Browsing by Subject "association"

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  • Service, S. K.; Verweij, K. J. H.; Lahti, J.; Congdon, E.; Ekelund, J.; Hintsanen, M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Lehtimaki, T.; Kahonen, M.; Widen, E.; Taanila, A.; Veijola, J.; Heath, A. C.; Madden, P. A. F.; Montgomery, G. W.; Sabatti, C.; Jarvelin, M-R; Palotie, A.; Raitakari, O.; Viikari, J.; Martin, N. G.; Eriksson, J. G.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Wray, N. R.; Freimer, N. B. (2012)
  • Bricknell, Ryan A. T.; Ducaud, Christobal; Figueroa, Alejandra; Schwarzman, Logan S.; Rodriguez, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in use and many of the health implications with these devices remain unknown. This study aims to assess, using a survey representative of the USA general population, if an association exists between a history of ENDS use and a history of stroke. This cross-sectional study was a secondary data analysis using the 2016 behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey. The main exposure variable of the study was a self-reported history of ENDS use. The main outcome was a self-reported history of stroke. Covariates included sex, race, traditional cigarette use, smokeless tobacco use, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were done. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of the 486,303 total behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey participants, 465,594 met the inclusion criteria for this study of ENDS use and stroke. This study shows that current ENDS use was positively associated with a history of stroke. AOR of some daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.02-1.61) and AOR of current daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.18-2.31). The majority (55.9%) of current daily ENDS users reported former traditional cigarette smoking. Female sex, non-white ethnicity, elderly age, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and traditional cigarette use characteristics were all also associated with increased odds of reporting a stroke. This study found a statistically significant and positive association between ENDS use and a history of stroke. Further research is warranted to investigate the reproducibility and temporality of this association. Nevertheless, this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about the potential cardiovascular concerns related to ENDS use and the need for large cohort studies.
  • Julkunen, Anna; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Söder, Birgitta; Söder, Per-Östen; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Meurman, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aim: Oral infections up-regulate a number of systemic inflammatory reactions that, in turn, play a role in the development of systemic diseases. We investigated the association between oral health and autoimmune diseases in a cohort of Swedish adults. Hypothesis was that poor oral health associates with incidence of autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods: Overall 1676 subjects aged 30–40 years old from Stockholm County (Sweden) participated in this study in 1985. Subjects were randomly selected from the registry file of Stockholm region and were followed-up for 30 years. Their hospital and open health care admissions (World Health Organization ICD 9 and 10 codes) were recorded from the Swedish national health registers. The association between the diagnosed autoimmune disease and the oral health variables were statistically analyzed. Results: In all, 50 patients with autoimmune diagnoses were detected from the data. Plaque index was significantly higher in the autoimmune disease group (≥median 35 (70%) vs. under median 872 (54%), p = 0.030). No statistical difference was found in gingival index, calculus index, missing teeth, periodontal pockets, smoking or snuff use between patients with and without autoimmune disease. Conclusions: Our study hypothesis was partly confirmed. The result showed that subjects with a higher plaque index, marker of poor oral hygiene, were more likely to develop autoimmune diseases in 30 years.
  • Lindfors, Pirjo; Minkkinen, Jaana; Katainen, Anu Hannele; Rimpelä, Arja (2019)
    Background: Previous research suggests that parental knowledge of the child's activities and whereabouts prevents adolescents' alcohol use. However, evidence on whether the positive effects of maternal and paternal knowledge are distinctive for boys' and girls' alcohol use is inconclusive. We examined whether perceived parental knowledge at age 13 prevents alcohol use at age 16, whether the effect of maternal and paternal knowledge was the same for both genders, and whether paternal knowledge had as strong an effect as maternal knowledge. Method: Adolescents answered a school survey in 2011 (age 13) and 2014 (age 16) in Finland (N = 5742). Perceived maternal and paternal knowledge was measured separately using a Parents' Monitoring Scale. The data were analysed via moderation regression modelling using Bayesian estimation. Results: Perceived maternal and paternal knowledge at age 13 predicted boys' and girls' lower alcohol use at age 16. For those who had not used alcohol at age 13, parental knowledge protected against an increase of alcohol use at age 16. Both maternal and paternal knowledge had a shielding effect against the increase of boys' and girls' alcohol use, but maternal knowledge had a stronger shielding effect than paternal knowledge. Conclusions: Both maternal and paternal perceived knowledge at age 13 buffers against the adverse development of alcohol use at age 16 for both genders. Underlining the importance of parent-child communication and knowledge about the child's activities should be a part of family health counselling and school health services.
