Browsing by Subject "assimilation"

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  • Eskelinen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The thesis discusses American Chinese ethnic identity and factors affecting it. The thesis also explores whether the American Chinese have assimilated into American society. The theoretical framework of the thesis is formed by Stuart Hall's theory of cultural identity and the theory of assimilation by Peter Salins. The thesis represents conceptual cultural research and its research method is a literature review. The source materials of the thesis are comprised of texts written by American Chinese researchers in which they discuss their experiences in the United States. The findings of the thesis are that the American Chinese ethnic identity is not unified, but within the group there are differences in the form and content of ethnic identity. The thesis reveals that the key features of the American Chinese ethnic identity are pan-Asianism, in which cultural identities based on nationalities are combined with a broader Asian identity, and a hybrid identity in accordance with Stuart Hall's identity theory, which simultaneously contains elements from two or more cultural backgrounds. The Americans Chinese consider it important to preserve Chinese cultural traditions. Factors influencing the American Chinese ethnic identity that arise in this thesis are American Chinese communities, the attitudes of the majority population, and representation, that is, how they are presented in popular culture and media. The study shows that the way of representation of the American Chinese has been stereotypical and scarce, which has affected their ethnic identity. Within the American Chinese group there is also dispersion in assimilation. It can be said that the American Chinese in general have assimilated into American culture and society at least at the level of behavior and adopted superficial aspects of it. Younger age groups have assimilated at a deeper level and embraced American values.
  • Schoenhofen, Milena V; Haase, Karsten M; Beier, Christoph; Woelki, Dominic; Regelous, Marcel (2020)
    Quaternary calc-alkaline andesitic to dacitic lavas effusively erupted on top of about 30 km thick accreted continental crust at Methana peninsula in the western Aegean arc. We present new data of major and trace element concentrations as well as of Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios along with mineral compositions of Methana lavas and their mafic enclaves. The enclaves imply a parental basaltic magma and fractional crystallization processes with relatively little crustal assimilation in the deep part of the Methana magma system. The composition of amphibole in some mafic enclaves and lavas indicates deeper crystallization at similar to 25km depth close to the Moho compared with the evolved lavas that formed at
  • Silva, José Filipe; Thomsen Thörnqvist, Christina (2019)
    The articles in this issue are a selection of the papers presented at the conference Knowledge as Assimilation, held at the University of Helsinki on 9-11 June 2017. The conference was the result of a collaboration between two research groups that have been established in Finland and Sweden from 2013 onwards: the research project Rationality in Perception: Transformations of Mind and Cognition 1250-1550, funded by the European Research Council (2015-2020) and hosted by the University of Helsinki, and the research programme Representation and Reality: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on the Aristotelian Tradition, funded by the Riksbankens jubileumsfond (2013-2019) and located at the University of Gothenburg.
  • Lizotte, Christopher (2020)
    Laicite, France's idiosyncratic form of secularism, is a complex concept that is dense with historical genealogy, practical contradictions and - crucially - political geographies. In particular, contemporary Laicite is characterized by a state-sponsored model of universal citizenship that regards French Muslims' identity claims with mistrust. This tension, always latent, was brought to the fore by a series of attacks perpetrated self-styled jihadists in January 2015, centered on the offices of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo notorious for its provocations against Islam. The attacks and their aftermath also highlighted a key space where conflicts over Laicite often play out: the French public school, the ecole republicaine. This institution was conceived in its modern form as a mechanism to assimilate through laique pedagogy. Today it is a highly visible space where the optics of race and gender contribute to a narrative of Muslim communautarisme, a willful and defiant communalism that rejects the republican community of citizens. Following a handful of incidents in which students refused to participate in a moment of silence for the victims of the January 2015 attacks, the Ministry of Education undertook an initiative involving disciplinary and pedagogical supports for Laicite in the schools, called the Great Mobilisation for the Republic's Values. Like other past interventions in this area, it operationalizes an assimilating vision of Laicite to bring recalcitrant peripheries into compliance with republican norms. At the same time, though, it reveals the agency of the peripheries to negotiate the terms of Laicite according to local knowledge and needs. On the basis of interviews with educators serving in schools where elements of the Grand Mobilisation were carried out, I show how they push back against the overarching narratives that characterize the initiative and in so doing construct localized and nuanced understandings of the laique social pact.
