Browsing by Subject "assessment"

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  • Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Ilomäki, Liisa; Karlgren, Klas; Toom, Auli (2020)
    The necessity to learn competence for collaborative knowledge work during higher education (HE) is accepted widely, but continued work is required to explicate how to define and assess such competence. In this article, the development and validation of a questionnaire for assessing the development of collaborative knowledge work competence is based on object-bound collaborative knowledge creation practices. In total, 546 students responded to a questionnaire on Collaborative Knowledge Practices (CKP). The data were analysed for measurement invariance for two groups of HE students in media engineering and life sciences. Seven scales of the CKP were found to measure course-related learning of collaboration, integration of personal and collective efforts, development through feedback, persistent development of knowledge objects, understanding of different disciplines and related expertise, interdisciplinary collaboration, and using digital technology. The CKP questionnaire scales can be used as a generic self-evaluation tool for students on course-based learning outcomes.
  • Pernia-Espinoza, Alpha; Sodupe-Ortega, Enrique; Martinez-de-Pison-Ascacibar, Fco. Javier; Urraca, Valle, Ruben; Antonanzas-Torres, Javier; Sanz Garcia, Andres (UNIVERSITAT POLITECNICA DE VALENCIA, 2017)
    An assessment program to evaluate microproject-based teaching/ learning (MicroPBL) methodology on the technical subject Manufacturing Technology was implemented for four consecutive academic years. Students from three engineering degrees were involved providing feedback through various surveys that allowed us to perform a proper evaluation. More specifically, students' surveys were anonymous after each academic year, except the last one, which included both non-anonymous pre and postsurveys. The polls were mainly meant to evaluate the acquisition of specific competences (using technical questions about the subject) as well as generic ones (using questions concerning soft-skills). Students' satisfaction with the methodology and with the signature, in general, were also checked. Nonanonymous surveys enabled us to study the correlation between polls results and students' final scores. Note that students' self-assessment concerning their knowledge about technical aspects drastically changed after the course. The average final score of this subject from student's perception was slightly higher than the real value. Moreover, student's self-perception on soft-skills increased at the end of the course. In general, the proposed MicroPBL methodology demonstrated a beneficial impact on students of Manufacturing Technology keeping high-motivation levels in students as well as high success rates and scores.
  • Stjernvall, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tämän laadullisen tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää oppilaiden epäröinnin vaikutusta opettajien yläkoulun englannin suullisen kokeen arviointiin. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa kartoitetaan kommunikatiivisen kompetenssin osatekijöitä sekä kielen testausta ja arviointia. Lisäksi käydään läpi suullisen kielitaidon arviointia Suomessa eurooppalaisen viitekehyksen (2001) ja peruskoulun opetussuunnitelman perusteiden (2014) kautta sekä käydään läpi suullisen kielikokeen tehtävätyyppejä. Epäröinnin luokittelutavoista tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksiin valikoitui Hieken (1981) laatima luokitus. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin käyttäen ääneenajattelumenetelmää. Seitsemälle englanninopettajalle näytettiin videonauhoitus (HY-Talk projektin aineistosta) kahdesta englannin suullista koetta suorittavasta yläkoulun oppilaasta. Opettajia pyydettiin samanaikaisesti ajattelemaan ääneen, kun he suorittivat kokeen arviointia ja myös antamaan oppilaille kouluarvosana videonauhoituksen päätyttyä. Oppilaiden erilaiset epäröinnit laskettiin videonauhoituksen litteraatista ja näin saatua kvantitatiivista aineistoa verrattiin kvalitatiiviseen aineistoon. Litteroidusta ääneenajattelusta analysoitiin ne opettajien kommentit, jotka osoittivat heidän huomioineen oppilaiden erilaiset epäröinnit. Tuloksista käy ilmi, että opettajien suullisen kokeen arviointiin eniten vaikuttavat epäröinnit olivat täytetty tauko sekä hiljainen tauko. Täytetyt tauot koettiin yleisesti ottaen hyväksyttävämmiksi kuin hiljaiset tauot paitsi liiallisesti käytettyinä, jolloin ne vaikuttivat opettajien arviointiin negatiivisesti. Samoin negatiivisesti vaikuttivat liiallisen pitkät hiljaiset tauot. Muita epäröinnin lajeja opettajat eivät tuntuneet juurikaan erikseen huomioivan.