  • Zhao, Huiying; Eising, Else; de Vries, Boukje; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Kurth, Tobias; Stefansson, Hreinn; Kallela, Kaarlo Mikko; Malik, Rainer; Stam, Anine H.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ligthart, Lannie; Freilinger, Tobias; Alexander, Michael; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Aromas, Arpo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Wessman, Maija; Stefansson, Kari; Chasman, Daniel I.; Palotie, Aarno; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Int Headache Genetics Consortium (2016)
    Introduction It is unclear whether patients diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) experience distinct disorders or whether their migraine subtypes are genetically related. Aim Using a novel gene-based (statistical) approach, we aimed to identify individual genes and pathways associated both with MA and MO. Methods Gene-based tests were performed using genome-wide association summary statistic results from the most recent International Headache Genetics Consortium study comparing 4505 MA cases with 34,813 controls and 4038 MO cases with 40,294 controls. After accounting for non-independence of gene-based test results, we examined the significance of the proportion of shared genes associated with MA and MO. Results We found a significant overlap in genes associated with MA and MO. Of the total 1514 genes with a nominally significant gene-based p value (p(gene-based)0.05) in the MA subgroup, 107 also produced p(gene-based)0.05 in the MO subgroup. The proportion of overlapping genes is almost double the empirically derived null expectation, producing significant evidence of gene-based overlap (pleiotropy) (p(binomial-test) = 1.5x10(-4)). Combining results across MA and MO, six genes produced genome-wide significant gene-based p values. Four of these genes (TRPM8, UFL1, FHL5 and LRP1) were located in close proximity to previously reported genome-wide significant SNPs for migraine, while two genes, TARBP2 and NPFF separated by just 259bp on chromosome 12q13.13, represent a novel risk locus. The genes overlapping in both migraine types were enriched for functions related to inflammation, the cardiovascular system and connective tissue. Conclusions Our results provide novel insight into the likely genes and biological mechanisms that underlie both MA and MO, and when combined with previous data, highlight the neuropeptide FF-amide peptide encoding gene (NPFF) as a novel candidate risk gene for both types of migraine.
  • Vaura, Felix; Kauko, Anni; Suvila, Karri; Havulinna, Aki S.; Mars, Nina; Salomaa, Veikko; Cheng, Susan; Niiranen, Teemu (2021)
    Although genetic risk scores have been used to predict hypertension, their utility in the clinical setting remains uncertain. Our study comprised N=218 792 FinnGen participants (mean age 58 years, 56% women) and N=22 624 well-phenotyped FINRISK participants (mean age 50 years, 53% women). We used public genome-wide association data to compute polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). Using time-to-event analysis, we then assessed (1) the association of BP PRSs with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in FinnGen and (2) the improvement in model discrimination when combining BP PRSs with the validated 4- and 10-year clinical risk scores for hypertension and CVD in FINRISK. In FinnGen, compared with having a 20 to 80 percentile range PRS, a PRS in the highest 2.5% conferred 2.3-fold (95% CI, 2.2-2.4) risk of hypertension and 10.6 years (95% CI, 9.9-11.4) earlier hypertension onset. In subgroup analyses, this risk was only 1.6-fold (95% CI, 1.5-1.7) for late-onset hypertension (age >= 55 years) but 2.8-fold (95% CI, 2.6-2.9) for early-onset hypertension (age
  • Firouzbakht, Mojgan; Tirgar, Aram; Ebadi, Abbas; Nia, Hamid Sharif; Oksanen, Tuula; Kouvonen, Anne; Riahi, Mohammad Esmaeil (2018)
    Background: The workplace social capital is one of the important features of clinical work environment that improves the productivity and quality of services and safety through trust and social participation. Evaluation of workplace social capital requires a valid and reliable scale. The short-form workplace social capital questionnaire developed by Kouvonen has long been used to evaluate the workplace social capital. Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the questionnaire among a group of female Iranian health care workers. Methods: The Persian version of the short-form questionnaire of workplace social capital was finalized after translation and back-translation. 500 female health care workers completed the questionnaire. Then, the content validity and the construct validity of the questionnaire were assessed. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's a, theta, and McDonald's Omega. The construct reliability and ICC were also evaluated. Results: Based on the maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis (n=250) and confirmatory factor analysis (n=250), two factors were identified. The factors could explain 65% of the total variance observed. The model had an acceptable fit: GFI=0.953, CFI=0.973, IFI=0.974, NFI=0.953, PNFI=0.522, RAMSEA=0.090, CMIN/DF=2.751, RMR=0.042. Convergent and divergent validity as well as internal consistency and construct reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. Conclusion: The Persian version of Kouvonen workplace social capital has acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire can thus be used in future studies to assess the workplace social capital in Iranian health care workers.
  • Kauppi, P; Lindblad-Toh, K; Sevon, P; Toivonen, H T T; Rioux, J D; Villapakkam, A; Laitinen, L A; Hudson, T J; Kere, J; Laitinen, T (2001)