilaiden erilaiset epäröinnit laskettiin videonauhoituksen litteraatista ja näin saatua kvantitatiivista aineistoa verrattiin kvalitatiiviseen aineistoon. Litteroidusta ääneenajattelusta analysoitiin ne opettajien kommentit, jotka osoittivat heidän huomioineen oppilaiden erilaiset epäröinnit. Tuloksista käy ilmi, että opettajien suullisen kokeen arviointiin eniten vaikuttavat epäröinnit olivat täytetty tauko sekä hiljainen tauko. Täytetyt tauot koettiin yleisesti ottaen hyväksyttävämmiksi kuin hiljaiset tauot paitsi liiallisesti käytettyinä, jolloin ne vaikuttivat opettajien arviointiin negatiivisesti. Samoin negatiivisesti vaikuttivat liiallisen pitkät hiljaiset tauot. Muita epäröinnin lajeja opettajat eivät tuntuneet juurikaan erikseen huomioivan.
  • Joensuu, Eveliina; Munck, Petriina; Setänen, Sirkku; Lipsanen, Jari; Huhtala, Mira; Lapinleimu, Helena; Stolt, Suvi K. J. (2021)
    Preterm children (born
  • Hellman, Matilda (2021)
  • Miihkinen, Antti; Virtanen, Tuija Helena (2018)
    This study describes the results of a project that focused on developing an assessment rubric to be used as the assessment criteria for the written thesis of accounting majors and the quality of the coursework during the seminar. We used descriptive analysis and the survey method to collect information for the development work and to examine the effect of the rubric on learning. We find that the rubric has a positive effect on students' understanding, self-assessment, confidence, and integration. We contribute to the extant literature by adding to prior work that has examined factors that can improve students' learning outcomes. By synthesizing theories on approaches to learning and self-regulation, and combining them with literature on self-efficacy and social/academic integration, we bring conceptual clarity to the elements of learning in a course, which consist of written assignments and the accompanying group work. The paper demonstrates a way to help university students to learn via explicit assessment rubrics, and thus offers novel ideas for accounting educators.
  • Laakkonen, Juha (2021)
    In contrast to medical education, information on the use of arts as a learning approach is scarce in veterinary anatomy. The aim of this prospective, questionnaire-based study was to survey students' use of drawing in various aspects of veterinary anatomy learning (self-study, examinations, preparation for, and reflection on cadaver dissection). The quantitative data showed that first-year students with artistic preferences used drawing significantly more often in most aspects of anatomy learning than students with no such preferences, apart from the reported use of drawing in examinations and for reflection after cadaver dissection. The lack of significant correlations of the reported use of drawing in examinations with any other study variable provided support for the author's observation that student-generated drawings are not as commonly used in examinations as previously. In contrast to the study hypothesis, previous university studies did not correlate significantly with any aspect of the use of drawing in anatomy learning. None of the reported uses of drawing addressed the benefits of drawing in learning the comparative anatomy of animal species, a characteristic distinguishing veterinary anatomy from human anatomy. Qualitative student feedback indicated that encouragement and teacher-produced images would increase the use of drawing as a learning approach even if the implementation of drawing into the curriculum is not feasible. Conclusions from this study were implemented through self-directed learning in anatomy courses that replaced the canceled cadaveric dissections during the COVID-19 outbreak and also through the ongoing drawing workshops to further advance the use of drawing in veterinary anatomy learning.
  • Rytkönen, Anni (IATED Academy, 2015)
    EDULEARN Proceedings
    Electronic exams taken in specifically equipped electronic exam rooms are growing in popularity in Finnish Higher Education. The systems used for the purpose are provided with the essay question type which requires manual grading, and on the other hand provides the teacher with the opportunity to give students individual, written feedback. When log data from the system used at the University of Helsinki was analysed, the results indicate that teachers do provide their students with individual comments on their submissions. On the other hand, some of the comments could not be defined as feedback in the pedagogical sense. Interviewed teachers perceived that the electronic examining process in whole provided added values for themselves and their students as the eased and flowing process, and as the increased opportunity to give and receive feedback for the exam response.