  • Joensuu, Eveliina; Munck, Petriina; Setänen, Sirkku; Lipsanen, Jari; Huhtala, Mira; Lapinleimu, Helena; Stolt, Suvi K. J. (2021)
    Preterm children (born
  • Hellman, Matilda (2021)
  • Miihkinen, Antti; Virtanen, Tuija Helena (2018)
    This study describes the results of a project that focused on developing an assessment rubric to be used as the assessment criteria for the written thesis of accounting majors and the quality of the coursework during the seminar. We used descriptive analysis and the survey method to collect information for the development work and to examine the effect of the rubric on learning. We find that the rubric has a positive effect on students' understanding, self-assessment, confidence, and integration. We contribute to the extant literature by adding to prior work that has examined factors that can improve students' learning outcomes. By synthesizing theories on approaches to learning and self-regulation, and combining them with literature on self-efficacy and social/academic integration, we bring conceptual clarity to the elements of learning in a course, which consist of written assignments and the accompanying group work. The paper demonstrates a way to help university students to learn via explicit assessment rubrics, and thus offers novel ideas for accounting educators.
  • Rytkönen, Anni (IATED Academy, 2015)
    EDULEARN Proceedings
    Electronic exams taken in specifically equipped electronic exam rooms are growing in popularity in Finnish Higher Education. The systems used for the purpose are provided with the essay question type which requires manual grading, and on the other hand provides the teacher with the opportunity to give students individual, written feedback. When log data from the system used at the University of Helsinki was analysed, the results indicate that teachers do provide their students with individual comments on their submissions. On the other hand, some of the comments could not be defined as feedback in the pedagogical sense. Interviewed teachers perceived that the electronic examining process in whole provided added values for themselves and their students as the eased and flowing process, and as the increased opportunity to give and receive feedback for the exam response.
  • Rivers, Malin; Beech, Emily; Bazos, Ioannis; Bogunić, Faruk; Buira, Antoni; Caković, Danka; Carapeto, André; Carta, Angelino; Cornier, Bruno; Fenu, Giuseppe; Fernandes, Francisco; Fraga i Arguimbau, Pere; Garcia Murillo, Pablo; Lepší, Martin; Matevski, Vlado; Medina, Félix; Menezes de Sequeira, Miguel; Meyer, Norbert; Mikoláš, Vlastimil; Montagnani, Chiara; Monteiro-Henriques, Tiago; Naranjo Suárez, José; Orsenigo, Simone; Petrova, Antoaneta; Reyes-Betancort, Alfredo; Rich, Tim; Salvesen, Per Harald; Santana López, Isabel; Scholz, Stephan; Sennikov, Alexander; Shuka, Lulëzim; Silva, Luís Filipe; Thomas, Philip; Troia, Angelo; Villar, José Luis; Allen, David (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), 2019)
    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species – Regional Assessment
    The European Red List is a review of the status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of tree (454 species), of which 265 species (over 58%) are endemic to continental Europe, with 56% (252 species) endemic to the 28 EU Member States. Of these, 168 (42%) of the species are threatened with extinction at the European level, however, for 57 species (nearly 13%) there was insufficient information to assign a conservation status, and are therefore classified as Data Deficient, and in need of further research. The main threat to tree species in Europe has been identified as invasive or problematic species, impacting 38% of tree species, followed by deforestation and wood harvesting, and urban development (both affecting 20% of tree species). For threatened species, livestock farming, land abandonment, changes in forest and woodland management, and other ecosystem modifications such as fire are the major threats, impacting the survival of trees.