  • Vaasjoki, Susi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Itsekategorisoinnin teorian mukaan yksilöt sopeuttavat käyttäytymistään siihen, miten olettavat ulkopuolisen havainnoitsijan näkevän itsensä. Deindividuaation teorian mukaan, jos yksilöiden olemusta manipuloidaan esimerkiksi univormuilla, rooliasuilla tai videopelihahmoilla, yksilöt korjaavat käytöstään manipulaatiota myötäillen. Efektiä kutsutaan assimilaatioksi, ja sen on havaittu koskevan useita käyttäytymisen alueita, kuten epäsosiaalista ja prososiaalista käytöstä, itsevarmuutta, läheisyyden kokemista, sukupuolettamista mutta myös asenteita, kuten seksististen ja rasististen ennakkoluulojen hyväksyttävyyttä. Assimilaatiohypoteesin mukaan videopelaajat omaksuvat niitä tapoja ja asenteita, jotka olettavat muiden kokevan pelihahmolleen sopivaksi. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin assimilaatiohypoteesin toteutumista luonnollisessa videopeliympäristössä, jossa pelaajat pelasivat joko oman sukupuolensa mukaista tai siitä poikkeavaa hahmoa. Tutkittavana muuttujana oli pelaajien sukupuolittunut kielenkäyttö ja sen mahdollinen muutos pelihahmon sukupuolen mukaan. Sukupuolta käsitellään tutkimuksessa stereotyyppisen binäärioletuksen mukaisesti, koska itsekategorisointi ja siitä nouseva assimilaatio perustuvat nimenomaan stereotyyppisiin olettamiin, eivät empiiriseen dataan. Vastaavasti lingvistiset mittarit on valittu folklingvististen stereotyyppien kvantifioimiseksi, ei empiirisen datan perusteella. Naistyypillisen puheen malli perustuu aikaisemmassa tutkimuksessa käytettyyn Lakoffin naisen kieltä noudattavaan malliin. Sen komplementiksi on tässä tutkimuksessa rakennettu hegemonisen maskuliinisuuden esittämiseen liittyvien piirteiden malli, joka perustuu pääosin Coatesin ja McEneryn havaintoihin miestyypillisenä pidetystä puheesta. Tutkimusaineistona oli pieni kokoelma vapaaehtoisten World of Warcraft -pelaajien keskustelulokeja (n = 6 vastaajaa, n = 8 lokia). Lokien lisäksi pelaajilta pyydettiin suppeat henkilötiedot (mm. ikä, sukupuoli, kansallisuus, hahmon nimi ja palvelin Warcraft Armory -hakuja varten). Naistyypillisten piirteiden mittaamiseen käytettiin aikaisemmassa tutkimuksessa vakiintunutta lakoffilaista kolmen piirteen mittaria (anteeksipyynnöt, tunneilmaisu sekä pehmentävä/epävarmuutta ilmaiseva kielenkäyttö). Miestyypilliselle kielelle laadittiin kolmipiirteinen kokeellinen mittari (huumori, kilvoittelu, kiroilu). Piirteet koodattiin lokiteksteistä manuaalisesti, minkä jälkeen assimilaatiohypoteesin toteutumista testattiin tilastollisen t-testin avulla. Pieni aineisto ja lokien sisällöllisistä rajoitteista (mm. tietoista esittämistä sisältävien roolipelitilanteiden ulosulkeminen) johtuva datakato tarkoittavat, että aineiston tilastollinen näyttövoima on kuitenkin heikko, ja tulokset soveltuvat lähinnä menetelmän koeajoon. Assimilaatiohypoteesi toteutui aineistossa vain rajoitetusti. Raakadatassa pehmentävä kielenkäyttö ja huumori vaikuttivat noudattavan hypoteesia, mutta tulokset eivät olleet tilastollisesti merkittäviä. Tunneilmaisu ja kilpailullinen kielenkäyttö toimivat tilastollisesti merkitsevällä tasolla assimilaatiohypoteesin vastaisesti. Lokien lähiluku antaa syytä olettaa, että tämä johtuu polarisoituneesta näytteestä: kilpailullinen pelitilanne sekä pelaajan oma voimakas sitoutuminen kilpailullisiin tavoitteisiin korreloivat tilastollisesti merkittävällä tasolla kilpailullisen kielenkäytön kanssa, hahmon tai pelaajan sukupuolesta riippumatta. Kilpailullinen pelitilanne vaikuttaa myös vähentävän pelaajan tunneilmaisua (mikä sinänsä sopii assimilaatiohypoteesiin, jos kilpailullinen pelaaminen mielletään maskuliiniseksi toiminnaksi). Anteeksipyyntöjen ja kiroilun data ei riittänyt analyysiin. Luotettavampien tulosten saamiseksi menetelmää tulisi kehittää varmistamalla jokaiselta vastaajalta näyte sekä saman- että erisukupuolisella hahmolla, jolloin kukin pelaaja toimisi omana kontrollinaan. Näytteiden määrän tulisi olla suurempi ja pelikontekstin paremmin standardoitu. Lisäksi maskuliinisen kielenkäytön mittari tulisi testata laajemmalla ja standardisoidummalla aineistolla sen validiteetin toteamiseksi. Näin toteutettuna tutkimus voisi valottaa tapaa, jolla virtuaaliset ympäristöt ja niissä toimiminen vaikuttavat käyttäjiin. Jos assimilaatiohypoteesi voidaan osoittaa todeksi, se asettaa videopelien ja virtuaaliympäristöjen käyttäjiin kohdistamista vaikutteista eettisiä kysymyksiä, jotka jokaisen kehittäjän tulisi huomioida.