  • Rivers, Malin; Beech, Emily; Bazos, Ioannis; Bogunić, Faruk; Buira, Antoni; Caković, Danka; Carapeto, André; Carta, Angelino; Cornier, Bruno; Fenu, Giuseppe; Fernandes, Francisco; Fraga i Arguimbau, Pere; Garcia Murillo, Pablo; Lepší, Martin; Matevski, Vlado; Medina, Félix; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel; Meyer, Norbert; Mikoláš, Vlastimil; Montagnani, Chiara; Monteiro-Henriques, Tiago; Naranjo Suárez, José; Orsenigo, Simone; Petrova, Antoaneta; Reyes-Betancort, Alfredo; Rich, Tim; Salvesen, Per Harald; Santana López, Isabel; Scholz, Stephan; Sennikov, Alexander; Shuka, Lulëzim; Silva, Luís Filipe; Thomas, Philip; Troia, Angelo; Villar, José Luis; Allen, David (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), 2019)
    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species – Regional Assessment
    The European Red List is a review of the status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of tree (454 species), of which 265 species (over 58%) are endemic to continental Europe, with 56% (252 species) endemic to the 28 EU Member States. Of these, 168 (42%) of the species are threatened with extinction at the European level, however, for 57 species (nearly 13%) there was insufficient information to assign a conservation status, and are therefore classified as Data Deficient, and in need of further research. The main threat to tree species in Europe has been identified as invasive or problematic species, impacting 38% of tree species, followed by deforestation and wood harvesting, and urban development (both affecting 20% of tree species). For threatened species, livestock farming, land abandonment, changes in forest and woodland management, and other ecosystem modifications such as fire are the major threats, impacting the survival of trees.
  • Myyry, Liisa; Karaharju-Suvanto, Terhi; Vesalainen, Marjo; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Raekallio, Marja; Salminen, Outi; Vuorensola, Katariina; Nevgi, Anne (2020)
    The aim of this study was to examine the emotions higher education teachers associate with assessment and the factors in their teaching environment that triggered these emotions. As a starting point, Frenzel's model of teacher emotions and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions were used. The sample consisted of 16 experienced and pedagogically advanced teachers who participated in semi-structured interviews. After abductive content analyses, both positive and negative emotions were detected corresponding to Frenzel's and Pekrun's models. The main sources of emotions were validity of assessment, assessment methods, pedagogical development and assessment culture. This preliminary study indicates that assessment evokes both positive and negative emotions, and that validity of assessment is a prominent issue in evoking these emotions. Pedagogical training should deal with emotions and their regulation in assessment to help teachers in higher education to cope with negative emotions.
  • Sorsa, Johanna; Fontell, Tuija; Laajasalo, Taina; Aronen, Eeva T. (2019)
    Assessment of behavioral disorders is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in child psychiatry. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is a widespread measurement tool used for assessing conduct problems, though the psychometric properties of the tool have varied in different samples. In this study, the ECBI was evaluated in a Finnish population based sample of children aged 4 to 12 years (n = 1,715). Factor structure and internal consistency of the ECBI and associates of behavioral problems in Finnish children were evaluated. The results showed that a unidimensional one‐factor solution for the ECBI intensity scale was the best fit for the data. The ECBI mean scores were considerably higher in our sample compared to other Nordic countries. Boys scored higher than girls on both ECBI scales, and the mean scores decreased with child's age. Socioeconomic status (SES) was weakly connected to the ECBI scores. Our results highlight the need for country specific reference norms in order to improve the clinical utility of evidence‐based measures for assessing conduct problems.