  • Myyry, Liisa; Karaharju-Suvanto, Terhi; Vesalainen, Marjo; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Raekallio, Marja; Salminen, Outi; Vuorensola, Katariina; Nevgi, Anne (2020)
    The aim of this study was to examine the emotions higher education teachers associate with assessment and the factors in their teaching environment that triggered these emotions. As a starting point, Frenzel's model of teacher emotions and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions were used. The sample consisted of 16 experienced and pedagogically advanced teachers who participated in semi-structured interviews. After abductive content analyses, both positive and negative emotions were detected corresponding to Frenzel's and Pekrun's models. The main sources of emotions were validity of assessment, assessment methods, pedagogical development and assessment culture. This preliminary study indicates that assessment evokes both positive and negative emotions, and that validity of assessment is a prominent issue in evoking these emotions. Pedagogical training should deal with emotions and their regulation in assessment to help teachers in higher education to cope with negative emotions.
  • Sorsa, Johanna; Fontell, Tuija; Laajasalo, Taina; Aronen, Eeva T. (2019)
    Assessment of behavioral disorders is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in child psychiatry. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is a widespread measurement tool used for assessing conduct problems, though the psychometric properties of the tool have varied in different samples. In this study, the ECBI was evaluated in a Finnish population based sample of children aged 4 to 12 years (n = 1,715). Factor structure and internal consistency of the ECBI and associates of behavioral problems in Finnish children were evaluated. The results showed that a unidimensional one‐factor solution for the ECBI intensity scale was the best fit for the data. The ECBI mean scores were considerably higher in our sample compared to other Nordic countries. Boys scored higher than girls on both ECBI scales, and the mean scores decreased with child's age. Socioeconomic status (SES) was weakly connected to the ECBI scores. Our results highlight the need for country specific reference norms in order to improve the clinical utility of evidence‐based measures for assessing conduct problems.
  • Leppänen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Tutkielman tarkoituksena oli selvittää hammaskaarten ahtauden etiologisia tekijöitä, erilaisia arviointimenetelmiä sekä hoitovaihtoehtoja. Tutkielma toteutettiin kirjallisuuskatsauksena. Katsaus pohjautuu pääasiassa tieteellisiin artikkeleihin, jotka on kerätty PubMed- ja Ovid Medline tietokannoista. Alan oppikirjoja on myös käytetty lähteenä. Hammaskaarten ahtaus voidaan määritellä hampaiden ja leukojen koon välisenä epäsuhtana. Pysyvässä hampaistossa A I luokan ahtaustila on kaikkein tavallisin purentavirhe ja eniten ahtautta esiintyy alahammaskaaren etualueella. Kirjallisuudessa on esitetty antropologiaan, genetiikkaan ja ympäristötekijöihin pohjautuvia teorioita ahtauden etiologisiksi tekijöiksi. Ahtauden arviointiin on kehitetty erilaisia menetelmiä käytettäväksi sekä tutkimustyössä että praktiikassa. Ahtauden vaikeusasteesta ja vaihdunta-vaiheesta riippuen ahtautta voidaan hoitaa tilaa säilyttämällä, approksimaalihionnoilla sekä laajentamalla kaaria ja/tai poistamalla pysyviä hampaita. Hoitomenetelmän valintaan vaikuttaa ahtauden määrän lisäksi potilaan inkisiivien asema, huulten jännittyneisyys, profiili ja leukojen kasvurotaation suunta. Ahtaus on varsin yleinen purentavirhe ja sitä esiintyy myös yhdessä muiden purentavirheiden kanssa. Ahtautta on tutkittu laajasti, mutta jatkotutkimuksia tarvitaan hoitojen vaikutusten ja tehokkuuden edelleen arvioimiseksi.