  • Iles, Kieran A.; Heinonen, Jussi S. (2022)
    Understanding the origins of major and trace element variations and the isotopic character of granite samples in terms of sources and magmatic processes is, arguably, the core of granite petrology. It is central to attempts to place these rocks in the context of broader geologic processes and continent evolution. For the granites of the Lachlan and New England Fold Belts (LFB and NEFB) of Australia there has been great debate between competing petrogenetic models. The open-system view is that the isotopic variability and within-suite compositional trends can be accounted for by magma mixing, assimilation and fractional crystallisation (FC). In contrast, the restite unmixing model views the isotope compositions of diverse granites as a feature inherited from individual protoliths that underwent partial melting to produce magmas entraining varying proportions of residual material in a felsic melt. Reconciling all aspects of the geochemical data in a mixing model is contingent on a plausible fractionation regime to produce the observed consistently linear (or near-linear) trends on Harker diagrams; however, published FC models lack phase equilibria constraints on the liquidus assemblage and do not account for the likely changes in trace element partitioning across the modelled compositional range. The Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS) can be used to model fractional crystallisation alone (FC) or with assimilation (AFC), constraining phase equilibria and accounting for the thermal budget. Here, this tool was used to conduct a case study of the I-type Jindabyne Suite of granites from the LFB, testing whether thermodynamically feasible geochemical trends matching the observed linear variations can arise through FC (with or without assimilation of supracrustal material). The results of 112 MCS models show: (1) that major element liquid lines of descent (LLDs) may be sensibly linear over limited compositional ranges, (2) that the involvement of assimilation extends the range in which trends are relatively simple and near-linear, and (3) that, despite these observations, neither FC nor AFC are able to correctly reproduce the geochemical evolution of the I-type Jindabyne Suite granitoids as an LLD (contrary to existing models)—instead, these processes persistently produce curved and kinked trends. The output of these simulations were further refined to explore models in which: (1) crystal-bearing magmas evolve via FC or AFC (with chemical isolation assumed to be achieved through crystal zoning) and undergo varying degrees of melt-crystal segregation at different stages to produce the sample compositions, and (2) in situ crystallisation occurs via FC within the crystallisation zone, driving the evolution of a liquid resident magma, which the samples represent. These models are able to reproduce the Jindabyne Suite trends reasonably well. The modelling implies that FC, or some variant thereof, is a viable explanation for the linear trends in Jindabyne; however, tendency for grossly non-linear LLDs highlights that it should not be assumed that FC can generally explain linear trends in granites without careful modelling such as shown here.
  • Zora, Hatice; Riad, Tomas; Ylinen, Sari; Csepe, Valeria (2021)
    Dealing with phonological variations is important for speech processing. This article addresses whether phonological variations introduced by assimilatory processes are compensated for at the pre-lexical or lexical level, and whether the nature of variation and the phonological context influence this process. To this end, Swedish nasal regressive place assimilation was investigated using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component. In nasal regressive assimilation, the coronal nasal assimilates to the place of articulation of a following segment, most clearly with a velar or labial place of articulation, as in utan mej "without me" > [MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLONtam mejMODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON]. In a passive auditory oddball paradigm, 15 Swedish speakers were presented with Swedish phrases with attested and unattested phonological variations and contexts for nasal assimilation. Attested variations - a coronal-to-labial change as in utan "without" > [MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLONtam] - were contrasted with unattested variations - a labial-to-coronal change as in utom "except" > *[MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLONtLATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN On] - in appropriate and inappropriate contexts created by mej "me" [mejMODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON] and dej "you" [dejMODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON]. Given that the MMN amplitude depends on the degree of variation between two stimuli, the MMN responses were expected to indicate to what extent the distance between variants was tolerated by the perceptual system. Since the MMN response reflects not only low-level acoustic processing but also higher-level linguistic processes, the results were predicted to indicate whether listeners process assimilation at the pre-lexical and lexical levels. The results indicated no significant interactions across variations, suggesting that variations in phonological forms do not incur any cost in lexical retrieval; hence such variation is compensated for at the lexical level. However, since the MMN response reached significance only for a labial-to-coronal change in a labial context and for a coronal-to-labial change in a coronal context, the compensation might have been influenced by the nature of variation and the phonological context. It is therefore concluded that while assimilation is compensated for at the lexical level, there is also some influence from pre-lexical processing. The present results reveal not only signal-based perception of phonological units, but also higher-level lexical processing, and are thus able to reconcile the bottom-up and top-down models of speech processing.