  • Leppänen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Tutkielman tarkoituksena oli selvittää hammaskaarten ahtauden etiologisia tekijöitä, erilaisia arviointimenetelmiä sekä hoitovaihtoehtoja. Tutkielma toteutettiin kirjallisuuskatsauksena. Katsaus pohjautuu pääasiassa tieteellisiin artikkeleihin, jotka on kerätty PubMed- ja Ovid Medline tietokannoista. Alan oppikirjoja on myös käytetty lähteenä. Hammaskaarten ahtaus voidaan määritellä hampaiden ja leukojen koon välisenä epäsuhtana. Pysyvässä hampaistossa A I luokan ahtaustila on kaikkein tavallisin purentavirhe ja eniten ahtautta esiintyy alahammaskaaren etualueella. Kirjallisuudessa on esitetty antropologiaan, genetiikkaan ja ympäristötekijöihin pohjautuvia teorioita ahtauden etiologisiksi tekijöiksi. Ahtauden arviointiin on kehitetty erilaisia menetelmiä käytettäväksi sekä tutkimustyössä että praktiikassa. Ahtauden vaikeusasteesta ja vaihdunta-vaiheesta riippuen ahtautta voidaan hoitaa tilaa säilyttämällä, approksimaalihionnoilla sekä laajentamalla kaaria ja/tai poistamalla pysyviä hampaita. Hoitomenetelmän valintaan vaikuttaa ahtauden määrän lisäksi potilaan inkisiivien asema, huulten jännittyneisyys, profiili ja leukojen kasvurotaation suunta. Ahtaus on varsin yleinen purentavirhe ja sitä esiintyy myös yhdessä muiden purentavirheiden kanssa. Ahtautta on tutkittu laajasti, mutta jatkotutkimuksia tarvitaan hoitojen vaikutusten ja tehokkuuden edelleen arvioimiseksi.
  • Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Raphael, K. G.; Wetselaar, P.; Glaros, A. G.; Kato, T.; Santiago, V.; Winocur, E.; De Laat, A.; De Leeuw, R.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G. J.; Svensson, P.; Manfredini, D. (2018)
    In 2013, consensus was obtained on a definition of bruxism as repetitive masticatory muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible and specified as either sleep bruxism or awake bruxism. In addition, a grading system was proposed to determine the likelihood that a certain assessment of bruxism actually yields a valid outcome. This study discusses the need for an updated consensus and has the following aims: (i) to further clarify the 2013 definition and to develop separate definitions for sleep and awake bruxism; (ii) to determine whether bruxism is a disorder rather than a behaviour that can be a risk factor for certain clinical conditions; (iii) to re-examine the 2013 grading system; and (iv) to develop a research agenda. It was concluded that: (i) sleep and awake bruxism are masticatory muscle activities that occur during sleep (characterised as rhythmic or non-rhythmic) and wakefulness (characterised by repetitive or sustained tooth contact and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible), respectively; (ii) in otherwise healthy individuals, bruxism should not be considered as a disorder, but rather as a behaviour that can be a risk (and/or protective) factor for certain clinical consequences; (iii) both non-instrumental approaches (notably self-report) and instrumental approaches (notably electromyography) can be employed to assess bruxism; and (iv) standard cut-off points for establishing the presence or absence of bruxism should not be used in otherwise healthy individuals; rather, bruxism-related masticatory muscle activities should be assessed in the behaviour's continuum.
  • Andersen, Jesper H.; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Dromph, Karsten; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Josefson, Alf B.; Norkko, Alf; Villnäs, Anna; Murray, Ciaran (2017)
    Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as 'affected by eutrophication'. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over the last 50-100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach using coefficients of variation in the observations. The classifications in our assessment indicate that the first signs of eutrophication emerged in the mid-1950s and the central parts of the Baltic Sea changed from being unaffected by eutrophication to being affected. We document improvements in eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea. Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.
  • Zhou, Meng (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Nowadays, microsimulation method has been introduced to different fields, such as Social Science, Medicine research and Economic study. This method evaluates the effects of the proposed interventions or policies before they are implemented in the real world. In this article, I concentrate on microsimulation method used in Social Science by firstly explaining two main streams in microsimulation world, Static approach and Dynamic approach, in them, how statistical models are used are carefully explained by giving examples in Dynamic approach. In the following section, a Norwegian case is studied, this case gives the typical example of how the dynamic microsimulation used in the labor force and child care research, the effects of four different reform options are measured in this study. In the last section, the empirical study of a Finnish static microsimulation model-JUTTA is carried out. The uncertainty of JUTTA is assessed and one of its sub model called Toimtuki (income-related supplementary benefit) is detected to have space to be more accurate. In order to do so, two statistical models- Linear Regression model and Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) model are applied to it. From their results and diagnostics, we could conclude that both the Linear Regression and 2SLS successfully improves the accuracy of TOIMTUKI to some extent.