  • Treacy, Danielle Shannon; Timonen, Vilma; Kallio, Aleksis Anja; Shah, Iman Bikram (Oxford University Press, 2019)
    The intensifying diversity and fast-paced social change characterizing contemporary societies requires music education policy and practice to contend with various and at times conflicting musical and cultural values and understandings. In Nepal this situation is intensified, with a music education curriculum adopted by the Ministry of Education in 2010 guiding music teaching and learning for 77 national districts and over 125 caste/ethnic groups within a rapidly globalizing society. In this context assessment plays a key role in framing the knowledge and pedagogical approaches deemed useful or desirable for Nepali music students, and contributes to the legitimation of music as a subject and as a career. Assessment is therefore of ethical concern and warrants critical reflection if music education is to uphold democratic ideals, such as participation and equal opportunity. In this chapter we identify four institutional visions framing music education in Nepali schools. Considering these visions through John Dewey’s Theory of Valuation (LW13), we suggest that ethical deliberations regarding assessment focus on the relationships between means and ends in learning processes and thereby the quality of student experience. Leaning on Arjun Appadurai’s theories of the imagination (1996) and the capacity to aspire (2004) we then propose that imagining ends-not-yet-in-view may allow for ethical engagements with values different to one’s own and encourage reflection upon the inclusive and exclusive processes of assessment that frame whose ends-in-view count, when, how, and what for.
  • Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Raphael, K. G.; Wetselaar, P.; Glaros, A. G.; Kato, T.; Santiago, V.; Winocur, E.; De Laat, A.; De Leeuw, R.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G. J.; Svensson, P.; Manfredini, D. (2018)
    In 2013, consensus was obtained on a definition of bruxism as repetitive masticatory muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible and specified as either sleep bruxism or awake bruxism. In addition, a grading system was proposed to determine the likelihood that a certain assessment of bruxism actually yields a valid outcome. This study discusses the need for an updated consensus and has the following aims: (i) to further clarify the 2013 definition and to develop separate definitions for sleep and awake bruxism; (ii) to determine whether bruxism is a disorder rather than a behaviour that can be a risk factor for certain clinical conditions; (iii) to re-examine the 2013 grading system; and (iv) to develop a research agenda. It was concluded that: (i) sleep and awake bruxism are masticatory muscle activities that occur during sleep (characterised as rhythmic or non-rhythmic) and wakefulness (characterised by repetitive or sustained tooth contact and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible), respectively; (ii) in otherwise healthy individuals, bruxism should not be considered as a disorder, but rather as a behaviour that can be a risk (and/or protective) factor for certain clinical consequences; (iii) both non-instrumental approaches (notably self-report) and instrumental approaches (notably electromyography) can be employed to assess bruxism; and (iv) standard cut-off points for establishing the presence or absence of bruxism should not be used in otherwise healthy individuals; rather, bruxism-related masticatory muscle activities should be assessed in the behaviour's continuum.
  • Andersen, Jesper H.; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Dromph, Karsten; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Josefson, Alf B.; Norkko, Alf; Villnäs, Anna; Murray, Ciaran (2017)
    Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as 'affected by eutrophication'. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over the last 50-100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach using coefficients of variation in the observations. The classifications in our assessment indicate that the first signs of eutrophication emerged in the mid-1950s and the central parts of the Baltic Sea changed from being unaffected by eutrophication to being affected. We document improvements in eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea. Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.
  • Zhou, Meng (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Nowadays, microsimulation method has been introduced to different fields, such as Social Science, Medicine research and Economic study. This method evaluates the effects of the proposed interventions or policies before they are implemented in the real world. In this article, I concentrate on microsimulation method used in Social Science by firstly explaining two main streams in microsimulation world, Static approach and Dynamic approach, in them, how statistical models are used are carefully explained by giving examples in Dynamic approach. In the following section, a Norwegian case is studied, this case gives the typical example of how the dynamic microsimulation used in the labor force and child care research, the effects of four different reform options are measured in this study. In the last section, the empirical study of a Finnish static microsimulation model-JUTTA is carried out. The uncertainty of JUTTA is assessed and one of its sub model called Toimtuki (income-related supplementary benefit) is detected to have space to be more accurate. In order to do so, two statistical models- Linear Regression model and Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) model are applied to it. From their results and diagnostics, we could conclude that both the Linear Regression and 2SLS successfully improves the accuracy of TOIMTUKI to some extent.
  • Turakka, Antti; Luukkanen, Olavi; Bhumibhamon, Suree (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)
  • Int PCOS Network; Teede, Helena J.; Misso, Marie L.; Costello, Michael F.; Dokras, Anuja; Laven, Joop; Moran, Lisa; Piltonen, Terhi; Norman, Robert J.; Tapanainen, Juha (2018)
    STUDY QUESTION: What is the recommended assessment and management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise and consumer preference? SUMMARY ANSWER: International evidence-based guidelines, including 166 recommendations and practice points, addressed prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated. Diagnosis of PCOS remains controversial, and assessment and management are inconsistent. The needs of women with PCOS are not being adequately met and evidence practice gaps persist. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: International evidence-based guideline development engaged professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II-compliant processes were followed, with extensive evidence synthesis. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Governance included a six continent international advisory and a project board, five guideline development groups, and consumer and translation committees. Extensive health professional and consumer engagement informed guideline scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included pediatrics, endocrinology, gynecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis and translation experts. In total, 37 societies and organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty face-to-face meetings over 15 months addressed 60 prioritized clinical questions involving 40 systematic and 20 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus voting within the five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, with final recommendations approved across all panels. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS is generally of low to moderate quality. The guideline provides 31 evidence based recommendations, 59 clinical consensus recommendations and 76 clinical practice points all related to assessment and management of PCOS. Key changes in this guideline include: (i) considerable refinement of individual diagnostic criteria with a focus on improving accuracy of diagnosis; (ii) reducing unnecessary testing; (iii) increasing focus on education, lifestyle modification, emotional wellbeing and quality of life; and (iv) emphasizing evidence based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Overall evidence is generally low to moderate quality, requiring significantly greater research in this neglected, yet common condition, especially around refining specific diagnostic features in PCOS. Regional health system variation is acknowledged and a process for guideline and translation resource adaptation is provided. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The international guideline for the assessment and management of PCOS provides clinicians with clear advice on best practice based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation program supports the guideline with an integrated evaluation program. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The guideline was primarily funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) supported by a partnership with ESHRE and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Guideline development group members did not receive payment. Travel expenses were covered by the sponsoring organizations. Disclosures of conflicts of interest were declared at the outset and updated throughout the guideline process, aligned with NHMRC guideline processes. Full details of conflicts declared across the guideline development groups are available at https://www.monash.edu/medicine/sphpm/mchri/pcos/guideline in the Register of disclosures of interest. Of named authors, Dr Costello has declared shares in Virtus Health and past sponsorship from Merck Serono for conference presentations. Prof. Laven declared grants from Ferring, Euroscreen and personal fees from Ferring, Euroscreen, Danone and Titus Healthcare. Prof. Norman has declared a minor shareholder interest in an IVF unit. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. The guideline was peer reviewed by special interest groups across our partner and collaborating societies and consumer organizations, was independently assessed against AGREE-II criteria, and underwent methodological review. This guideline was approved by all members of the guideline development groups and was submitted for final approval by the NHMRC.