  • Hytönen, Hanna; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Karaharju-Suvanto, Terhi; Eväsoja, Taina; Kallio, Anu; Kokkari, Anne; Tuononen, Tiina; Lahti, Satu (2021)
    Aim The aims were to describe the development of a modified national online OSCE during COVID-19 and assess related student feedback. Material and methods The modified online OSCE comprising of eight question entities was organised simultaneously in all four dental institutes of Finland using the Moodle virtual learning environment. All fourth-year students (n = 179) attended the examination online at home. Student feedback was collected via an anonymous questionnaire with multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions concerning attitudes towards the modified online OSCE, as well as content and usability of the question entities in the examination. Means and standard deviations were calculated for multiple-choice questions. Content analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results Of 179 students, 119 (66%) consented to the study. Students experienced they had received adequate information (mean 3.8; SD 1.2), had a positive attitude before the examination (4.0; 1.0) and found the practice test useful (3.7; 1.1) (range 1-5). Technical implementation (2.7; 0.7) and the difficulty of the questions (2.9; 0.6) (range 1-4) were found to be good. The teaching students received during their studies was sufficient (3.2; 0.5) (range 1-4). Content (mean 3.2; 0.4) and usability (2.9; 0.4) of the question entities were good (range 1-4). The themes arising from open-ended questions were importance and practicality of the topic (in questions) in relation to the work of a dentist and gratitude for the rapid conversion of the OSCE into an online examination despite COVID-19. The themes arising from negative experiences included difficulties in completing the examination within the time allocated, and dissatisfaction with the model answers provided after the examination. Conclusion The positive student feedback towards the modified online OSCE encourages including an online examination to complement the traditional OSCE.
  • Häkkinen, Jani; Malk, Vuokko; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Leppänen, Matti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2018)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 23/2018
    The Finnish Environment Institute SYKE and Finland’s Ministry of the Environment initiated a project called EKOMON to prepare guidance on how to monitor the environmental impacts of accidental chemical spills at sea. This publication resulting from the project is intended to guide authorities responsible for post-spill environmental monitoring and assessment, and to help them to understand how complex issues they might be dealing with due to the wide range of chemicals currently transported. The main goal of the publication is to create better preparedness for establishing an effective post-spill monitoring programme especially in the Baltic Sea, area and it is primarily targeted at decision-makers responsible for the planning and implementation of environmental monitoring after a sudden chemical spill at sea. Worldwide, approximately 2,000 chemicals are transported by sea, either in bulk or in packaged form. During this decade particular attention has been focused more and more on the possibility of marine chemical accidents. Although the amount of transported chemicals is much less than that of oil and oil products, the risks related to possible chemical accidents are more difficult to identify. The main issue here is the very high variety and complexity of environmental risk profiles and potentials of the different chemical compounds. Risks posed by marine chemical spills depend on the accident scenario, prevailing environmental conditions, and the intrinsic properties of the spilled chemical. Chemicals can behave in a number of ways once spilled into the sea. Hazards to the environment can vary considerably depending on the chemical in question, and the impact can be acute or long-lasting. The occurrence of accidental chemical spills at sea requires an effective response that must include well-executed monitoring guidelines to assess environmental contamination and damage on the affected marine ecosystem. An impact assessment is crucial for the decision-making process concerning the selection and implementation of a prominent response plan. The objectives of the monitoring vary depending on the specific circumstances and environmental conditions related to the spill, and therefore they have to be set for each spill separately. The size of the spill, properties of the chemical, and the type of discharge (single or continuous spill) as well as the characteristics of the receiving environment are the main factors defining the monitoring requirements. Choosing of similar reference areas and/or comparisons with pre-existing baseline data are key components for post-spill monitoring. Finally, environmental monitoring can be used to demonstrate ecological damage and economic losses in the context of spill-related claims and compensations. The EKOMON report can be seen as the first step for the better preparedness for post-spill monitoring especially in Baltic Sea area. In the future these guidelines should be further developed to be more operational with the practical goal being a monitoring system, which in the event of an accident allows a rapid organization of the team responsible for monitoring and identification of its ecological consequences.
  • Turakka, Antti; Luukkanen, Olavi; Bhumibhamon, Suree (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)