  • Int PCOS Network; Teede, Helena J.; Misso, Marie L.; Costello, Michael F.; Dokras, Anuja; Laven, Joop; Moran, Lisa; Piltonen, Terhi; Norman, Robert J.; Tapanainen, Juha (2018)
    Study QuestionWhat is the recommended assessment and management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise, and consumer preference? Summary AnswerInternational evidence-based guidelines including 166 recommendations and practice points, addressed prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS. What is Known AlreadyPrevious guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated. Diagnosis of PCOS remains controversial and assessment and management are inconsistent. The needs of women with PCOS are not being adequately met and evidence practice gaps persist. Study Design, Size, DurationInternational evidence-based guideline development engaged professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II-compliant processes were followed, with extensive evidence synthesis. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength. Participants/Materials, Setting, MethodsGovernance included a six continent international advisory and a project board, five guideline development groups (GDGs), and consumer and translation committees. Extensive health professional and consumer engagement informed guideline scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included pediatrics, endocrinology, gynecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis, and translation experts. Thirty-seven societies and organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty face-to-face meetings over 15months addressed 60 prioritized clinical questions involving 40 systematic and 20 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus voting within the five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, with final recommendations approved across all panels. Main Results and the Role of ChanceThe evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS is generally of low to moderate quality. The guideline provides 31 evidence based recommendations, 59 clinical consensus recommendations and 76 clinical practice points all related to assessment and management of PCOS. Key changes in this guideline include: (a) considerable refinement of individual diagnostic criteria with a focus on improving accuracy of diagnosis; (b) reducing unnecessary testing; (c) increasing focus on education, lifestyle modification, emotional wellbeing and quality of life; and (d) emphasizing evidence based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management. Limitations, Reasons for CautionOverall evidence is generally low to moderate quality, requiring significantly greater research in this neglected, yet common condition, especially around refining specific diagnostic features in PCOS. Regional health system variation is acknowledged and a process for guideline and translation resource adaptation is provided. Wider Implications of the FindingsThe international guideline for the assessment and management of PCOS provides clinicians with clear advice on best practice based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation program supports the guideline with an integrated evaluation program.
  • Niutanen, Ulla; Harra, Toini; Lano, Aulikki; Metsaranta, Marjo (2019)
    Aim Preterm birth poses concerns in daily functioning and behaviour in childhood, possibly connected to sensory processing disorder. This review aimed to systematically identify assessments, incidence and nature of sensory processing disorder in preterm-born infants and children. Methods We searched literature through CINAHL-EBSCOhost, Cochrane, Ovid/PsychINFO, PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar, published until November 2018. We included electronically available, peer-reviewed studies of preterm-born children that applied standardised sensory processing assessments. We excluded studies of preterm-born children with major neurodevelopmental impairments. Results We identified 27 studies of premature children, aged from birth to 9 years 7 months. The assessments represented three versions of Sensory Profile questionnaires and three clinical tests, Test of Sensory Functions in Infants, the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers, and the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test. The studies revealed wide variation of atypical sensory processing: 28%-87% in sensory modulation, 9%-70% in somatosensory processing and 20%-70% in sensory-based motor processing. Conclusion Preterm-born children exhibited elevated risk for sensory processing disorder from infancy into school age. Routine screening of sensory processing, intervention intervals and parental consultations should be considered in ameliorating sensory processing and neurocognitive development. Moreover, a larger body of intervention studies is needed.
  • Klenberg, Liisa; Hokkanen, Laura; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Närhi, Vesa (2017)
    School-age children with difficulties in executive functions (EFs) are at risk for substantial academic impairment and poorer developmental outcome. Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is generally associated with weaknesses in EFs, a relatively minimal amount is known about school-related EF difficulties and differences between ADHD subtypes. The present study examined teacher ratings of EF behaviors in 7- to 15-year-old Finnish children with combined symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-C; n =189), predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I; n = 25), and no ADHD (n = 691). The teacher ratings showed that both ADHD groups had more EF difficulties than controls. Ratings also indicated specific EF profiles for the ADHD subtypes, students with ADHD-I having more wide-ranging EF difficulties in attention as well as initiation, planning, and execution of actions than children with ADHD-C. According to the present findings, the school-related EF difficulties of children with ADHD-I need to be specifically acknowledged. Teacher ratings seem to be sensitive indicators of EF difficulties and distinguish between different kinds of EF profiles. In clinical practice, rating scales with reliable psychometric properties and normative data relevant to the specific cultural environment should be employed.